Months
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A month is a unit of
time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...

time
, used with
calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also ...

calendar
s, that is approximately as long as a natural
orbital period The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of th ...
of the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

Moon
; the words ''month'' and ''Moon'' are
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
s. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of
Moon phase The lunar phase or Moon phase is the shape of the Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural s ...

Moon phase
s; such
lunar month In lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar based on the monthly cycles of the Moon's lunar phase, phases (Lunar month#Synodic month, synodic months, lunations), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly o ...
s ("lunations") are synodic months and last approximately 29.53
day The word day has a number of meanings, depending on the context it is used such as of astronomy, physics, and various calendar systems. As a term in physics and astronomy it is approximately the period during which the Earth completes one ro ...

day
s. From excavated
tally stick A tally stick (or simply tally) was an ancient memory aid device used to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages. Tally sticks first appear as animal bones carved with notches during the Upper Palaeolithic The Upper Paleo ...
s, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...
age. Synodic months, based on the Moon's
orbital period The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of th ...
with respect to the Earth–Sun line, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the
year A year is the orbital period of a planetary body, for example, the Earth, moving in Earth's orbit, its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by change in weather, the ...
.


Types of months in astronomy

The following types of months are mainly of significance in astronomy, most of them (but not the distinction between sidereal and tropical months) first recognized in
Babylonian lunar astronomy
Babylonian lunar astronomy
. # The sidereal month is defined as the Moon's
orbital period The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of th ...
in a non-rotating frame of reference (which on average is equal to its
rotation period The rotation period of a celestial object (e.g., star, gas giant, planet, moon, asteroid) is as its ''sidereal period, sidereal rotation period'' i.e. the time that the object takes to complete a single revolution around its axis of rotation rela ...
in the same frame). It is about 27.32166 days (27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, 11.6 seconds). It is closely equal to the time it takes the Moon to pass twice a "fixed"
star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics), one of the four fundamental states of matter * Plasma (mineral) or heliotrope, a mineral aggregate * Quark ...

star
(different stars give different results because all have a very small
proper motion Proper motion is the astrometry, astrometric measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the m ...

proper motion
and are not really fixed in position). # A synodic month is the most familiar lunar cycle, defined as the time interval between two consecutive occurrences of a particular phase (such as new moon or full moon) as seen by an observer on Earth. The mean length of the synodic month is 29.53059 days (29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 2.8 seconds). Due to the eccentricity of the lunar orbit around Earth (and to a lesser degree, the Earth's elliptical orbit around the Sun), the length of a synodic month can vary by up to seven hours. # The tropical month is the average time for the Moon to pass twice through the same
equinox An equinox is traditionally defined as the time when the plane In mathematics, a plane is a flatness (mathematics), flat, two-dimensional surface (mathematics), surface that extends infinitely far. A plane is the two-dimensional space, two-di ...

equinox
point of the sky. It is 27.32158 days, very slightly shorter than the sidereal month (27.32166) days, because of
precession of the equinoxes In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ...
. # An anomalistic month is the average time the Moon takes to go from
perigee Apsis ( el, ἀψίς; plural apsides , Greek: ἀψῖδες; "orbit") denotes either of the two extreme points (i.e., the farthest or nearest point) in the orbit In celestial mechanics, an orbit is the curved trajectory of an phy ...
to perigee—the point in the Moon's orbit when it is closest to Earth. An anomalistic month is about 27.55455 days on average. # The draconic month, draconitic month, or nodal month is the period in which the Moon returns to the same
node In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot A knot is an intentional complication in cordage which may be practical or decorative, or both. Practical knots are classified by function, including hitches, bend Bend or bends may refer t ...
of its orbit; the nodes are the two points where the Moon's orbit crosses the plane of the Earth's orbit. Its duration is about 27.21222 days on average. A synodic month is longer than a sidereal month because the Earth-Moon system is orbiting the Sun in the same direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth. The Sun moves eastward with respect to the stars (as does the Moon) and it takes about 2.2 days longer for the Moon to return to the same apparent position with respect to the Sun. An anomalistic month is longer than a sidereal month because the perigee moves in the same direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth, one revolution in nine years. Therefore, the Moon takes a little longer to return to perigee than to return to the same star. A draconic month is shorter than a sidereal month because the nodes move in the opposite direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth, one revolution in 18.6 years. Therefore, the Moon returns to the same node slightly earlier than it returns to the same star.


Calendrical consequences

At the simplest level, most well-known lunar calendars are based on the initial approximation that 2 lunations last 59
solar day A synodic day (or synodic rotation period or solar day) is the rotation period, period for a celestial object to rotate once in relation to the star it is orbiting, and is the basis of solar time. The synodic day is distinguished from the sidereal ...
s: a 30-day full month followed by a 29-day hollow month—but this is only roughly accurate and eventually needs intercalation (correction). Additionally, the synodic month does not fit easily into the solar (or 'tropical') year, which makes accurate, rule-based 'lunisolar' calendars complicated. The most common solution to this problem is the
Metonic cycle For example, by the 19-year Metonic cycle, the full moon repeats on or near Christmas day between 1711 and 2300. A small horizontal libration is visible comparing their appearances. A red color shows full moons that are also lunar eclipses. The ...

Metonic cycle
, which takes advantage of the fact that 235 lunations are approximately 19 tropical years (which add up to not quite 6,940 days). However, a
Metonic calendar For example, by the 19-year Metonic cycle, the full moon repeats on or near Christmas day between 1711 and 2300. A small horizontal libration is visible comparing their appearances. A red color shows full moons that are also lunar eclipses. The ...
will drift against the seasons by about one day every 200 years. Metonic calendars include the calendar used in the
Antikythera Mechanism The Antikythera mechanism ( ) is an ancient Greek hand-powered orrery An orrery is a mechanical Solar system model, model of the Solar System that illustrates or predicts the relative positions and motions of the planets and natural satellit ...

Antikythera Mechanism
about 2,000 years ago, and the
Hebrew calendar The Hebrew calendar ( Hebrew: , ), also called Jewish calendar, is a lunisolar calendar used today for Jewish religious observance, and as an official calendar of the state of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِس ...
. The complexity required in an accurate lunisolar calendar may explain why
solar calendar A solar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day within ...
s (which have months which no longer relate to the phase of the Moon, but are based only on the motion of the Sun relative to the equinoxes and solstices) have generally replaced lunar calendars for civil use in most societies. Conversely, exclusively lunar calendars such as the
Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 o ...
, do not try to synchronise with the solar year. (Consequently, an Islamic year is shorter than a solar year and the
Islamic New Year __NOTOC__ The Islamic New Year ( ar, رأس السنة الهجرية, '), also called the Hijri New Year or Arabic New Year, is the day that marks the beginning of a new lunar Hijri year The Hijri year ( ar, سَنة هِجْريّة) or ...
has a different
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
date in each (solar) year.)


Months in various calendars


Beginning of the lunar month

The
Hellenic calendars Various ancient Greek calendars began in most states of ancient Greece ''Polis'' (; grc-gre, πόλις ), plural ''poleis'' (, ) literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Huma ...
, the Hebrew Lunisolar calendar and the
Islamic Lunar calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar A cale ...
started the month with the first appearance of the thin crescent of the
new moon In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ...

new moon
. However, the motion of the Moon in its
orbit In celestial mechanics, an orbit is the curved trajectory of an physical body, object such as the trajectory of a planet around a star, or of a natural satellite around a planet, or of an satellite, artificial satellite around an object or po ...

orbit
is very complicated and its period is not constant. The date and time of this actual observation depends on the exact geographical longitude as well as latitude, atmospheric conditions, the visual acuity of the observers, etc. Therefore, the beginning and lengths of months defined by observation cannot be accurately predicted. While some like orthodox Islam and the Jewish Karaites still rely on actual moon observations, reliance on astronomical calculations and tabular methods is increasingly common in practice.
Pingelapese The Pingelapese language is a Micronesian language native to Pingelap, an atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), ...
, a language from
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is ...

Micronesia
, also uses a lunar calendar. There are 12 months associated with their calendar. The moon first appears in March, they name this month ''Kahlek''. This system has been used for hundreds of years and throughout many generations. This calendar is cyclical and relies on the position and shape of the moon.


Roman calendar

Roman calendar The Roman calendar was the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific ...
was reformed several times, the last three enduring reforms during historical times. The last three reformed Roman calendars are called the ''Julian'', ''Augustan'', and ''Gregorian''; all had the same number of days in their months. Despite other attempts, the names of the months after the Augustan calendar reform have persisted, and the number of days in each month (except February) have remained constant since before the Julian reform. The
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
, like the Roman calendars before it, has twelve months, whose
Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English English usually ...
names are: : The famous
mnemonic A mnemonic () device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory Memory is the faculty of the by which or is , stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the ...

mnemonic
''
Thirty days hath September"Thirty Days Hath September", or "Thirty Days Has September", is a traditional verse mnemonic used to remember the number of days in the months of the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregorian calendars. It arose as an oral tradition and exists in many v ...
'' is a common way of teaching the lengths of the months in the English-speaking world. The knuckles of the four fingers of one's hand and the spaces between them can be used to remember the lengths of the months. By making a fist, each month will be listed as one proceeds across the hand. All months landing on a knuckle are 31 days long and those landing between them are 30 days long, with variable February being the remembered exception. When the knuckle of the index finger is reached (July), go over to the first knuckle on the other fist, held next to the first (or go back to the first knuckle) and continue with August. This physical mnemonic has been taught to primary school students for many decades, if not centuries. This cyclical pattern of month lengths matches the
musical keyboard A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical ...

musical keyboard
alternation of wide white keys (31 days) and narrow black keys (30 days). The note F corresponds to January, and the '' diabolis in musica'' note F corresponds to February, the exceptional 28–29 day month.


Numerical relations

The mean month-length in the Gregorian calendar is 30.436875 days. Any five consecutive months, that do not include February, contain 153 days.


Calends, nones, and ides

Months in the pre-Julian
Roman calendar The Roman calendar was the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific ...
included: * ''
Intercalaris Mercedonius (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman R ...
'' an
intercalary month Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. Lunisolar calendar A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many culture Cul ...
occasionally embedded into February, to realign the calendar. * ''
Quintilis In the ancient Roman calendar The Roman calendar was the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the d ...
'', later renamed to ''Julius'' in honour of
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
. * ''
Sextilis Sextilis ("sixth") or ''mensis Sextilis'' was the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', ...
'', later renamed to ''Augustus'' in honour of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
. The Romans divided their months into three parts, which they called the ''calends'', the ''nones'', and the ''ides''. Their system is somewhat intricate. The ides occur on the thirteenth day in eight of the months, but in March, May, July, and October, they occur on the fifteenth. The
nones
nones
always occur 8 days (one Roman ‘week’) before the ides, i.e., on the fifth or the seventh. The
calendsThe calends or kalends ( la, kalendae) is the first day of every month in the Roman calendar. The English language, English word ''calendar'' is derived from this word. Use The Ancient Rome, Romans called the first day of every month the ''calends ...
are always the first day of the month, and before Julius Caesar's reform fell sixteen days (two Roman weeks) after the ides (except the ides of February and the intercalary month).


Relations between dates, weekdays, and months in the Gregorian calendar

Within a month, the following dates fall on the same day of the week: * 01, 08, 15, 22, and 29 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Friday) * 02, 09, 16, 23, and 30 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Saturday) * 03, 10, 17, 24, and 31 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Sunday) * 04, 11, 18, and 25 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Monday) * 05, 12, 19, and 26 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Tuesday) * 06, 13, 20, and 27 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Wednesday) * 07, 14, 21, and 28 (e.g., in January 2021, all these dates fell on a Thursday) Some months have the same date/weekday structure. In a non-leap year: * January/October (e.g., in 2021, they began on a Friday) * February/March/November (e.g., in 2021, they began on a Monday ) * April/July (e.g., in 2021, they began on a Thursday) * September/December (e.g., in 2021, they began on a Wednesday) * January 1 and December 31 fall on the same weekday (e.g. in 2021 on a Friday) In a leap year: * February/August (e.g. in 2020, they began on a Saturday) * March/November (e.g., in 2020, they began on a Sunday) * January/April/July (e.g., in 2020, they began on a Wednesday) * September/December (e.g., in 2020, they began on a Tuesday) * February 29 (the leap day) falls on the same weekday like February 1, 08, 15, 22, and August 1 (see above; e.g. in 2020 on a Saturday)


Hebrew calendar

The
Hebrew calendar The Hebrew calendar ( Hebrew: , ), also called Jewish calendar, is a lunisolar calendar used today for Jewish religious observance, and as an official calendar of the state of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِس ...
has 12 or 13 months. #
Nisan ''Nisan'' (or ''Nissan''; he, נִיסָן, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Nisan'' Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Nîsān'') in the Hebrew and the Babylonian calendars, is the month of the barley ripening and first month of spri ...
, 30 days ניסן #
Iyar Iyar ( he, אִייָר or , Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that ...
, 30 days אייר #
Sivan ''Sivan'' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ...

Sivan
, 30 days סיון #
Tammuz Dumuzid ( sux, 𒌉𒍣𒉺𒇻, ''Dumuzid sipad'') or Dumuzi, later known by the alternative form Tammuz,; he, תַּמּוּז, Transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: ...
, 29 days תמוז # Av, 30 days אב #
Elul Elul ( he, אֱלוּל, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''ʾElūl'', Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''ʾĔlūl'') is the twelfth month of the Jewish civil year and the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It i ...
, 29 days אלול #
Tishri Tishrei () or Tishri (; he, ''tīšrē'' or ''tīšrī''; from ''tašrītu'' "beginning", from ''šurrû'' "to begin") is the first month of the (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 ...
, 30 days תשרי #
Marcheshvan Marcheshvan ( he, מַרְחֶשְׁוָן, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard , Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian , Yemenite Hebrew, Yemenite ; from Akkadian language, Akkadian , literally, 'eighth month'), sometimes shortened to Cheshvan (, ...
, 29/30 days מַרְחֶשְׁוָן #
Kislev Kislev or Chislev (: כִּסְלֵו, ''Kīslev'' ''Kīslēw''), also 'Chisleu' in the King James (authorized English) Bible, is the third month of the civil year and the ninth month of the ecclesiastical year on the . In the its name was A ...
, 30/29 days כסלו #
Tevet Tevet ( he, טֵבֵת, ''Tevet''; ; ''Ṭeveth''; ''Teves''; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ) is the fourth month of the civil year and the tenth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It follows Kislev and precedes Shevat ...
, 29 days טבת #
Shevat Shevat (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ances ...
, 30 days שבט #
Adar 1 Adar ( he, אֲדָר ; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ''adaru'') is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, roughly corresponding to the month of March in the Gregorian calenda ...
, 30 days, intercalary month אדר א #
Adar 2 Adar ( he, אֲדָר ; from AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyc ...
, 29 days אדר ב Adar 1 is only added 7 times in 19 years. In ordinary years, Adar 2 is simply called Adar.


Islamic calendar

There are also twelve months in the Islamic calendar. They are named as follows: #
Muharram Muḥarram ( ar, ٱلْمُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or ...

Muharram
(Restricted/sacred) محرّم #
Safar Ṣafar ( ar, صَفَر) is the second month of the lunar based Islamic calendar. The Arabic word ''ṣafar'' means "empty, vacate or void", corresponding to the Jahiliyyah, pre-Islamic Arabian time period when people’s houses were empty, ...

Safar
(Empty/Yellow) صفر # Rabī' al-Awwal/Rabi' I (First Spring) ربيع الأول # Rabī' ath-Thānī/Rabi' al-Aakhir/Rabi' II (Second spring or Last spring) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني #
Jumada al-Awwal Jumada al-Awwal ( ar, جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْأَوَّل, Jumādā al-ʾAwwal, lit=The initial Jumada), also known as Jumada al-Ula ( ar, جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْأُولَىٰ, Jumādā al-ʾŪlā, lit=The first Jumada), or Jumada I, is the fif ...
/Jumaada I (First Freeze) جمادى الأول # Jumada ath-Thānī or Jumādā al-Thānī/Jumādā II (Second Freeze or Last Freeze) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني #
Rajab Rajab ( ar, رَجَب) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of the classical Arabic verb ''rajaba'' is "to respect" which could also mean "be awe or be in fear", of which Rajab is a derivative. This month is reg ...

Rajab
(To Respect) رجب # Sha'bān (To Spread and Distribute) شعبان #
Ramadān
Ramadān
(Parched Thirst) رمضان # Shawwāl (To Be Light and Vigorous) شوّال #
Dhu al-Qi'dah Dhu al-Qa'dah ( ar, ذُو ٱلْقَعْدَة, ', ), also spelled Dhu al-Qi'dah or Zu al-Qa'dah, is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the L ...
(The Master of Truce) ذو القعدة #
Dhu al-Hijjah Dhu al-Hijjah ( ar, ذُو ٱلْحِجَّة, ', ), also spelled Zu al-Hijjah, is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar. It is a very sacred month in the Islamic calendar, one in which the ''Hajj, Ḥajj'' (Pilgrimage) takes place ...
(The Possessor of Hajj) ذو الحجة See
Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 o ...
for more information on the Islamic calendar.


Arabic calendar


Hindu calendar

The
Hindu calendar The Hindu calendar, Panchanga (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo- ...

Hindu calendar
has various systems of naming the months. The months in the lunar calendar are: These are also the names used in the
Indian national calendar The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Saka calendar, is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by ''The Gazette of India'', in news broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars and communications issued by the Government of India. ...

Indian national calendar
for the newly redefined months. Purushottam Maas or Adhik Maas (
translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...
' = 'extra', ' = 'month') is an extra month in the
Hindu calendar The Hindu calendar, Panchanga (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo- ...

Hindu calendar
that is inserted to keep the
lunar Lunar most commonly means "of or relating to the Moon". Lunar may also refer to: Arts and entertainment * Lunar (series), ''Lunar'' (series), a series of video games * Lunar (song), "Lunar" (song), by David Guetta * "Lunar", a song by Priestess f ...
and
solar calendar A solar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day within ...
s aligned. "Purushottam" is an epithet of
Vishnu Vishnu (; ; , ), also known as Narayana and Hari, is one of the principal deities Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia), the chief executive of a university ** Principal (education), the head teacher of a primary or s ...

Vishnu
, to whom the month is dedicated. The names in the solar calendar are just the names of the
zodiac The zodiac is a belt-shaped region of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic The ecliptic is the plane (geometry), plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. From the perspecti ...

zodiac
sign in which the sun travels. They are #
Mesha King Mesha ( Moabite: 𐤌𐤔𐤏 *''Māša‘''; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the langu ...
# Vrishabha #
Mithuna Maithuna (Devanagari: मैथुन) is a Sanskrit term for sexual intercourse within Tantric sex, or alternatively to the specific lack of sexual fluids generated, while mithuna is a couple participating in such a ritual. It is the most importa ...
# Kataka # Simha # Kanyaa # Tulaa # Vrishcika # Dhanus #
Makara ''Makara'' ( sa, मकर) is a legendary sea-creature in Hindu mythology Hindu mythology are myths found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic FIle:Atharva-Veda samhita page 471 illustration.png, upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sans ...
#
Kumbha A kumbha ( sa, कुम्भ) is a type of pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial ...
# Miina


Baháʼí calendar

The
Baháʼí calendar The Badíʻ calendar used in the Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a new religion teaching the essential worth of all religions and the unity of all people. Established by Baháʼu'lláh in the 19th century, it ...
is the calendar used by the
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a new religion teaching the essential worth of all religions and the unity of all people. Established by Baháʼu'lláh Baháʼu'lláh (12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892) was a Persian ...
. It is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and
leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a lunisolar calendar, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astron ...

leap year
s of 366 days. Years are composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days), plus an extra period of " Intercalary Days" (4 in regular and 5 in leap years). The months are named after the attributes of God. Days of the year begin and end at sundown.


Iranian calendar (Persian calendar)

The Iranian / Persian calendar, currently used in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
and
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
, also has 12 months. The
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
names are included in the parentheses. It begins on the northern Spring equinox. #
Farvardin Farvardin ( fa, فروردین, ) is the Iranian Persian name for the first month A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural Orbital period, period related to the motion of the Moon; ''month'' and ' ...
(31 days, فروردین) #
Ordibehesht Ordibehesht ( fa, اردیبهشت, ) is the second month of the Solar Hijri calendar, the official calendar of Iran. Ordibehesht has 31 days, spanning the months of April and May in the Gregorian calendar. The Afghan Persian name is Sowr. Its as ...
(31 days, اردیبهشت) # Khordad (31 days, خرداد) # Tir (31 days, تیر) #
Mordad Mordad ( fa, Mordād, ) is the fifth month of the Solar Hijri calendar Solar may refer to: Astronomy * Of or relating to the Sun. ** A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used to observe the Sun. ** A device that utilizes solar e ...
(31 days, مرداد) #
Shahrivar Shahrivar ( fa, شهریور, ) is the sixth month of the Solar Hijri calendar Solar may refer to: Astronomy * Of or relating to the Sun. ** A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used to observe the Sun. ** A device that utilizes s ...
(31 days, شهریور) # Mehr (30 days, مهر) #
Aban Apas (, ae, āpas) is the Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from the ...

Aban
(30 days, آبان) #
Azar Azar ( fa, آذر, ) is the ninth month of the Solar Hijri calendar, the official calendar of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), i ...

Azar
(30 days, آذر) # Dey (30 days, دی) #
Bahman Bahman ( fa, بهمن, ) is the eleventh and penultimate month of the Solar Hijri calendar The Solar Hijri calendar ( fa, گاه‌شماری هجری خورشیدی, gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye khorshidi; ps, لمريز لېږدیز کلیز, la ...

Bahman
(30 days, بهمن) #
Esfand Esfand ( fa, اسفند, ) is the twelfth and final month of the Solar Hijri calendar, the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan. Esfand has twenty-nine days normally, and thirty during leap years. It begins in February and ends in March of the ...
(29 days- 30 days in leap year, اسفند)


Reformed Bengali calendar

The
Bangla calendar The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar ( bn, বঙ্গাব্দ , , Baṅgābda) is a luni-solar calendar used in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangl ...
, used in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, follows solar months and it has six seasons. The months and seasons in the calendar are:


Nanakshahi calendar

The months in the
Nanakshahi calendar The Nanakshahi calendar is a tropical solar calendar A solar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date ...
are:


Khmer calendar

Like the Hindu calendar, the Khmer calendar consists of both a lunar calendar and a solar calendar. The solar is used more commonly than the lunar calendar. There are 12 months and the numbers of days follow the Julian and Gregorian calendar. The Khmer lunar calendar contains 12 months; however, the eighth month is repeated (as a "leap month") every two or three years, making 13 months instead of 12.


Thai calendar


Tongan calendar

The Tongan calendar is based on the cycles of the moon around the earth in one year. The months are: # Liha Mu'a # Liha Mui # Vai Mu'a # Vai Mui # Faka'afu Mo'ui # Faka'afu Mate # Hilinga Kelekele # Hilinga Mea'a # 'Ao'ao # Fu'ufu'unekinanga # 'Uluenga # Tanumanga # 'O'oamofanongo


Kollam era (

Malayalam Malayalam (; , ) is a Dravidian language Dravidian languages (or sometimes Dravidic languages) are a family of languages In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recogni ...

Malayalam
) calendar


Sinhalese calendar

The Sinhalese calendar is the
Buddhist calendar The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendar A lunisolar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calenda ...
in
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
with
Sinhala Sinhala may refer to: * Something of or related to the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka * Sinhalese people * Sinhala language, one of the three official languages used in Sri Lanka * Sinhala script, a writing system for the Sinhala language ** Sinhala ...
names. Each full moon
Poya Poya is the name given to the Lunar monthly Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is ...
day marks the start of a Buddhist lunar month. The first month is Vesak. # Duruthu (දුරුතු) # Navam (නවම්) # Mædin (මැදින්) # Bak (බක්) # Vesak (වෙසක්) # Poson (පොසොන්) # Æsala (ඇසල) # Nikini (නිකිණි) # Binara (බිනර) # Vap (වප්) # Il (iL) (ඉල්) # Unduvap (උඳුවප්)


Germanic calendar

The old Icelandic calendar is not in official use anymore, but some Icelandic holidays and annual feasts are still calculated from it. It has 12 months, broken down into two groups of six often termed "winter months" and "summer months". The calendar is peculiar in that the months always start on the same
weekday The workweek and weekend are the complementary parts of the week A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the standard time period used for cycles of rest days in most parts of the world, mostly alongside—although not strictly par ...

weekday
rather than on the same date. Hence Þorri always starts on a Friday sometime between January 22 and January 28 ''(
Old style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a calendar change, respectively. Usually this is the change from the to the as enacted in various European countries between 1582 and the 20th century. In ...
: January 9 to January 15)
'', Góa always starts on a Sunday between February 21 and February 27 ''(
Old style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a calendar change, respectively. Usually this is the change from the to the as enacted in various European countries between 1582 and the 20th century. In ...
: February 8 to February 14)
''. * Skammdegi ("Short days") # Gormánuður (mid-October – mid-November, "slaughter month" or " Gór's month") # Ýlir (mid-November – mid-December, "
Yule Yule (also called Jul, Julblot, jól, jólablót, joulu, "Yule time" or "Yule season") is a festival historically observed by the Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe and Scand ...
month") # Mörsugur (mid-December – mid-January, "fat sucking month") # Þorri (mid-January – mid-February, "frozen snow month") # Góa (mid-February – mid-March, "Góa's month, see Nór") # Einmánuður (mid-March – mid-April, "lone" or "single month") * Náttleysi ("Nightless days") # Harpa (mid-April – mid-May, Harpa is a female name, probably a forgotten goddess, first day of Harpa is celebrated as – first day of summer) # Skerpla (mid-May – mid-June, another forgotten goddess) # Sólmánuður (mid-June – mid-July, "
sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

sun
month") # Heyannir (mid-July – mid-August, "
hay Hay is grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of fam ...

hay
business month") # Tvímánuður (mid-August – mid-September, "two" or "second month") # Haustmánuður (mid-September – mid-October, "autumn month")


Old Georgian calendar

*NOTE: ''New Year in ancient
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia (, ; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region, bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and east by ...
started from September.''


Old Swedish calendar

# Torsmånad (January, 'Torre's month' (ancient god)) # Göjemånad (February, 'Goe's month' (ancient goddess)) # Vårmånad (March, 'Spring month') # Gräsmånad (April, 'Grass month') # Blomstermånad (May, 'Bloom month') # Sommarmånad (June, 'Summer month') # Hömånad (July, 'Hay month') # Skördemånad, Rötmånad (August, 'Harvest month' or 'Rot month') # Höstmånad (September, 'Autumn month') # Slaktmånad (October, 'Slaughter month') # Vintermånad (November, 'Winter month') # Julmånad (December, 'Christmas month')


Old English calendar

Like the Old Norse calendar, the
Anglo-Saxons The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression ...
had their own calendar before they were
Christianized Christianization ( or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once. Various strategies and techniques were employed in Christianization campaigns from Late Antiquity and througho ...
which reflected native traditions and deities. These months were attested by
Bede Bede ( ; ang, Bǣda , ; 672/326 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, The Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable ( la, Beda Venerabilis), was an English Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sa ...

Bede
in his works ''On Chronology'' and ''
The Reckoning of Time ''The Reckoning of Time'' ( la, De temporum ratione) is an Anglo-Saxon era treatise A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerne ...
'' written in the 8th century. His
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
month names are probably written as pronounced in Bede’s native
Northumbrian dialect The Northumbrian dialect refers to any of several English language varieties spoken in the traditional English region of Northumbria (modern), Northumbria, which includes most of the North East England regions of England, government region. The t ...
. The months were named after the moon; the new moon marking the end of an old month and start of a new month; the
full moon The full moon is the lunar phase s in 2022 as viewed from the Southern Hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere o ...

full moon
occurring in the middle of the month, after which the whole month took its name. : When an intercalary month was needed, a third ''Litha'' month was inserted in mid-summer.


Old Hungarian calendar

Nagyszombati kalendárium (in Latin: ''Calendarium Tyrnaviense'') from 1579. Historically Hungary used a 12-month calendar that appears to have been zodiacal in nature but eventually came to correspond to the Gregorian months as shown below: # Boldogasszony hava (January, 'month of the happy/blessed lady') # Böjtelő hava (February, 'month of early fasting/Lent' or 'month before fasting/Lent') # Böjtmás hava (March, 'second month of fasting/Lent') # Szent György hava (April, 'Saint George's month') # Pünkösd hava (May, 'Pentecost month') # Szent Iván hava (June, 'Saint John he Baptists month') # Szent Jakab hava (July, 'Saint James' month') # Kisasszony hava (August, 'month of the
Virgin Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse. The term ''virgin'' originally only referred to sexually inexperienced women, but has evolved to encompass a range of definitions, as found in traditional, modern a ...
') # Szent Mihály hava (September, 'Saint Michael's month') # Mindszent hava (October, 'all saints' month') # Szent András hava (November, 'Saint Andrew's month') # Karácsony hava (December, 'month of Yule/Christmas')


Czech calendar

# Leden – derives from 'led' (ice) # Únor – derives from 'nořit' (to dive, referring to the ice sinking into the water due to melting) # Březen – derives from 'bříza' (birch) # Duben – derives from 'dub' (oak) # Květen – derives from 'květ' (flower) # Červen – derives from 'červená' (red – for the color of apples and tomatoes) # Červenec – is the second 'červen' (formerly known as 2nd červen) # Srpen – derives from old Czech word 'sirpsti' (meaning to reflect, referring to the shine on the wheat) # Září – means 'to shine' # Říjen – derives from 'jelení říje', which refers to the
estrous cycle The estrous cycle (, originally ) is the set of recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormone A hormone (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλ ...

estrous cycle
of female elk # Listopad – falling leaves # Prosinec – derives from old Czech 'prosiněti', which means to shine through (refers to the sun light shining through the clouds)


Old Egyptian calendar

The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days (epagomenes) at the end of the year. The months were divided into 3 "weeks" of ten days each. Because the ancient Egyptian year was almost a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and stellar events "wandered" through the calendar, it is referred to as Annus Vagus or "Wandering Year". #Thout #Paopi #Hathor #Koiak #Tooba #Emshir #Paremhat #Paremoude #Pashons #Paoni #Epip #Mesori


Nisga'a calendar

The
Nisga'a The Nisga’a , often formerly spelled Nishga and spelled in the Nisga’a language as (pronounced ), are an Indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, ...
calendar coincides with the Gregorian calendar with each month referring to the type of harvesting that is done during the month. #K'aliiyee = Going North – referring to the Sun returning to its usual place in the sky #Buxwlaks = Needles Blowing About – February is usually a very windy month in the Nass River Valley #Xsaak = To Eat Oolichans – Oolichans are harvested during this month #Mmaal = Canoes – The river has defrosted, hence canoes are used once more #Yansa'alt = Leaves are Blooming – Warm weather has arrived and leaves on the trees begin to bloom #Miso'o = Sockeye – majority of Sockeye Salmon runs begin this month #Maa'y = Berries – berry picking season #Wii Hoon = Great Salmon – referring to the abundance of Salmon that are now running #Genuugwwikw = Trail of the Marmot – Marmots, Ermines and animals as such are hunted #Xlaaxw = To Eat Trout – trout are mostly eaten this time of year #Gwilatkw = To Blanket – The earth is "blanketed" with snow #Luut'aa = Sit In – the Sun "sits" in one spot for a period of time


French Republican calendar

This calendar was proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about twelve years from late 1793. There were twelve months of 30 days each, grouped into three ten-day weeks called ''décades''. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year. A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a ''Franciade''. It began at the autumn equinox: * Autumn: #
Vendémiaire Vendémiaire () was the first month A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, that is approximately as long as a natural orbital period of the Moon; the words ''month'' and ''Moon'' are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle ...
#
Brumaire Brumaire () was the second month in the French Republican Calendar The French Republican calendar (french: calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar (), was a calendar A calendar is a sy ...

Brumaire
#
FrimaireFrimaire () was the third month in the French Republican Calendar. The month was named after the French language, French word ''frimas'', which means ''frost''. Frimaire was the third month of the autumn quarter (''mois d'automne''). It started betw ...

Frimaire
* Winter: #
Nivôse Nivôse (; also ''Nivose'') was the fourth month A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural Orbital period, period related to the motion of the Moon; ''month'' and ''Moon'' are cognates. The traditio ...
#
Pluviôse Pluviôse (; also ''Pluviose'') was the fifth month in the French Republican Calendar The French Republican calendar (french: calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar (), was a calendar A ...
#
Ventôse Ventôse (; also ''Ventose'') was the sixth month in the French Republican Calendar. The month was named after the Latin word ''ventosus'', which means ''windy''. Ventôse was the third month of the winter quarter (''mois d'hiver''). It started b ...
* Spring: # Germinal # #
Prairial Prairial () was the ninth month A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural Orbital period, period related to the motion of the Moon; ''month'' and ''Moon'' are cognates. The traditional concept arose ...

Prairial
* Summer: #
Messidor Messidor () was the tenth month A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural Orbital period, period related to the motion of the Moon; ''month'' and ''Moon'' are cognates. The traditional concept arose ...

Messidor
#
Thermidor Thermidor () was the eleventh month A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural Orbital period, period related to the motion of the Moon; ''month'' and ''Moon'' are cognates. The traditional concept a ...

Thermidor
#
Fructidor Fructidor () is the twelfth month A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, that is approximately as long as a natural orbital period of the Moon; the words ''month'' and ''Moon'' are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle o ...

Fructidor


Eastern Ojibwe calendar

Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
month names are based on the key feature of the month. Consequently, months between various regions have different names based on the key feature of each month in their particular region. In the Eastern Ojibwe, this can be seen in when the sucker makes its run, which allows the Ojibwe to fish for them. Additionally, Rhodes also informs of not only the variability in the month names, but how in Eastern Ojibwe these names were originally applied to the
lunar month In lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar based on the monthly cycles of the Moon's lunar phase, phases (Lunar month#Synodic month, synodic months, lunations), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly o ...
s the Ojibwe originally used, which was a
lunisolar calendar A lunisolar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day ...
, fixed by the date of ''Akiinaaniwan'' (typically December 27) that marks when sunrise is the latest in the Northern Hemisphere. :


See also

*
Maya calendar The Maya calendar is a system of calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specifi ...
*
Chinese calendar The traditional Chinese calendar (officially known as the Agricultural Calendar [], Former Calendar [], Traditional Calendar [] or Yin Calendar []), is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical pheno ...
* Egyptian calendar *
Ethiopian calendar The Ethiopian calendar (Ge'ez: ዓዉደ ወርህ; Tigrinya Tigrinya (ትግርኛ; also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Eastern Africa, wi ...
*
Lunar month In lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar based on the monthly cycles of the Moon's lunar phase, phases (Lunar month#Synodic month, synodic months, lunations), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly o ...
*
Assyrian calendar The Assyrian calendar ( aii, ܣܘܼܪܓܵܕ݂ܵܐ ܐܵܬ݂ܘܼܪܵܝܵܐ ) is a solar calendar A solar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, w ...
*
Kurdish calendar The Kurdish calendar is a calendar used in the Kurdistan Kurdistan ( ku, کوردستان ,Kurdistan ; lit. "land of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural territory in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, o ...
*
Month of year An ordinal date is a calendar date typically consisting of a ''year'' and a ''day of the year'' ranging between 1 and 366 (starting on January 1), though year may sometimes be omitted. The two numbers can be formatted as YYYY-DDD to comply with th ...


Footnotes


References

{{Authority control Calendars Orbit of the Moon Orders of magnitude (time) Units of time