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MORGAN STANLEY (NYSE : MS) is a leading global financial services firm providing investment banking, securities, wealth management and investment management services. It is headquartered at 1585 Broadway in the Morgan Stanley Building , Midtown Manhattan
Midtown Manhattan
, New York City. With offices in more than 42 countries and more than 55,000 employees, the firm's clients include corporations, governments, institutions and individuals.

Morgan Stanley, formed by J.P. Morgan "> The Morgan Stanley Building

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
is a leading global financial services corporation that, through its subsidiaries and affiliates, advises, and originates, trades, manages and distributes capital for, governments, institutions and individuals. The company operates in three business segments: Institutional Securities, Wealth Management, and Investment Management. Morgan Stanley's office on Times Square
Times Square

HISTORY

See also: JPMorgan Chase
JPMorgan Chase
and J.P. Morgan & Co.

1935–1950

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
traces its roots in the history of J.P. Morgan & Co. Following the Glass–Steagall Act
Glass–Steagall Act
, it was no longer possible for a corporation to have investment banking and commercial banking businesses under a single holding entity. J.P. Morgan & Co. chose the commercial banking business over the investment banking business. As a result, some of the employees of J.P. Morgan & Co., most notably Henry S. Morgan and Harold Stanley , left J.P. Morgan & Co. and joined some others from the Drexel partners to form Morgan Stanley. The firm formally opened the doors for business on September 16, 1935, at Floor 19, 2 Wall Street
Wall Street
, New York City. Within its first year, it achieved 24% market share (US$1.1 billion) among public offerings. The firm was involved with the distribution of 1938 US$100 million of debentures for the United States
United States
Steel Corporation as the lead underwriter . The firm also obtained the distinction of being the lead syndicate in the 1939 U.S. rail financing. The firm went through a major reorganization in 1941 to allow for more activity in its securities business.

1950–1990

The firm was led by Perry Hall , the last founder to lead Morgan Stanley, from 1951 until 1961. During this period the firm co-managed the World Bank's US$50 million triple-A-rated bonds offering of 1952, as well as coming up with General Motors
General Motors
' US$300 million debt issue, US$231 million IBM
IBM
stock offering, and the US$250 million AT&T\'s debt offering.

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
credits itself with having created the first viable computer model for financial analysis in 1962, thereby starting a new trend in the field of financial analysis. Future president and chairman Dick Fisher contributed to the computer model as a young employee, learning the FORTRAN and COBOL programming languages at IBM. In 1967 it established the Morgan & Cie, International in Paris in an attempt to enter the European securities market. It acquired Brooks, Harvey & Co., Inc. in 1967 and established a presence in the real estate business. By 1971 the firm had established its Mergers & Acquisitions business along with Sales "> Current Morgan Stanley Logo 2013 Historical logo used by Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
in the early 2000s

In 1996 Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
acquired Van Kampen American Capital. On February 5, 1997 the company merged with Dean Witter Reynolds and Discover & Co., the spun-off financial services business of Sears Roebuck . Dean Witter's Chairman
Chairman
and CEO, Philip J. Purcell , held the same roles in the newly merged " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Dean Witter Discover & Co.". In 1998 the name was changed to " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Dean Witter & Co.", and in late 2001 "Dean Witter" was dropped and the firm became "Morgan Stanley".

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
had offices located on 24 floors across buildings 2 and 5 of the World Trade Center in New York City. These offices had been inherited from Dean Witter which had occupied the space since the mid-1980s. The firm lost thirteen employees during the September 11 attacks in 2001 (Thomas F. Swift, Wesley Mercer, Jennifer de Jesus, Joseph DiPilato, Nolbert Salomon, Godwin Forde, Steve R. Strauss, Lindsay C. Herkness, Albert Joseph, Jorge Velazquez, Titus Davidson, Charles Laurencin and Security Director Rick Rescorla
Rick Rescorla
) in the towers, while 2,687 were successfully evacuated. The surviving employees moved to temporary headquarters in the vicinity. In 2005 Morgan Stanley moved 2,300 of its employees back to lower Manhattan , at that time the largest such move.

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
has long had a dominant role in technology investment banking and, in addition to Apple and Facebook, served as lead underwriter for many of the largest global tech IPOs, including: Netscape, Cisco, Compaq, Broadcast.com, Broadcom Corp, VeriSign, Inc., Cogent, Inc., Dolby Laboratories, Priceline, Salesforce, Brocade, Google
Google
and Groupon. In 2004, the firm led the Google
Google
IPO, the largest Internet IPO in U.S. history. In the same year Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
acquired the Canary Wharf Group .

The company found itself in the midst of a management crisis starting in March 2005 that resulted in a loss of a number of the firm's staff. Purcell resigned as CEO of Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
in June 2005 when a highly public campaign against him by former Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
partners threatened to disrupt and damage the firm and challenged his refusal to aggressively increase leverage, increase risk, enter the sub-prime mortgage business and make expensive acquisitions, the same strategies that forced Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
into massive write-downs, related to the subprime mortgage crisis , by 2007.

On December 19, 2006, after reporting 4th quarter earnings, Morgan Stanley announced the spin-off of its Discover Card unit. The bank completed the spinoff of Discover Financial on June 30, 2007.

In order to cope with the write-downs during the subprime mortgage crisis, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
announced on December 19, 2007 that it would receive a US$5 billion capital infusion from the China Investment Corporation in exchange for securities that would be convertible to 9.9% of its shares in 2010.

The bank's Process Driven Trading unit was amongst several on Wall Street caught in a short squeeze , reportedly losing nearly $300 million in one day. One of the stocks involved in this squeeze, Beazer Homes USA , was a component of the then-bulging real estate bubble . The bubble's subsequent collapse was considered to be a central feature of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 .

The bank was contracted by the United States
United States
Treasury in August 2008 to advise the government on potential rescue strategies for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac .

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
is said to have lost over 80% of its market value between 2007 and 2008 during the financial crisis.

On September 17, 2008, the British evening-news analysis program Newsnight reported that Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
was facing difficulties after a 42% slide in its share price. CEO John J. Mack wrote in a memo to staff "we're in the midst of a market controlled by fear and rumours and short-sellers are driving our stock down." The company was said to have explored merger possibilities with CITIC , Wachovia
Wachovia
, HSBC
HSBC
, Standard Chartered
Standard Chartered
, Banco Santander
Banco Santander
and Nomura . At one point, Hank Paulson offered Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
to JPMorgan Chase
JPMorgan Chase
at no cost, but Jamie Dimon refused the offer.

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
and Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
, the last two major investment banks in the US, both announced on September 22, 2008 that they would become traditional bank holding companies regulated by the Federal Reserve . The Federal Reserve's approval of their bid to become banks ended the ascendancy of securities firms, 75 years after Congress separated them from deposit-taking lenders, and capped weeks of chaos that sent Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
Holdings Inc. into bankruptcy and led to the rushed sale of Merrill Lynch
Merrill Lynch
trading is anticipated to maintain its position as the "engine room" of the company. Among the major U.S. banks, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
sources the highest portion of revenues from fixed income underwriting which was reported at 6.0% of total revenue in FY12.

WEALTH MANAGEMENT

The Global Wealth Management Group provides brokerage and investment advisory services. As of 2014 Q2 this segment has reported an annual increase of 21 percent in the pre-tax income. This segment provides financial and wealth planning services to its clients who are primarily high-net-worth individuals.

On January 13, 2009, the Global Wealth Management Group was merged with Citi's Smith Barney to form the joint venture Morgan Stanley Smith Barney. Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
holds 51% of the entity, and Citi holds 49%. As of May 31, 2012, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
planned to purchase an additional 14% of the joint venture from Citi. In June 2013, Morgan Stanley stated it had secured all regulatory approvals to buy Citigroup's remaining 35% stake in Smith Barney and would proceed to finalize the deal.

INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT

Investment Management provides asset management products and services in equity, fixed income, alternative investments, real estate investment, and private equity to institutional and retail clients through third-party retail distribution channels, intermediaries and Morgan Stanley's institutional distribution channel. Morgan Stanley's asset management activities were principally conducted under the Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
and Van Kampen brands until 2009.

On October 19, 2009, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
announced that it would sell Van Kampen to Invesco for $1.5 billion, but would retain the Morgan Stanley brand. It provides asset management products and services to institutional investors worldwide, including pension plans, corporations, private funds, non-profit organizations, foundations, endowments, governmental agencies, insurance companies and banks.

On September 29, 2013, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
announced a partnership with Longchamp Asset
Asset
Management, a French-based asset manager that specialises in the distribution of UCITS hedge funds, and La Française AM, a multi-specialist asset manager with a 10-year track record in alternative investments.

MAGAZINE AND POPULARITY RANKINGS

* Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2004 by Working Mothers magazine. * Family Digest magazine named Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
one of the "Best Companies for African Americans" in June 2004 * Essence magazine named Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
as one of the "30 Great Places to Work" in May 2004 * Asian Enterprise magazine named Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
as one of the "Top Companies for Asian Americans" in April 2004 * Hispanic magazine selected Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
as one of the "100 Companies Providing the Most Opportunities to Hispanics" in February 2004 * Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
is listed in The Times
The Times
Top 100 Graduate Employers, only recently dropping out of the top 40 * The Times
The Times
listed Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
5th in its 20 Best Big Companies to Work For 2006 list * Great Place to Work Institute Japan in 2007 ranked Morgan Stanley as the second best corporation to work in Japan, based on the opinions of the employees and the corporate culture

CONTROVERSIES AND LAWSUITS

2003

In 2003, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
agreed to pay $125 million in order to settle its portion of a $1.4 billion settlement brought by Eliot Spitzer
Eliot Spitzer
, the Attorney General of New York , the National Association of Securities Dealers (now the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the United States
United States
Securities and Exchange Commission , (SEC) and a number of state securities regulators, relating to intentionally misleading research motivated by a desire to win investment banking business with the companies covered.

2004

In June 2004, the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
(NYSE) imposed a penalty of a censure and $140,000 fine for incorrectly using customers’ margined securities as collateral for cash management loans.

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
settled a sex discrimination suit brought by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission for $54 million on July 12, 2004. In 2007, the firm agreed to pay $46 million to settle a class action lawsuit brought by eight female brokers.

In July 2004, the firm paid NASD a $2.2 million fine for more than 1,800 late disclosures of reportable information about its brokers.

In September 2004, the firm paid a $19 million fine imposed by NYSE for failure to deliver prospectuses to customers in registered offerings, inaccurate reporting of certain program trading information, short sale violations, failures to fingerprint new employees and failure to timely file exchange forms.

In December 2004, the firm paid a $100,000 to NASD and paid $211,510 in restitution to customers for failure to make proper disclosures to municipal bond investors. In the course of NASD's investigation, Morgan Stanley' failure make a timely response to requests for information resulted in censure and an additional $25,000 fine.

2005

The New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
imposed a $19 million fine on January 12, 2005 for alleged regulatory and supervisory lapses. At the time, it was the largest fine ever imposed by the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
.

On May 16, 2005, a Florida jury found that Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
failed to give adequate information to Ronald Perelman about Sunbeam thereby defrauding him and causing damages to him of $604 million. In addition, punitive damages were added for total damages of $1.450 billion. This verdict was directed by the judge as a sanction against Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
after the firm's attorneys infuriated the court by failing and refusing to produce documents, and falsely telling the court that certain documents did not exist. The ruling was overturned on March 21, 2007 and Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
was no longer required to pay the $1.57 billion verdict.

2006

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
settled a class action lawsuit on March 2, 2006. It had been filed in California by both current and former Morgan Stanley employees for unfair labor practices instituted to those in the financial advisor training program. Employees of the program had claimed the firm expected trainees to clock overtime hours without additional pay and handle various administrative expenses as a result of their expected duties. A $42.5 million settlement was reached and Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
admitted no fault.

In May the firm agreed to pay a $15 million fine. The Securities and Exchange Commission accused the firm of deleting emails and failing to cooperate with SEC investigators.

On September 25, 2009, Citigroup
Citigroup
Inc. filed a federal lawsuit against Morgan Stanley, claiming its rival failed to pay $245 million due under a credit default swap agreement. The breach-of-contract lawsuit was filed in Manhattan federal court and seeks unspecified damages.

2007

The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) announced a $12.5 million settlement with Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
on September 27, 2007. This resolved charges that the firm's former affiliate, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
DW, Inc. (MSDW), failed on numerous occasions to provide emails to claimants in arbitration proceedings as well as to regulators. The company had claimed that the destruction of the firm's email servers in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on New York's World Trade Center resulted in the loss of all email before that date. In fact, the firm had millions of earlier emails that had been retrieved from backup copies stored in another location that was not destroyed in the attacks. Customers who had lost their arbitration cases against Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
DW Inc. because of their inability to obtain these emails to demonstrate Morgan Stanley's misconduct received a token amount of money as a result of the settlement.

In July 2007, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
agreed to pay $4.4 million to settle a class-action lawsuit. The firm was accused of incorrectly charging clients for storage of precious metals.

In August 2007, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
was fined $1.5 million and paid $4.6 million in restitution to customers related to excessive mark-ups in 2,800 transactions. An employee was charged $40,000 and suspended for 15 days.

2008

Under a settlement with New York Attorney General Andrew M. Cuomo, the firm agreed to repurchase approximately $4.5 billion worth of auction rate securities . The firm was accused of misrepresenting auction rate securities in their sales and marketing.

2009

In March 2009, FINRA announced Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
was to pay more than $7 million for misconduct in the handling the accounts of 90 Rochester, NY-area retirees.

In May 2009, a trader at the firm was suspended by the FSA for a series of unauthorized commodities trades entered after becoming intoxicated during a three and half hour lunch. A week later another trader at the firm was banned for deliberately disadvantaging clients by 'pre-hedging' trades without their consent.

The Financial Services Authority fined the firm £1.4m for failing to use controls properly relating to the actions of a rogue trader on one of its trading desks. Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
admitted on June 18, 2008 this resulted in a $120m loss for the firm.

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
managing director Du Jun was convicted of insider trading after a criminal trial in Hong Kong. Mr. Du was accused of buying 26.7 million shares of Citic Resource Holdings while in possession of confidential information about the company. He gained this information as part of a Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
team working with the company on a bond issuance and the purchase of an oil field in Kazakhstan. Morgan Stanley's compliance department was criticized for failing to detect Mr. Du's illegal trades.

2010

In April, the Commodity
Commodity
Futures Trading Commission announced the firm agreed to pay $14 million related to an attempt to hide prohibited trading activity in oil futures.

2011

A Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
trader was barred from the brokerage industry and fined for entering fake trades to fool firm risk management systems causing millions in losses.

The Department of Justice sought a $4.8 million fine from Morgan Stanley for its part in an electricity price-fixing scandal. Con Edison estimated that the crime cost New York state consumers about $300 million. Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
earned revenues of $21.6 million from the fraud.

2012

On April 3, the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
announced Consent Order against the firm "a pattern of misconduct and negligence in residential mortgage loan servicing and foreclosure processing." The consent order requires the firm to review foreclosure proceedings conducted by the firm. The firm will also be responsible for monetary sanctions.

Garth R. Peterson, one of Morgan Stanley’s highest-ranking real estate executives in China pleaded guilty on April 25 to violating U.S. federal anticorruption laws. He was charged with secretly acquiring millions of dollars’ worth of property investments for himself and a Chinese government official. The official steered business to Morgan Stanley.

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
was fined $55,000 by Nasdaq OMX for three separate violations of exchange rules. A Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
client algorithm started buying and selling enormous volumes by mistake. Furthermore, after the exchange detected the error, they were unable to contact the employee responsible. Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
settled a claim from FINRA and paid restitution together totaling almost $2.4 million. Morgan Stanley was accused of improperly supervising and training financial advisors in the use of non-traditional ETF products. This resulted in inappropriate recommendations to several of its retail brokerage customers.

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
is facing lawsuits and government investigation surrounding the Facebook
Facebook
IPO. It is claimed that Morgan Stanley downgraded their earnings forecasts for the company while conducting the IPO roadshow. Allegedly, they passed this information to only a handful of institutional investors. "The allegations, if true, are a matter of regulatory concern" to FINRA and SEC according to FINRA Chairman
Chairman
Richard Ketchum.

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
agreed to pay a $5 million fine to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and an additional $1.75 million to CME and the Chicago Board of Trade . Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
employees improperly executed fictitious sales in Eurodollar and Treasury Note futures contracts.

On August 7, 2012, it was announced that Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
would have to pay $4.8 million in fines in order to settle a price fixing scandal, which has been estimated to have cost New Yorkers $300 million to date. Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
has currently made no admission of any wrongdoing; however, the Justice department commented that they hoped this would "send a message to the banking industry".

2014

In February, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
agreed to pay $1.25 billion to the US government, as a penalty for concealing the full risk associated with mortgage securities with the Federal Housing Finance Agency.

In September 2014, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
agreed to pay $95 million to resolve a lawsuit pursued by the Public Employees' Retirement System of Mississippi (MissPERS) and the West Virginia Investment Management Board. Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
was accused of misleading investors in mortgage-backed securities.

2015

In May 2015, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
was fined $2 million for short-interest reporting and rule violations for more than six years, by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

In June 2015, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority announced that it fined Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Smith Barney, LLC (Morgan Stanley) $650,000 for failing to implement reasonable supervisory systems to monitor the transmittal of customer funds to third-party accounts.

2016

February 2016, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
will pay $3.2 billion to strike a settlement with state and federal authorities over Morgan Stanley’s creation of mortgage-backed bonds before the financial crisis.

August 2016, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Hong Kong Securities Ltd., was fined HK$18.5 million ($2.4 million) by Hong Kong’s securities regulator, Securities and Futures Commission, for violations of Hong Kong’s Code of Conduct. Included was Morgan Stanley’s failure to avoid conflict of interest between principal and agency trading.

December 2016, another unit of Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
paid $7.5 million to settle customer protection rule violations.

2017

In January 2017, the corporation was fined $13 million due to overbilling and violating investor asset safeguarding custody rules. Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
agreed to pay the fine without commenting on the charges.

LIST OF OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

OPERATING COMMITTEE

* JAMES P. GORMAN: Chairman
Chairman
and Chief Executive Officer

* JEFF BRODSKY: Chief Human Resources Officer

* MARK EICHORN: Global Co-Head of Investment Banking

* NOAM ZOLTY: Chief Legal Officer

* KEISHI HOTSUKI: Chief Risk Officer

* COLM KELLEHER: President

* SAM KELLIE-SMITH: Global Head of Fixed Income

* THOMAS NIDES: Vice Chairman

* SHELLEY O\'CONNOR: Co-Head of Wealth Management

* FRANCK PETITGAS: Global Co-Head of Investment Banking

* TED PICK: Global Head of Sales and Trading

* JONATHAN PRUZAN: Chief Financial Officer

* ROBERT ROONEY: CEO of Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
International and Head of Europe, the Middle East and Africa

* ANDY SAPERSTEIN: Co-Head of Wealth Management

* DAN SIMKOWITZ: Head of Investment Management

* CLARE WOODMAN: Global Chief Operating Officer of Institutional Securities

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

* James P. Gorman * Erskine B. Bowles * Thomas H. Glocer * Robert H. Herz * Ryosuke Tamakoshi * Donald T. Nicolaisen * Hutham S. Olayan * James W. Owens * Rayford Wilkins, Jr. * Alistair Darling * Nobuyuki Hirano * Jami Miscik * Dennis M. Nally * Perry M. Traquina

GLOBAL AND OTHER HEADQUARTERS

The Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
world headquarters are located in New York City, the European headquarters are in London and Asia Pacific headquarters are in both Hong Kong and Tokyo.

NOTABLE ALUMNI

* Dan Ammann, President of General Motors
General Motors
Company * Barton Biggs , Author and Hedge Fund Manager * Erskine Bowles
Erskine Bowles
, Clinton White House Chief of Staff * Richard A. Debs , Chairman
Chairman
of Carnegie Hall; Middle East power-broker * Bob Diamond , former Chief Executive Officer, Barclays * Richard B. Fisher , Chairman
Chairman
of the Board, Rockefeller University and Bard College; member, Trilateral Commission * Ben Fried , Google
Google
CIO * Eric Gleacher , Founder of Gleacher Chair, Princeton University Board of Trustees * Vikram Pandit , former Chief Executive Officer, Citigroup * Joseph R. Perella , philanthropist; Founder of Perella Weinberg Partners * Charles E. Phillips , former President of Oracle, Inc.; C.E.O. of Infor * Ruth Porat , Chief Financial Officer; Alphabet Inc. * Frank Quattrone , Founder, Qatalyst Group * Steven Rattner
Steven Rattner
, Private Equity Manager and Commentator * Stephen S. Roach , Yale University Professor * Benjamin M. Rosen , Technology Investor; Founder, Compaq * David E. Shaw , Hedge Fund Manager * John J. Studzinski , CBE
CBE
, American-British investment banker and philanthropist * Andrew Toy, CEO and Co-founder of Divide * Alexander Trewby, COO and Co-founder of Divide * Sir David Walker , Chairman, Barclays
Barclays
PLC * Kevin Warsh , G.W. Bush economic advisor; Member, Federal Reserve Board of Governors

SEE ALSO

* New York City
New York City
portal * Companies portal

* Dean Witter Reynolds * Discover Card * MSCI * Van Kampen Funds * Metalmark Capital , formerly Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Capital Partners * Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Smith Barney , a joint venture with Citigroup

NOTES

* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
2016 Form 10-K Annual Report * ^ , Basel III Pillar 3 Disclosures Report For the Quarterly Period Ended December 31, 2016 * ^ A B C D "Company History". Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Website. Retrieved March 22, 2008. * ^ "Alumni Awards 2001 - Dick Fisher". HBS.edu. July 2, 2001. Retrieved September 3, 2014. * ^ "Surviving 9/11 gave former NHLer Rob Cimetta a new outlook on life". Retrieved September 11, 2009. * ^ Moyer, Liz (June 13, 2005). "Lame Duck Purcell". Forbes Website. Retrieved March 22, 2008. * ^ Thomas Jr, Landon (April 21, 2005). " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Exodus Continues as 8 Traders Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2008. * ^ Chief Will Leave Morgan Stanley, Ending Struggle. The New York Times, June 14, 2005 * ^ "Only the Men Survive". New York Magazine. * ^ The Reward for Leaving: $113 Million. The New York Times, July 8, 2005 * ^ "Press Release". Morgan Stanley. June 1, 2007. Retrieved July 9, 2011. * ^ " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
posts loss on writedown". Joe Bel Bruno. Archived from the original on December 21, 2007. Retrieved December 19, 2007. * ^ Patterson, Scott D., The Quants : How a New Breed of Math Whizzes Conquered Wall Street
Wall Street
and Nearly Destroyed It, Crown Business, 352 pages, 2010. ISBN 0-307-45337-5 ISBN 978-0307453372 Amazon page for book. Specifically in an excerpt from "Chapter 10: The August Factor", in the January 23, 2010 Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal. * ^ " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
to Advise U.S. on Fannie and Freddie". The New York Times. August 6, 2008. Retrieved August 11, 2008. * ^ Kudla, David. "Morgan Stanley’s future is bright for investors". MarketWatch. * ^ Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
perplexes Wall Street
Wall Street
as bank loses $20bn, The Times (London), September 19, 2008 * ^ Duff McDonald, Last Man Standing (2009) * ^ Wall Street
Wall Street
in crisis: Last banks standing give up investment bank status, The Guardian
The Guardian
(London), September 22, 2008 * ^ Goldman, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Bring Down Curtain on an Era, Bloomberg , September 22, 2008 * ^ " Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group
Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group
to Invest $9 billion in Morgan Stanley". September 29, 2008. Retrieved October 2, 2008. * ^ "What\'s The Biggest Check Ever Written?". November 5, 2012. * ^ "Fed give OK to Mitsubishi, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
deal". Reuters. October 6, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2012. * ^ "Mitsubishi UFJ buys 21% stake in Morgan Stanley". USA Today. October 13, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2012. * ^ Clark, Andrew; Bowers, Simon (October 11, 2008). "Morgan Stanley hangs on Mitsubishi\'s $9bn pledge". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 14, 2012. * ^ Sato, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Takako (April 2, 2012). "Mitsubishi UFJ Mulls Multi-Billion Dollar U.S. Bank
Bank
Acquisition". Bloomberg. Retrieved April 14, 2012. * ^ " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Speculating to Brink of Collapse Got $107 Billion From Fed". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 23, 2014. * ^ " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Pledges Billion to Boost Sustainability". Bloomberg. * ^ Cheung, Sonja. " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Asia Private-Equity Fund Raises $1.7 Billion". The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved July 11, 2014. * ^ " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
to cut 25% of fixed-income jobs in next 2 weeks". Gulf News. Retrieved 1 December 2015. * ^ " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
4Q2015 Earnings Release" (PDF). * ^ A B " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Reports Second Quarter Results" (PDF). Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Press Release. Retrieved July 27, 2014. * ^ FINS.com. " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Overview". Retrieved July 19, 2010. * ^ Casteleyn, Jonathan. " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
and Goldman have bigger bond exposure than Bank of America
Bank of America
and Citi". Market Realist. Market Realist, Inc. Retrieved September 11, 2014. * ^ Press Release. Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
(January 13, 2009). Retrieved on July 19, 2013. * ^ Griffin, Donal. (May 31, 2012) Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Will Buy More of Smith Barney From Citigroup. Businessweek. Retrieved on July 19, 2013. * ^ " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Receives Final Regulatory Approvals to Purchase Remaining 35% Interest in MSSB Wealth Management Joint Venture, Fulfilling Key Strategic Priority". Morgan Stanley. June 21, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2014. * ^ " Invesco to Buy Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Unit for $1.5 Billion". Deal Book. The New York Times
The New York Times
. October 19, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009. * ^ " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
announces strategic partnership with Longchamp Asset
Asset
Management and La Française AM… Schroder GAIA platform onboards the GAIA Avoca Credit fund". hedgeweek.com. * ^ Elliott, Francis; Haynes, Deborah (August 23, 2004). "Times 20 Best Big Companies to Work For 2006 list". The Times. London. Retrieved February 8, 2007. * ^ "Great Place to Work Institute". Greatplacetowork-europe.com. February 18, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2011. * ^ Ulick, Jake (April 28, 2003). "Wall St. deal is finalized". CNN . Retrieved April 11, 2012. * ^ "Member Firm Disciplined for Special
Special
Reserve Bank
Bank
Account Deficienciesand Related Supervisory Violations". June 9, 2004. Retrieved April 11, 2012. * ^ " EEOC
EEOC
AND MORGAN STANLEY ANNOUNCE SETTLEMENT OF SEX DISCRIMINATION LAWSUIT". EEOC
EEOC
. July 12, 2004. Retrieved April 11, 2012. * ^ Anderson, Jenny (April 25, 2007). "Wall St. Firm Will Settle Sex Bias Suit". NYT
NYT
. Retrieved April 11, 2012. * ^ "NASD Fines Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
$2.2 Million for Late Reporting, Firm Temporarily Suspended from Registering New Brokers". Financial Industry Regulatory Authority . July 29, 2004. Retrieved April 11, 2012. * ^ "NYSE Regulation Announces a $19 Million Agreement with Morgan Stanley Citing Failure to Deliver Customer Prospectuses and Other Supervisory and Operational Failures". NYSE. Sep 22, 2004. Retrieved April 11, 2012. * ^ "NASD Fines Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
$100,000 For Municipal Bond Disclosure Violations". December 6, 2004. Retrieved April 11, 2012. * ^ "The New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
(NYSE) has hit US investment bank Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
with a record $19m (£10m) fine.". January 12, 2005. Retrieved April 12, 2012. * ^ " Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
has billionaire Perelman\'s $1.58 billion award reversed in Sunbeam lawsuit". International Herald Tribune
International Herald Tribune
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REFERENCES

* Chernow, Ron (1990). The House of Morgan. * Hibbard, J. (January 17, 2005). "Morgan Stanley: No stars—and lots of top tech IPOs". BusinessWeek, 56–58. * John Mack Elected Chairman
Chairman
and CEO of Morgan Stanley * Partnoy, Frank . F.I.A.S.C.O. New York: Penguin Books, 1997.

FURTHER READING

* Patricia Beard (2008). Blue Blood and Mutiny: The Fight for the Soul of Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Official

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