HOME
The Info List - Monticello


--- Advertisement ---



Monticello
Monticello
was the primary plantation of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, who began designing and building Monticello
Monticello
at age 26 after inheriting land from his father. Located just outside Charlottesville, Virginia, in the Piedmont region, the plantation was originally 5,000 acres (20 km2), with Jefferson using slaves for extensive cultivation of tobacco and mixed crops, later shifting from tobacco cultivation to wheat in response to changing markets. Due to its architectural and historic significance, the property has been designated a National Historic Landmark. In 1987 Monticello
Monticello
and the nearby University of Virginia, also designed by Jefferson, were together designated a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. The current nickel, a United States coin, features a depiction of Monticello
Monticello
on its reverse side. Jefferson designed the main house using neoclassical design principles described by Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
architect Andrea Palladio
Andrea Palladio
and reworking the design through much of his presidency to include design elements popular in late 18th-century Europe and integrating numerous of his own design solutions. Situated on the summit of an 850-foot (260 m)-high peak in the Southwest Mountains
Southwest Mountains
south of the Rivanna Gap, the name Monticello
Monticello
derives from the Italian for "little mount". Along a prominent lane adjacent to the house, Mulberry Row, the plantation came to include numerous outbuildings for specialized functions, e.g., a nailery; quarters for domestic slaves; gardens for flowers, produce, and Jefferson's experiments in plant breeding—along with tobacco fields and mixed crops. Cabins for field slaves were farther from the mansion. At Jefferson's direction, he was buried on the grounds, in an area now designated as the Monticello
Monticello
Cemetery. The cemetery is owned by the Monticello
Monticello
Association, a society of his descendants through Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson.[4] After Jefferson's death, his daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph
Martha Jefferson Randolph
sold the property. In 1834 it was bought by Uriah P. Levy, a commodore in the U.S. Navy, who admired Jefferson and spent his own money to preserve the property. His nephew Jefferson Monroe Levy took over the property in 1879; he also invested considerable money to restore and preserve it. In 1923, Monroe Levy sold it to the Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Foundation (TJF), which operates it as a house museum and educational institution.

Contents

1 Design and building 2 Preservation 3 Decoration and furnishings 4 Slave quarters on Mulberry Row 5 Outbuildings and plantation

5.1 Programming 5.2 Land purchase

6 Architecture 7 Representation in other media 8 Replicas 9 Legacy 10 Gallery 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Design and building[edit] Jefferson's home was built to serve as a plantation house, which ultimately took on the architectural form of a villa. It has many architectural antecedents, but Jefferson went beyond them to create something very much his own. He consciously sought to create a new architecture for a new nation.[5] Work began on what historians would subsequently refer to as "the first Monticello" in 1768, on a plantation of 5,000 acres (2,000 hectares). Jefferson moved into the South Pavilion (an outbuilding) in 1770, where his new wife Martha Wayles Skelton joined him in 1772. Jefferson continued work on his original design, but how much was completed is of some dispute.[5] In constructing and later reconstructing his home, Jefferson used both free workers, indentured servants and enslaved laborers.[6] After his wife's death in 1782, Jefferson left Monticello
Monticello
in 1784 to serve as Minister of the United States to France. During his several years in Europe, he had an opportunity to see some of the classical buildings with which he had become acquainted from his reading, as well as to discover the "modern" trends in French architecture that were then fashionable in Paris. His decision to remodel his own home may date from this period. In 1794, following his service as the first U.S. Secretary of State (1790–1793), Jefferson began rebuilding his house based on the ideas he had acquired in Europe. The remodeling continued throughout most of his presidency (1801–1809).[7] Although generally completed by 1809, Jefferson continued work on the present structure until his death in 1826.

Under the dome

Jefferson added a center hallway and a parallel set of rooms to the structure, more than doubling its area. He removed the second full-height story from the original house and replaced it with a mezzanine bedroom floor. The interior is centered on two large rooms, which served as an entrance-hall-museum, where Jefferson displayed his scientific interests, and a music-sitting room.[5] The most dramatic element of the new design was an octagonal dome, which he placed above the west front of the building in place of a second-story portico. The room inside the dome was described by a visitor as "a noble and beautiful apartment," but it was rarely used—perhaps because it was hot in summer and cold in winter, or because it could only be reached by climbing a steep and very narrow flight of stairs. The dome room has now been restored to its appearance during Jefferson's lifetime, with "Mars yellow" walls and a painted green and black checkered floor.[8] Summertime temperatures are high in the region, with indoor temperatures of around 100 °F (38 °C). Jefferson himself is known to have been interested in Roman and Renaissance texts about ancient temperature-control techniques such as ground-cooled air and heated floors.[9] Monticello's large central hall and aligned windows were designed to allow a cooling air-current to pass through the house, and the octagonal cupola draws hot air up and out.[10] Moderate air conditioning, designed to avoid the harm to the house and its contents that would be caused by major modifications and large temperature differentials, was installed in the house, a tourist attraction, in the late twentieth century.[11] Before Jefferson's death, Monticello
Monticello
had begun to show signs of disrepair. The attention Jefferson's university project in Charlottesville demanded, and family problems, diverted his focus. The most important reason for the mansion's deterioration was his accumulating debts. In the last few years of Jefferson's life, much went without repair in Monticello. A witness, Samuel Whitcomb Jr., who visited Jefferson in 1824, thought it run down. He said, "His house is rather old and going to decay; appearances about his yard and hill are rather slovenly. It commands an extensive prospect but it being a misty cloudy day, I could see but little of the surrounding scenery."[12] Preservation[edit] After Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, his only official surviving daughter, Martha Jefferson
Martha Jefferson
Randolph, inherited Monticello. The estate was encumbered with debt and Martha Randolph had financial problems in her own family because of her husband's mental illness. In 1831 she sold Monticello
Monticello
to James Turner Barclay, a local apothecary. Barclay sold it in 1834 to Uriah P. Levy, the first Jewish
Jewish
Commodore (equivalent to today's admiral) in the United States Navy. A fifth-generation American whose family first settled in Savannah, Georgia, Levy greatly admired Jefferson and used his private funds to repair, restore and preserve the house. The Confederate government seized the house as enemy property at the outset of the American Civil War and sold it to Confederate officer Benjamin Franklin Ficklin. Levy's estate recovered the property after the war.[13] Levy's heirs argued over his estate, but their lawsuits were settled in 1879, when Uriah Levy's nephew, Jefferson Monroe Levy, a prominent New York lawyer, real estate and stock speculator (and later member of Congress), bought out the other heirs for $10,050, and took control of Monticello. Like his uncle, Jefferson Levy commissioned repairs, restoration and preservation of the grounds and house, which had been deteriorating seriously while the lawsuits wound their way through the courts in New York and Virginia. Together, the Levys preserved Monticello
Monticello
for nearly 100 years.[14]

Monticello
Monticello
depicted on the reverse of the 1953 $2 bill. Note the two "Levy lions" on either side of the entrance. The lions, placed there by Jefferson Levy, were removed in 1923 when the Thomas Jefferson Foundation purchased the house.

In 1923, a private non-profit organization, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, purchased the house from Jefferson Levy with funds raised by Theodore Fred Kuper and others. They managed additional restoration under architects including Fiske Kimball
Fiske Kimball
and Milton L. Grigg.[15] Since that time, other restoration has been performed at Monticello.[citation needed] The Foundation operates Monticello
Monticello
and its grounds as a house museum and educational institution. Visitors can wander the grounds, as well as tour rooms in the cellar and ground floor. More expensive tour pass options include sunset hours, as well as tours of the second floor and the third floor including the iconic dome.[16] Monticello
Monticello
is a National Historic Landmark. It is the only private home in the United States to be designated a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Included in that designation are the original grounds and buildings of Jefferson's University of Virginia. From 1989 to 1992, a team of architects from the Historic American Buildings Survey
Historic American Buildings Survey
(HABS) of the United States created a collection of measured drawings of Monticello. These drawings are held by the Library
Library
of Congress.[17] Among Jefferson's other designs are Poplar Forest, his private retreat near Lynchburg (which he intended for his daughter Maria, who died at age 25); the University of Virginia, and the Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol in Richmond.[18][19] Decoration and furnishings[edit] Much of Monticello's interior decoration reflects the personal ideas and ideals of Jefferson.[20]

In a time before refrigeration, Jefferson had the pond stocked with fish, to be available on demand.

The original main entrance is through the portico on the east front. The ceiling of this portico incorporates a wind plate connected to a weather vane, showing the direction of the wind. A large clock face on the external east-facing wall has only an hour hand since Jefferson thought this was accurate enough for slaves.[21] The clock reflects the time shown on the "Great Clock", designed by Jefferson, in the entrance hall. The entrance hall contains recreations of items collected by Lewis and Clark on the cross-country expedition commissioned by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase. Jefferson had the floorcloth painted a "true grass green" upon the recommendation of artist Gilbert Stuart, so that Jefferson's "essay in architecture" could invite the spirit of the outdoors into the house.[citation needed] The south wing includes Jefferson's private suite of rooms. The library holds many books from his third library collection. His first library was burned in an accidental plantation fire, and he 'ceded' (or sold) his second library in 1815 to the United States Congress
United States Congress
to replace the books lost when the British burned the Capitol in 1814.[22] This second library formed the nucleus of the Library
Library
of Congress.[22] As "larger than life" as Monticello
Monticello
seems, the house has approximately 11,000 square feet (1,000 m2) of living space.[23] Jefferson considered much furniture to be a waste of space, so the dining room table was erected only at mealtimes, and beds were built into alcoves cut into thick walls that contain storage space. Jefferson's bed opens to two sides: to his cabinet (study) and to his bedroom (dressing room).[24] In 2017 a room identified as Sally Hemings' quarters at Monticello, adjacent to Jefferson's bedroom, was discovered in an archeological excavation. It will be restored and refurbished. This is part of the Mountaintop Project, which includes restorations in order to give a fuller account of the lives of both slave and free families at Monticello.[25][26] The west front (illustration) gives the impression of a villa of modest proportions, with a lower floor disguised in the hillside.[citation needed] The north wing includes two guest bedrooms and the dining room. It has a dumbwaiter incorporated into the fireplace, as well as dumbwaiters (shelved tables on casters) and a pivoting serving door with shelves.[27][28] Slave quarters on Mulberry Row[edit] Jefferson located one set of his slaves' quarters on Mulberry Row, a one-thousand foot road of slave, service, and industrial structures. Mulberry Row was situated three hundred feet (91 m) south of Monticello, with the slave quarters facing the Jefferson mansion. These slave cabins were occupied by the slaves who worked in the mansion or in Jefferson's manufacturing ventures, and not by those who labored in the fields.

Plaque at Monticello
Monticello
about slave labor

At one point, "Jefferson sketched out plans for a row of substantial, dignified neoclassical houses" for Mulberry Row, for enslaved blacks and white workers, "having in mind an integrated row of residences." Henry Wiencek argues: "It was no small thing to use architecture to make a visible equality of the races."[29] Archaeology
Archaeology
of the site shows that the rooms of the slave cabins were much larger in the 1770s than in the 1790s. Researchers disagree as to whether this indicates that more slaves were crowded into a smaller spaces, or that fewer people lived in the smaller spaces.[30] Earlier slave houses had a two-room plan, one family per room, with a single, shared doorway to the outside. But from the 1790s on, all rooms/families had independent doorways. Most of the cabins are free-standing, single-room structures.[30] By the time of Jefferson's death, some slave families had labored and lived for four generations at Monticello.[30] Six families and their descendants were featured in the exhibit, Slavery
Slavery
at Jefferson's Monticello: Paradox of Liberty (January to October 2012) at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, which also examines Jefferson as slaveholder. Developed as a collaboration between the National Museum of African American History and Culture
National Museum of African American History and Culture
and Monticello, it is the first exhibit on the national mall to address these issues.[31] In February 2012, Monticello
Monticello
opened a new outdoor exhibit on its grounds: Landscape of Slavery: Mulberry Row at Monticello, to convey more about the lives of the hundreds of slaves who lived and worked at the plantation.[32] Outbuildings and plantation[edit]

Jefferson's vegetable garden

Plaque commemorating Monticello
Monticello
Graveyard, owned and operated separately by the Monticello
Monticello
Association

Monticello
Monticello
Graveyard

Jefferson grave at Monticello

The main house was augmented by small outlying pavilions to the north and south. A row of outbuildings (dairy, a washhouse, store houses, a small nail factory, a joinery etc.) and slave's quarters (log cabins), known as Mulberry Row, lay nearby to the south. A stone weaver's cottage survives, as does the tall chimney of the joinery, and the foundations of other buildings. A cabin on Mulberry Row was, for a time, the home of Sally Hemings, the household slave who is widely believed to have had a 38-year relationship with the widower Jefferson and to have borne six children by him, four of whom survived to adulthood. The genealogist Helen F.M. Leary concluded that "the chain of evidence securely fastens Sally Hemings's children to their father, Thomas Jefferson."[33] Later Hemings lived in a room in the "south dependency" below the main house. On the slope below Mulberry Row, slaves maintained an extensive vegetable garden for Jefferson and the main house. In addition to growing flowers for display and producing crops for eating, Jefferson used the gardens of Monticello
Monticello
for experimenting with different species. The house was the center of a plantation of 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) tended by some 150 slaves. There are also two houses included in the whole. Programming[edit] In recent decades, the TJF has created programs to more fully interpret the lives of slaves at Monticello. Beginning in 1993, researchers interviewed descendants of Monticello
Monticello
slaves for the Getting Word Project, a collection of oral history that provided much new insight into the lives of slaves at Monticello
Monticello
and their descendants. (Among findings were that no slaves adopted Jefferson as a surname, but many had their own surnames as early as the 18th century.[34]) New research, publications and training for guides has been added since 2000, when the Foundation's Research Committee concluded it was highly likely that Jefferson had fathered Sally Hemings' children. Some of Mulberry Row has been designated as archeological sites, where excavations and analysis are revealing much about slave life at the plantation. In the winter of 2000–2001, the slave burial ground at Monticello
Monticello
was discovered. In the fall of 2001, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation held a commemoration of the burial ground, in which the names of known slaves of Monticello
Monticello
were read aloud. Additional archeological work is providing information about African-American burial practices.[35] In 2003 Monticello
Monticello
welcomed a reunion of descendants of Jefferson from both the Wayles' and Hemings' sides of the family. It was organized by the descendants, who have created a new group called the Monticello Community.[36] Additional and larger reunions have been held. Land purchase[edit] In 2004, the trustees acquired Mountaintop Farm (also known locally as Patterson's or Brown's Mountain), the only property that overlooks Monticello. Jefferson had called the taller mountain Montalto. To prevent development of new homes on the site, the trustees spent $15 million to purchase the property. Jefferson had owned it as part of his plantation, but it was sold off after his death. In the 20th-century, its farmhouses were divided into apartments for many University of Virginia
University of Virginia
students. The officials at Monticello
Monticello
had long considered the property an eyesore, and planned to acquire it when it became available.[37] Architecture[edit] Main article: Jeffersonian architecture The house is similar in appearance to Chiswick House, a Neoclassical house inspired by the architect Andrea Palladio
Andrea Palladio
built in 1726-9 in London. Representation in other media[edit] Monticello
Monticello
was featured in Bob Vila's A&E Network production, Guide to Historic Homes of America,[38] in a tour which included Honeymoon Cottage and the Dome
Dome
Room, which is open to the public during a limited number of tours each year. Replicas[edit] In 2014, Prestley Blake constructed a 10,000 square foot replica of Monticello
Monticello
in Somers, Connecticut. It can be seen on Rte 186 also known as Hall Hill Rd.[39] A replica of Monticello
Monticello
was constructed in Chickasha, Oklahoma.[citation needed] The entrance pavilion of the Naval Academy Jewish
Jewish
Chapel at Annapolis is modeled on Monticello.[citation needed] Chamberlin Hall at Wilbraham & Monson Academy in Wilbraham, Massachusetts, built in 1962 and modeled on Monticello, serves as the location of the Academy's Middle School.[40] Completed in August 2015, Dallas Baptist University
Dallas Baptist University
built one of the largest replicas of Monticello, including its entry halls and a dome room. Approximately 23,000 square feet, it is the home of the Gary Cook School of Leadership, as well as the University Chancellor's offices.[41] Legacy[edit]

On April 13, 1956, the U.S. Post Office issued a postage stamp honoring Monticello.[42]

Monticello's image has appeared on U.S. currency and postage stamps. An image of the west front of Monticello
Monticello
by Felix Schlag
Felix Schlag
has been featured on the reverse of the nickel minted since 1938 (with a brief interruption in 2004 and 2005, when designs of the Westward Journey series appeared instead). It was also used as the title for the 2015 play Jefferson's Garden, which centred on his life. Monticello
Monticello
also appeared on the reverse of the two-dollar bill from 1928 to 1966, when the bill was discontinued. The current bill was introduced in 1976 and retains Jefferson's portrait on the obverse but replaced Monticello
Monticello
on the reverse with an engraved modified reproduction of John Trumbull's painting Declaration of Independence. The gift shop at Monticello
Monticello
hands out two-dollar bills as change. Gallery[edit]

West Front of Monticello

Vegetable Garden - 180 degrees

The Visitors' Center

Monticello
Monticello
facade and its reproduction on a nickel

Play media

a Nickel by Monticello

Monticello, the day after a snowstorm

In the dome room, wall detail

Inside the Pavilion at the Vegetable Garden

See also[edit]

Moticello as portrayed on the reverse of the Jefferson nickel

Bibliography of Thomas Jefferson Jeffersonian architecture Monticello
Monticello
Association

References[edit]

^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(2006-03-15). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ " Monticello
Monticello
( Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
House)". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2008-06-27.  ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Landmarks Register". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Historic Resources. Retrieved 2015-11-16.  ^ The Monticello
Monticello
Cemetery, Retrieved December 28, 2010. ^ a b c SAH Archipedia, eds. Gabrielle Esperdy and Karen Kingsley, Charlottesville: UVaP, 2012. Online. http://sah-archipedia.org/buildings/VA-01-CH48. Accessed 2013-03-16. ^ http://slavery.monticello.org/slavery-at-monticello/life-monticello-plantation/monticello-house ^ "Monticello". National Park Service, US Dept of the Interior. Retrieved 30 April 2011.  ^ Kern, Chris. "Jefferson's Dome
Dome
at Monticello". Retrieved 2009-07-10.  ^ " Poplar Forest
Poplar Forest
- Privacy restored, p33" (PDF). PoplarForest.org. Retrieved February 4, 2018.  ^ MARYLOU TOUSIGNANT (17 May 1998). "Cooling Trend Predicted for Mount Vernon". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 August 2016.  ^ Stealth Ductwork. Popular Science. October 2000. p. 29. ISSN 0161-7370.  ^ Peden, William (1949). "A Book Peddler Invades Monticello". The William and Mary Quarterly. 6 (4): 631–636. doi:10.2307/1916755.  ^ Marc Leepson, Saving Monticello: The Levy Family's Epic Quest to Rescue the House That Jefferson Built (New York: Free Press, 2001, p. 94 ^ Leepson. Saving Monticello. University of Virginia
University of Virginia
Press. ISBN 978-0813922195.  ^ Fleming, Thomas. "The Jew Who Helped Save Monticello", The Jewish Digest, February 1974: 43–49. ^ "Tickets and Tours". Monticello. Retrieved 2015-07-28.  ^ "Architectural drawing of a house ("Monticello"), Albemarle County, Virginia". Library
Library
of Congress. Retrieved 2017-01-19.  ^ Sara, Wilson,; Mary, Hughes, (2002-07-25). "Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ "--Richmond: A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ "A Day in the Life of Thomas Jefferson: Sunrise Design and Decor". Monticello.org. Retrieved 2010-07-09.  ^ "A Day in the Life of Thomas Jefferson: Design and Decor - The Great Clock". Monticello.org. Retrieved 2016-09-19.  ^ a b "History - About the Library
Library
( Library
Library
of Congress)". Loc.gov. 1987-09-14. Retrieved 2010-07-09.  ^ The House FAQ - Monticello
Monticello
website ^ "Jefferson's Alcove Bed". Monticello.org. Retrieved 2010-07-09.  ^ Michael Cottman, "Historians Uncover Slave Quarters of Sally Hemings at Thomas Jefferson's Monticello", NBC News, 3 July 2017; accessed 4 February 2018 ^ f222-11e6-8d72-263470bf0401_story.html Krissah Thompson, "For decades they hid Jefferson’s relationship with her. Now Monticello is making room for Sally Hemings.", Washington Post, 18 February 2017; accessed 4 February 2018 ^ Whiffen, Marcus & Koeper, Frederick (1981). American Architecture, 1607–1976. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass P.105 ^ Self, R. L., & Stein, S. R. (1998). The Collaboration of Thomas Jefferson and John Hemings: Furniture Attributed to the Monticello Joinery. Winterthur Portfolio, 33(4), 231-248. ^ Henry, Wiencek (2012). Master of the Mountain: Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and His Slaves. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-374-29956-9.  ^ a b c "Changing Landscapes: Slave Housing at Monticello
Monticello
by Fraser D. Neiman, Director of Archeology for the Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Foundation". pbs.org. Retrieved 2011-03-26.  ^ http://slavery.monticello.org/slavery-at-monticello ^ Slavery
Slavery
at Jefferson's Monticello: Paradox of Liberty Archived 2012-05-06 at WebCite ^ Helen F.M. Leary, "Sally Hemings's Children: A Genealogical Analysis of the Evidence", National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 89, No. 3, September 2001, p. 207 (165-207) ^ "Naming Patterns in Enslaved Families", Plantation and Slavery, Monticello, accessed 21 March 2011 ^ "Honoring the Ancestors", Plantation and Slavery, Monticello, accessed 21 March 2011 ^ Chris Kahn, "Reunion bridges Jefferson family rift: Snubbed descendants of black slave hold their own event", Genealogy, MSNBC, 13 July 2003, accessed 1 March 2011 ^ "The Hook - Off Montalto, "It's all downhill from here."". 2004-06-03.  ^ Bob Vila (1996). "Guide to Historic Homes of America". A&E Network.  ^ Miranda Zhang (October 14, 2014). "Friendly Co-Founder's 'Monticello' On Market For $6.5 Million". The Courant.  ^ "Academics - Chamberlain Hall/ Middle School - Wilbraham & Monson". www.WMA.us. Retrieved February 4, 2018.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-02-04. Retrieved 2015-10-19.  ^ Scotts U.S. Stamp Catalogue

External links[edit]

Library
Library
resources about Monticello

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Monticello.

Official website The Monticello
Monticello
Explorer, an interactive multimedia look at the house Monticello
Monticello
Association, private lineage society of Jefferson descendants " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Lived Here." Popular Mechanics, August 1954, pp. 97–103/212. "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, broadcast from Monticello, April 2, 1999 Monticello, State Route 53 vicinity, Charlottesville vicinity, Albemarle, VA at the Historic American Buildings Survey
Historic American Buildings Survey
(HABS) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Foundation at Monticello
Monticello
in Google Cultural Institute

v t e

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States
President of the United States
(1801–1809) 2nd U.S. Vice President (1797–1801) 1st U.S. Secretary of State (1790–1793) U.S. Minister to France (1785–1789) 2nd Governor of Virginia
Virginia
(1779–1781) Delegate, Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
(1775–1776)

Founding documents of the United States

A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774) Initial draft, Olive Branch Petition
Olive Branch Petition
(1775) Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (1775) 1776 Declaration of Independence

Committee of Five authored physical history "All men are created equal" "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" "Consent of the governed"

1786 Virginia
Virginia
Statute for Religious Freedom

freedom of religion

French Revolution

Co-author, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(1789)

Presidency

Inaugural Address (1801 1805) Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark Expedition

Corps of Discovery timeline Empire of Liberty

Red River Expedition Pike Expedition Cumberland Road Embargo Act of 1807

Chesapeake–Leopard affair Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

First Barbary War Native American policy Marbury v. Madison West Point Military Academy State of the Union Addresses (texts 1801 1802 1805) Cabinet Federal judicial appointments

Other noted accomplishments

Early life and career Founder, University of Virginia

history

Land Ordinance of 1784

Northwest Ordinance 1787

Anti-Administration party Democratic-Republican Party Jeffersonian democracy

First Party System republicanism

Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measure of the United States (1790) Kentucky and Virginia
Virginia
Resolutions A Manual of Parliamentary Practice (1801)

Jeffersonian architecture

Barboursville Farmington Monticello

gardens

Poplar Forest University of Virginia

The Rotunda The Lawn

Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol White House
White House
Colonnades

Other writings

Notes on the State of Virginia
Virginia
(1785) 1787 European journey memorandums Indian removal letters Jefferson Bible
Jefferson Bible
(1895) Jefferson manuscript collection at the Massachusetts Historical Society The Papers of Thomas Jefferson

Related

Age of Enlightenment American Enlightenment American Philosophical Society American Revolution

patriots

Member, Virginia
Virginia
Committee of Correspondence Committee of the States Founding Fathers of the United States Franco-American alliance Jefferson and education Religious views Jefferson and slavery Jefferson and the Library
Library
of Congress Jefferson disk Jefferson Pier Pet mockingbird National Gazette Residence Act

Compromise of 1790

Sally Hemings

Jefferson–Hemings controversy Betty Hemings

Separation of church and state Swivel chair The American Museum magazine Virginia
Virginia
dynasty

Elections

United States Presidential election 1796 1800 1804

Legacy

Bibliography Jefferson Memorial Mount Rushmore Birthday Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Building Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Center for the Protection of Free Expression Jefferson Lecture Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Star for Foreign Service Jefferson Lab Monticello
Monticello
Association Jefferson City, Missouri Jefferson College Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
School of Law Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
University Washington and Jefferson National Forests Other placenames Currency depictions

Jefferson nickel Two-dollar bill

U.S. postage stamps

Popular culture

Ben and Me (1953 short) 1776 (1969 musical 1972 film) Jefferson in Paris
Jefferson in Paris
(1995 film) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1997 film) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) Jefferson's Garden (2015 play) Hamilton (2015 musical) Jefferson–Eppes Trophy Wine bottles controversy

Family

Peter Jefferson
Peter Jefferson
(father) Jane Randolph Jefferson
Jane Randolph Jefferson
(mother) Lucy Jefferson Lewis (sister) Randolph Jefferson (brother) Isham Randolph (grandfather) William Randolph
William Randolph
(great-grandfather) Martha Jefferson
Martha Jefferson
(wife) Martha Jefferson Randolph
Martha Jefferson Randolph
(daughter) Mary Jefferson Eppes (daughter) Harriet Hemings
Harriet Hemings
(daughter) Madison Hemings
Madison Hemings
(son) Eston Hemings
Eston Hemings
(son) Thomas J. Randolph (grandson) Francis Eppes (grandson) George W. Randolph
George W. Randolph
(grandson) John Wayles Jefferson
John Wayles Jefferson
(grandson) Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
(son-in-law) John Wayles Eppes (son-in-law) John Wayles (father-in-law) Dabney Carr
Dabney Carr
(brother-in-law) Dabney Carr
Dabney Carr
(nephew)

← John Adams James Madison
James Madison

Category

v t e

World Heritage Sites in the United States

Northeast

Independence Hall Statue of Liberty

Midwest

Cahokia

South

Everglades Great Smoky Mountains Mammoth Cave Monticello
Monticello
and the University of Virginia Poverty Point San Antonio Missions

West

Carlsbad Caverns Chaco Culture National Historical Park Grand Canyon National Park Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kluane-Wrangell–St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek1 Mesa Verde Olympic National Park Pueblo de Taos Papahānaumokuākea Redwood Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park1 Yellowstone National Park Yosemite National Park

Territories

La Fortaleza
La Fortaleza
and San Juan National Historic Site

1 Shared with Canada

v t e

U.S. National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in Virginia

Lists by county

Accomack Albemarle Alleghany Amelia Amherst Appomattox Arlington Augusta Bath Bedford Bland Botetourt Brunswick Buchanan Buckingham Campbell Caroline Carroll Charles City Charlotte Chesterfield Clarke Craig Culpeper Cumberland Dickenson Dinwiddie Essex Fairfax Fauquier Floyd Fluvanna Franklin Frederick Giles Gloucester Goochland Grayson Greene Greensville Halifax Hanover Henrico Henry Highland Isle Of Wight James City King and Queen King George King William Lancaster Lee Loudoun Louisa Lunenburg Madison Mathews Mecklenburg Middlesex Montgomery Nelson New Kent Northampton Northumberland Nottoway Orange Page Patrick Pittsylvania Powhatan Prince Edward Prince George Prince William Pulaski Rappahannock Richmond Roanoke Rockbridge Rockingham Russell Scott Shenandoah Smyth Southampton Spotsylvania Stafford Surry Sussex Tazewell Warren Washington Westmoreland Wise Wythe York

Lists by city

Alexandria Bristol Buena Vista Charlottesville Chesapeake Colonial Heights Covington Danville Emporia Fairfax Falls Church Franklin Fredericksburg Galax Hampton Harrisonburg Hopewell Lexington Lynchburg Manassas Manassas Park Martinsville Newport News Norfolk Norton Petersburg Poquoson (no listings) Portsmouth Radford Richmond Roanoke Salem Staunton Suffolk Virginia
Virginia
Beach Waynesboro Williamsburg Winchester

Other lists

Bridges National Historic Landmarks

Keeper of the Register History of the National Register of Historic Places Property types Historic district Con

.