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Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède
La Brède
et de Montesquieu (/ˈmɒntəskjuː/;[1] French: [mɔ̃tɛskjø]; 18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He is also known for doing more than any other author to secure the place of the word "despotism" in the political lexicon.[2]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Philosophy of history 3 Political views 4 Meteorological
Meteorological
climate theory 5 List of principal works 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Notes 7.2 Bibliography

7.2.1 Articles and chapters 7.2.2 Books

8 External links

Biography

Château de la Brède

Montesquieu
Montesquieu
was born at the Château de la Brède
Château de la Brède
in southwest France, 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Bordeaux.[3] His father, Jacques de Secondat, was a soldier with a long noble ancestry. His mother, Marie Françoise de Pesnel, who died when Charles was seven, was an heiress who brought the title of Barony of La Brède
La Brède
to the Secondat family.[4] After the death of his mother he was sent to the Catholic College of Juilly, a prominent school for the children of French nobility, where he remained from 1700 to 1711.[5] His father died in 1713 and he became a ward of his uncle, the Baron de Montesquieu.[6] He became a counselor of the Bordeaux
Bordeaux
Parliament
Parliament
in 1714. In 1715 he married Jeanne de Lartigue, a Protestant, who eventually bore him three children.[7] The Baron died in 1716, leaving him his fortune as well as his title, and the office of Président à Mortier in the Bordeaux
Bordeaux
Parliament.[8] Montesquieu's early life occurred at a time of significant governmental change. England had declared itself a constitutional monarchy in the wake of its Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
(1688–89), and had joined with Scotland in the Union of 1707
Union of 1707
to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In France
France
the long-reigning Louis XIV
Louis XIV
died in 1715 and was succeeded by the five-year-old Louis XV. These national transformations had a great impact on Montesquieu; he would refer to them repeatedly in his work.

The title page of the first volume of Montesquieu's De l'Esprit des loix (1st ed., 1748)

Montesquieu
Montesquieu
withdrew from the practice of law to devote himself to study and writing. He achieved literary success with the publication of his Lettres persanes (Persian Letters, 1721), a satire representing society as seen through the eyes of two imaginary Persian visitors to Paris
Paris
and Europe, cleverly criticizing the absurdities of contemporary French society. He next published Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (Considerations on the Causes of the Grandeur and Decadence of the Romans, 1734), considered by some scholars, among his three best known books, as a transition from The Persian Letters
Persian Letters
to his master work. De l'Esprit des Lois (The Spirit of the Laws) was originally published anonymously in 1748. The book quickly rose to influence political thought profoundly in Europe and America. In France, the book met with an unfriendly reception from both supporters and opponents of the regime. The Catholic
Catholic
Church banned l'Esprit – along with many of Montesquieu's other works – in 1751 and included it on the Index of Prohibited Books. It received the highest praise from the rest of Europe, especially Britain. Montesquieu
Montesquieu
was also highly regarded in the British colonies in North America as a champion of liberty (though not of American independence). Political scientist Donald Lutz found that Montesquieu was the most frequently quoted authority on government and politics in colonial pre-revolutionary British America, cited more by the American founders than any source except for the Bible.[9] Following the American revolution, Montesquieu's work remained a powerful influence on many of the American founders, most notably James Madison
James Madison
of Virginia, the "Father of the Constitution". Montesquieu's philosophy that "government should be set up so that no man need be afraid of another"[10] reminded Madison and others that a free and stable foundation for their new national government required a clearly defined and balanced separation of powers.

Lettres familières à divers amis d'Italie, 1767

Besides composing additional works on society and politics, Montesquieu
Montesquieu
traveled for a number of years through Europe including Austria and Hungary, spending a year in Italy and 18 months in England where he became a freemason, admitted to the Horn Tavern Lodge in Westminster,[11] before resettling in France. He was troubled by poor eyesight, and was completely blind by the time he died from a high fever in 1755. He was buried in the Église Saint-Sulpice, Paris. Philosophy of history Montesquieu's philosophy of history minimized the role of individual persons and events. He expounded the view in Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence that each historical event was driven by a principal movement:

It is not chance that rules the world. Ask the Romans, who had a continuous sequence of successes when they were guided by a certain plan, and an uninterrupted sequence of reverses when they followed another. There are general causes, moral and physical, which act in every monarchy, elevating it, maintaining it, or hurling it to the ground. All accidents are controlled by these causes. And if the chance of one battle—that is, a particular cause—has brought a state to ruin, some general cause made it necessary for that state to perish from a single battle. In a word, the main trend draws with it all particular accidents.[12]

In discussing the transition from the Republic
Republic
to the Empire, he suggested that if Caesar and Pompey had not worked to usurp the government of the Republic, other men would have risen in their place. The cause was not the ambition of Caesar or Pompey, but the ambition of man. Political views

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Montesquieu
Montesquieu
is credited as being among the progenitors, which include Herodotus
Herodotus
and Tacitus, of anthropology, as being among the first to extend comparative methods of classification to the political forms in human societies. Indeed, the French political anthropologist Georges Balandier considered Montesquieu
Montesquieu
to be "the initiator of a scientific enterprise that for a time performed the role of cultural and social anthropology".[13] According to social anthropologist D. F. Pocock, Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws
The Spirit of the Laws
was "the first consistent attempt to survey the varieties of human society, to classify and compare them and, within society, to study the inter-functioning of institutions."[14] Montesquieu's political anthropology gave rise to his theories on government. When Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
wrote her Nakaz (Instruction) for the Legislative
Legislative
Assembly she had created to clarify the existing Russian law code, she avowed borrowing heavily from Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws, although she discarded or altered portions that did not support Russia's absolutist bureaucratic monarchy.[15] Montesquieu's most influential work divided French society into three classes (or trias politica, a term he coined): the monarchy, the aristocracy, and the commons. Montesquieu
Montesquieu
saw two types of governmental power existing: the sovereign and the administrative. The administrative powers were the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. These should be separate from and dependent upon each other so that the influence of any one power would not be able to exceed that of the other two, either singly or in combination. This was a radical idea because it completely eliminated the three Estates structure of the French Monarchy: the clergy, the aristocracy, and the people at large represented by the Estates-General, thereby erasing the last vestige of a feudalistic structure. His famous articulation of the theory of the separation of powers is found in The Spirit of the Laws:

«IN every government there are three sorts of power: the legislative; the executive in respect to things dependent on the law of nations; and the executive in regard to matters that depend on the civil law.» «By virtue of the first, the prince or magistrate enacts temporary or perpetual laws, and amends or abrogates those that have been already enacted. By the second, he makes peace or war, sends or receives embassies, establishes the public security, and provides against invasions. By the third, he punishes criminals, or determines the disputes that arise between individuals. The latter we shall call the judiciary power, and the other, simply, the executive power of the state.» — The Spirit of the Laws, Book XI[16][17]

Montesquieu
Montesquieu
argues that each Power should only exercise its own functions, it was quite explicit here:

«When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner.» «Again, there is no liberty if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary controul; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression.» «There would be an end of every thing, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals.» — The Spirit of the Laws, Book XI[16][17]

If the legislative branch appoints the executive and judicial powers, as Montesquieu
Montesquieu
indicated, there will be no separation or division of its powers, since the power to appoint carries with it the power to revoke.

«The executive power ought to be in the hands of a monarch, because this branch of government, having need of dispatch, is better administered by one than by many: on the other hand, whatever depends on the legislative power, is oftentimes better regulated by many than by a single person.» «But, if there were no monarch, and the executive power should be committed to a certain number of persons, selected from the legislative body, there would be an end of liberty, by reason the two powers would be united; as the same persons would sometimes possess, and would be always able to possess, a share in both.» — The Spirit of the Laws, Book XI[16][17]

Likewise, there were three main forms of government, each supported by a social "principle": monarchies (free governments headed by a hereditary figure, e.g. king, queen, emperor), which rely on the principle of honor; republics (free governments headed by popularly elected leaders), which rely on the principle of virtue; and despotisms (enslaved governments headed by dictators), which rely on fear. The free governments are dependent on fragile constitutional arrangements. Montesquieu
Montesquieu
devotes four chapters of The Spirit of the Laws to a discussion of England, a contemporary free government, where liberty was sustained by a balance of powers. Montesquieu
Montesquieu
worried that in France
France
the intermediate powers (i.e., the nobility) which moderated the power of the prince were being eroded. These ideas of the control of power were often used in the thinking of Maximilien de Robespierre. Montesquieu
Montesquieu
was ahead of his time in advocating major reform of slavery in The Spirit of the Laws. As part of his advocacy he presented a satirical hypothetical list of arguments for slavery, which has been open to contextomy. However, like many of his generation, Montesquieu
Montesquieu
also held a number of views that might today be judged controversial. He firmly accepted the role of a hereditary aristocracy and the value of primogeniture, and while he endorsed the idea that a woman could head a state, he held that she could not be effective as the head of a family. While addressing French readers of his General Theory, John Maynard Keynes described Montesquieu
Montesquieu
as "the real French equivalent of Adam Smith, the greatest of your economists, head and shoulders above the physiocrats in penetration, clear-headedness and good sense (which are the qualities an economist should have)."[18] Meteorological
Meteorological
climate theory Another example of Montesquieu's anthropological thinking, outlined in The Spirit of the Laws
The Spirit of the Laws
and hinted at in Persian Letters, is his meteorological climate theory, which holds that climate may substantially influence the nature of man and his society. By placing an emphasis on environmental influences as a material condition of life, Montesquieu
Montesquieu
prefigured modern anthropology's concern with the impact of material conditions, such as available energy sources, organized production systems, and technologies, on the growth of complex socio-cultural systems. He goes so far as to assert that certain climates are superior to others, the temperate climate of France
France
being ideal. His view is that people living in very warm countries are "too hot-tempered", while those in northern countries are "icy" or "stiff". The climate of middle Europe is therefore optimal. On this point, Montesquieu
Montesquieu
may well have been influenced by a similar pronouncement in The Histories of Herodotus, where he makes a distinction between the "ideal" temperate climate of Greece as opposed to the overly cold climate of Scythia and the overly warm climate of Egypt. This was a common belief at the time, and can also be found within the medical writings of Herodotus' times, including the "On Airs, Waters, Places" of the Hippocratic corpus. One can find a similar statement in Germania by Tacitus, one of Montesquieu's favorite authors. Philip M. Parker in his book Physioeconomics endorses Montesquieu's theory and argues that much of the economic variation between countries is explained by the physiological effect of different climates. From a sociological perspective Louis Althusser, in his analysis of Montesquieu's revolution in method,[19] alluded to the seminal character of anthropology's inclusion of material factors, such as climate, in the explanation of social dynamics and political forms. Examples of certain climatic and geographical factors giving rise to increasingly complex social systems include those that were conducive to the rise of agriculture and the domestication of wild plants and animals. List of principal works

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Memoirs and discourses at the Academy of Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(1718–1721): including discourses on echoes, on the renal glands, on weight of bodies, on transparency of bodies and on natural history. Spicilège (Gleanings, 1715 onward) Système des idées (System of Ideas, 1716) Lettres persanes (Persian Letters, 1721) Le Temple de Gnide (The Temple of Gnidos, a prose poem; 1725) Histoire véritable (True History, a reverie; c. 1723–c. 1738) Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline, 1734) at Gallica Arsace et Isménie (Arsace and Isménie, a novel; 1742) De l'esprit des lois ((On) The Spirit of the Laws, 1748) (volume 1 and volume 2 from Gallica) La défense de «L'Esprit des lois» (In Defence of "The Spirit of the Laws", 1750) Essai sur le goût (Essay on Taste, pub. 1757) Mes Pensées (My Thoughts, 1720–1755)

A definitive edition of Montesquieu's works is being published by the Société Montesquieu. It is planned to total 22 volumes, of which (at February 2018) half have appeared.[20] See also

Philosophy portal

Environmental determinism Liberalism List of abolitionist forerunners List of liberal theorists Napoleon Politics of France Jean-Baptiste de Secondat (1716–1796), his son U.S. Constitution, influences

References Notes

^ "Montesquieu". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Boesche 1990, p. 1. ^ "Google Maps".  ^ Sorel, A. Montesquieu. London, George Routledge & Sons, 1887 (Ulan Press reprint, 2011), p. 10. ASIN B00A5TMPHC ^ Sorel (1887), p. 11. ^ Sore (1887), p. 12. ^ Sorel (1887), pp. 11–12. ^ Sorel (1887), pp. 12–13. ^ Lutz 1984. ^ Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, Book 11, Chapter 6, "Of the Constitution
Constitution
of England." Archived 28 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia
Virginia
Library, Retrieved 1 August 2012 ^ Berman 2012, p. 150. ^ Montesquieu
Montesquieu
(1734), Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline, The Free Press, retrieved 30 November 2011  Ch. XVIII. ^ Balandier 1970, p. 3. ^ Pocock 1961, p. 9. Tomaselli 2006, p. 9, similarly describes it as "among the most intellectually challenging and inspired contributions to political theory in the eighteenth century. [... It] set the tone and form of modern social and political thought." ^ Ransel 1975, p. 179. ^ a b c "Montesquieu, Complete Works, vol. 1 (The Spirit of Laws)". oll.libertyfund.org. Retrieved 2018-03-11.  ^ a b c "Esprit des lois (1777)/L11/C6 - Wikisource". fr.wikisource.org (in French). Retrieved 2018-03-11.  ^ See the preface Archived 10 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. to the French edition of Keynes' General Theory. See also Devletoglou 1963. ^ Althusser 1972. ^ "Œuvres complètes". Institut d'histoire des représentations et des idées dans les modernités. Retrieved 28 February 2018. 

Bibliography Articles and chapters

Boesche, Roger (1990). "Fearing Monarchs and Merchants: Montesquieu's Two Theories of Despotism". The Western Political Quarterly. 43 (4): 741–61. doi:10.1177/106591299004300405. JSTOR 448734.  Devletoglou, Nicos E. (1963). " Montesquieu
Montesquieu
and the Wealth of Nations". The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science. 29 (1): 1–25. JSTOR 139366.  Lutz, Donald S. (1984). "The Relative Influence of European Writers on Late Eighteenth-Century American Political Thought". American Political Science
Science
Review. 78 (1): 189–97. doi:10.2307/1961257. JSTOR 1961257.  Person, James Jr., ed., "Montesquieu" (excerpts from chap. 8). in Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800 (Gale Publishing: 1988), vol. 7, pp. 350–52. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Tomaselli, Sylvana. "The spirit of nations". In Mark Goldie and Robert Wokler, eds., The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). pp. 9–39. 

Books

Althusser, Louis, Politics and History: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Marx (London and New York, NY: New Left Books, 1972).  Auden, W. H.; Kronenberger, Louis, The Viking Book of Aphorisms (New York, NY: Viking Press, 1966).  Balandier, Georges, Political Anthropology
Anthropology
(London: Allen Lane, 1970).  Berman, Ric (2012), The Foundations of Modern Freemasonry: The Grand Architects – Political Change and the Scientific Enlightenment, 1714–1740 (Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2012).  Pangle, Thomas, Montesquieu's Philosophy of Liberalism
Liberalism
(Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1973).  Pocock, D. F., Social Anthropology
Anthropology
(London and New York, NY: Sheed and Ward, 1961).  Ransel, David L., The Politics of Catherinian Russia: The Panin Party (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1975).  Schaub, Diana J., Erotic Liberalism: Women and Revolution
Revolution
in Montesquieu's 'Persian Letters' (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1995).  Shackleton, Robert, Montesquieu; a Critical Biography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961).  Shklar, Judith, Montesquieu
Montesquieu
(Oxford Past Masters series). (Oxford and New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1989).  Spurlin, Paul M., Montesquieu
Montesquieu
in America, 1760–1801 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1941; reprint, New York: Octagon Books, 1961). 

External links

Wikimedia Commons
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has original works written by or about: Montesquieu

Works by Montesquieu
Montesquieu
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Montesquieu
Montesquieu
at Internet Archive Works by Montesquieu
Montesquieu
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Free full-text works online The Spirit of Laws (Volume 1) 1748 English audio Complete ebooks collection of Montesquieu
Montesquieu
in French. Lettres persanes at athena.unige.ch (in French) Montesquieu, "Notes on England" Montesquieu
Montesquieu
in The Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. Montesquieu
Montesquieu
in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Timeline of Montesquieu's Life "Montesquieu", Institut d'histoire des représentations et des idées dans les modernités (in French) Château Saint Ahon – Historic estate once owned by Charles de Montesquieu[dead link]

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Académie française
Académie française
seat 2

Valentin Conrart (1634) Toussaint Rose
Toussaint Rose
(1675) Louis de Sacy (1701) Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu
Montesquieu
(1728) Jean-Baptiste Vivien de Châteaubrun (1755) François-Jean de Chastellux
François-Jean de Chastellux
(1775) Aimar-Charles-Marie de Nicolaï (1788) François de Neufchâteau
François de Neufchâteau
(1803) Pierre-Antoine Lebrun
Pierre-Antoine Lebrun
(1828) Alexandre Dumas, fils
Alexandre Dumas, fils
(1874) André Theuriet
André Theuriet
(1896) Jean Richepin
Jean Richepin
(1908) Émile Mâle (1927) François Albert-Buisson (1955) Marc Boegner (1962) René de Castries (1972) André Frossard (1987) Hector Bianciotti (1996) Dany Laferrière
Dany Laferrière
(2013)

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Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo

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Charles III Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro

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1790

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1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
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(25 Jul 1792) Paris
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September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
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1793

Execution of Louis XVI
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is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

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Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
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(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre
Robespierre
guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution
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of the Year III (22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
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(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
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Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

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Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution
Constitution
of the Year VIII (24 Dec 1799) Consulate

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1792

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1793

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Battle of Peyrestortes
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Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
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(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
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(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace
Peace
of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War
War
(12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society
Society
of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

v t e

Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

Related articles

Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of love Philosophy of sex Philosophy of social science Political ethics Social epistemology

Category Portal Task Force

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  Liberalism

Development

Contributions to liberal theory History of liberalism

Ideas

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Liberal democracy

Economic liberalism Egalitarianism Free market Free trade Freedom of the press Freedom of religion Freedom of speech Gender equality Harm principle Internationalism Laissez-faire Liberty Market economy Natural and legal rights Negative/Positive liberty Open society Permissive society Private property Rule of law Secularism Separation of church and state Social contract Welfare state

Schools

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Equity feminism

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Key figures

Juan Bautista Alberdi Jean le Rond d'Alembert Rifa'a al-Tahtawi Chu Anping Matthew Arnold Raymond Aron Frédéric Bastiat Simone de Beauvoir Jeremy Bentham Isaiah Berlin Eduard Bernstein William Beveridge Norberto Bobbio Ludwig Joseph Brentano John Bright Edmund Burke Thomas Carlyle Anders Chydenius Richard Cobden Marquis de Condorcet Benjamin Constant Benedetto Croce Ralf Dahrendorf John Dewey Charles Dickens Denis Diderot Zhang Dongsun Ronald Dworkin Ralph Waldo Emerson Karl-Hermann Flach Milton Friedman John Kenneth Galbraith William Lloyd Garrison José Ortega y Gasset David Lloyd George William Gladstone Piero Gobetti Francisco Luís Gomes John Gray Thomas Hill Green Friedrich Hayek Auberon Herbert Thomas Hobbes Leonard Hobhouse John A. Hobson Qin Hui Wilhelm von Humboldt Thomas Jefferson Immanuel Kant Namık Kemal John Maynard Keynes Will Kymlicka John Locke Salvador de Madariaga James Madison Harriet Martineau Minoo Masani James Mill John Stuart Mill John Milton Ludwig von Mises Donald Barkly Molteno Leo Chiozza Money Charles de Montesquieu José María Luis Mora Chantal Mouffe Dadabhai Naoroji Friedrich Naumann Robert Nozick Bertil Ohlin Thomas Paine Alan Paton Karl Popper Richard Price Joseph Priestley Guillermo Prieto François Quesnay Ignacio Ramírez Ayn Rand Walther Rathenau John Rawls Joseph Raz David Ricardo Wilhelm Röpke Richard Rorty Carlo Rosselli Murray Rothbard Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Baptiste Say Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed Amartya Sen Li Shenzhi Hu Shih Algernon Sidney Emmanuel Sieyès İbrahim Şinasi Adam Smith Hernando de Soto Herbert Spencer Anne Louise Germaine de Staël William Graham Sumner R. H. Tawney Johan Rudolph Thorbecke Henry David Thoreau Alexis de Tocqueville Antoine Destutt de Tracy Anne Robert Jacques Turgot Voltaire Lester Frank Ward Max Weber Mary Wollstonecraft Tao Xingzhi Gu Zhun

Regional variants

Africa

Egypt Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tunisia Zimbabwe

Asia

China Hong Kong India Iran Israel Japan South Korea Philippines Taiwan Thailand Turkey

Europe

Albania Armenia Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech lands Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Latin America and the Caribbean

Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Cuba Ecuador Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay

North America

Canada United States

Modern liberalism

Oceania

Australia New Zealand

Organisations

Liberal parties Africa Liberal Network (ALN) Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
(ALDE) Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party (ALDEP) Arab Liberal Federation Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats (CALD) European Democratic Party (EDP) European Liberal Youth
European Liberal Youth
(LYMEC) International Federation of Liberal Youth
International Federation of Liberal Youth
(IFLRY) Liberal International Liberal Network for Latin America
Liberal Network for Latin America
(Relial) Liberal South East European Network (LIBSEEN)

Related topics

Liberal bias in academia Liberal conservatism Liberal socialism National liberalism Regressive left

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 27069096 LCCN: n79063793 ISNI: 0000 0001 2095 7940 GND: 118583670 SELIBR: 194426 SUDOC: 027383881 BNF: cb119166485 (data) BIBSYS: 90270032 ULAN: 500322774 NLA: 35359547 NDL: 00450372 NKC: jn19990005797 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV04504 BNE: XX991

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