Mons (French pronunciation: [mɔ̃s]; Dutch: Bergen; Picard:
Mont; Walloon: Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the
capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut. The
includes the former communes of Cuesmes, Flénu, Ghlin, Hyon, Nimy,
Obourg, Jemappes, Ciply, Harmignies, Harveng, Havré, Maisières,
Mesvin, Nouvelles, Saint-Denis, Saint-Symphorien,
Villers-Saint-Ghislain. Together with the Czech city of Plzeň, Mons
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture in 2015.
1.1 Early settlements in the Middle Ages
1.2 From 1500 to 1800
1.3 From 1800 to the present
1.3.1 Riots of Mons
1.3.2 Battle of Mons
1.3.3 Second World War
1.3.4 After 1945
2 Main sights
7 Planning and architectural heritage
7.1 Main square
7.2 City Hall
7.2.2 Current City Hall
7.2.3 Mayor's Garden
7.2.4 Guardhouse Monkey
Waltrude Collegiate Church
7.5 Press house (Spanish house)
7.6 Water machine
7.7 Waux Hall
7.8 Perfect Union
7.9 Art Square
7.10 Red Well
7.12 Valenciennois tower
7.13 Concourse of the Courts
8 Patron saint
9 People born in Mons
10 Twin cities
11 See also
13 External links
Early settlements in the Middle Ages
Saint Waltrude Collegiate Church
Saint Waltrude Collegiate Church and the belfry.
The first signs of activity in the region of
Mons are found at
Spiennes, where some of the best flint tools in
Europe were found
dating from the
Neolithic period. When
Julius Caesar arrived in the
region in the 1st century BC, the region was settled by the Nervii, a
Belgian tribe. A castrum was built in Roman (Belgica) times, giving
the settlement its
Latin name Castrilocus; the name was later changed
into Montes for the mountain on which the castrum was built. In the
Saint Ghislain and two of his disciples built an oratory
or chapel dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul near the
Mons hill, at a
place called Ursidongus, now known as Saint-Ghislain. Soon after,
Waltrude (in French Sainte Waudru), daughter of one of Clotaire
II’s intendants, came to the oratory and was proclaimed a saint upon
her death in 688. She was canonized in 1039.
Like Ath, its neighbour to the north-west,
Mons was made a fortified
city by Count Baldwin IV of Hainaut in the 12th century. The
population grew quickly, trade flourished, and several commercial
buildings were erected near the Grand’Place. The 12th century also
saw the appearance of the first town halls. The city had 4,700
inhabitants by the end of the 13th century.
Valenciennes as the capital of the county of Hainaut in 1295 and grew
to 8,900 inhabitants by the end of the 15th century. In the 1450s,
Matheus de Layens
Matheus de Layens took over the construction of the Saint Waltrude
church from Jan Spijkens and restored the town hall.
From 1500 to 1800
The central square and town hall of
Mons with the belfry in the
In 1515, Charles V took an oath in
Mons as Count of Hainaut. In this
period of its history, the city became the target of various
occupations, starting in May 1572 with the Protestant takeover by
Louis of Nassau, who had hoped to clear the way for the French
Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny to oppose Spanish rule. After the
murder of de Coligny during the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, the
Duke of Alba took control of
Mons in September 1572 in the name of the
Catholic King of Spain. This spelled the ruin of the city and the
arrest of many of its inhabitants; from 1580 to 1584,
Mons became the
capital of the Southern Netherlands.
On 8 April 1691, after a nine-month siege, Louis XIV’s army stormed
the city, which again suffered heavy casualties. From 1697 to 1701,
Mons was alternately French or Austrian. After being under French
control from 1701 to 1709, the Dutch army gained the upper hand in the
Battle of Malplaquet. In 1715,
Mons returned to
Austria under the
terms of the
Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht (1713). But the French did not give up
Louis XV besieged the city again in 1746. After the Battle of
Jemappes (1792), the Hainaut area was annexed to
France and Mons
became the capital of the
From 1800 to the present
Mons fusillade on 17 April 1893
Following the fall of the
First French Empire
First French Empire in 1814, King William I
Netherlands fortified the city heavily. In 1830, however,
Belgium gained its independence and the decision was made to dismantle
fortified cities such as Mons, Charleroi, and Namur. The actual
removal of fortifications only happened in the 1860s, allowing the
creation of large boulevards and other urban projects. The Industrial
Revolution and coal mining made
Mons a center of heavy industry, which
strongly influenced the culture and image of the
Borinage region as a
whole. It was to become an integral part of the sillon industriel, the
industrial backbone of Wallonia.
Riots of Mons
On 17 April 1893, between
Mons and Jemappes, seven strikers were
killed by the civic guard at the end of the Belgian general strike of
The proposed law on universal suffrage was approved the day after by
the Belgian Parliament.
This general strike was one of the first general strikes in an
Battle of Mons
Main article: Battle of Mons
Mons in 1918 (source: Archives of Ontario)
On 23–24 August 1914,
Mons was the location of the Battle of
Mons—the first battle fought by the
British Army in World War I. The
British were forced to retreat with just over 1,600 casualties, and
the town remained occupied by the Germans until its liberation by the
Canadian Corps during the final days of the war.
Within the front entrance to the City hall, there are several memorial
placards related to the WW1 battles and in particular, one has the
MONS WAS RECAPTURED BY THE CANADIAN CORPS ON THE 11th NOVEMBER 1918:
AFTER FIFTY MONTHS OF GERMAN OCCUPATION, FREEDOM WAS RESTORED TO THE
HERE WAS FIRED THE LAST SHOT OF THE GREAT WAR.
Second World War
During the Second World War, as an important industrial centre, the
city was heavily bombed and several skirmishes took place in September
1944 between the American troops and the retreating German forces.
After the war, most industries went into decline.
NATO's Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers
Europe (SHAPE) was relocated
in Casteau, a village near Mons, from Roquencourt on the outskirts of
Paris after France's withdrawal from the military structure of the
alliance in 1967. The relocation of SHAPE to this particular region of
Belgium was largely a political decision, based in large part on the
depressed economic conditions of the area at the time with the view to
bolstering the economy of the region. A riot in the prison of Mons
took place in April 2006 after prisoner complaints concerning living
conditions and treatment; no deaths were reported as a result of the
riot, but the event focused attention on prisons throughout Belgium.
Today, the city is an important university town and commercial centre.
The Spanish House and belfry.
The Car d'Or.
Inside of the Sainte-Waudru church
The Grand Place is the centre of the historic town and the stage for
the annual mock-battle of the Lumeçon.
The City Hall, originally built near the current location of the
belfry, was moved on the Grand Place in the 13th century. The
flamboyant gothic building we see today dates from the 15th century.
In front of it stands a statue of a monkey, which is said to bring
good fortune to those who pat his head.
Saint Waltrude Collegiate Church
Saint Waltrude Collegiate Church is paradoxically a good specimen
Gothic architecture of Brabant.
The neighbouring belfry, classified as a World Heritage Site, dates
from the 17th century and is the only Baroque-style belfry in Belgium.
The so-called Spanish House dates from the 16th century.
Museum François Duesberg
The Doudou is the name of a week-long series of festivities or
Ducasse, which originates from the 14th century and takes place every
year on Trinity Sunday. Highlights include:
The entrusting of the reliquary of Saint
Waltrude to the mayor of the
city on the eve of the procession.
The placement of the reliquary on the Car d’Or (Golden Chariot),
before it is carried in the city streets in a colourful procession
that counts more than a thousand costumed participants.
The lifting of the Car d’Or on a paved area near the church of Saint
Waltrude; tradition holds that this operation must be successful for
the city to prosper.
The Lumeçon fight, where
Saint George confronts the dragon. The fight
lasts for about half an hour, accompanied by the rhythmic "Doudou"
music. The tradition of the processional dragon is listed among the
Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Tanks in town commemorates the liberation of
Belgium during WWII by
the 3rd Armored Division (United States), and is one of the largest
gathering of World War II tanks, in the world.
There are several public educational facilities in Mons:
Conservatoire royal de Mons (fr), CRM
Catholic University of Mons, UCL MONS
University of Mons, UMONS
Institut Reine Astrid Mons
Mons is located along the N56 road. It is also accessed via European
route E42, which is a continuation of French Autoroute A2, linking the
British WW1 battlefields of
Mons with the Somme Battlefields,
Mons railway station
Mons railway station opened on 19 December 1841.
A small, general aviation airfield
Saint-Ghislain Airport is located
nearby for private aircraft.
The town hosts a football club named R.A.E.C. Mons, a professional
basketball team called Belfius Mons-Hainaut, and a tennis tournament
called the Ethias Trophy. There is also a horse racing venue at
Hippodrome de Wallonie in Mons.
Planning and architectural heritage
The centre consists largely of red brick houses. Although there are
few old buildings and rarely new blue stone buildings, its use is
generally limited to parts of the decorative walls. Much of the centre
is made up of houses which are two or three storeys high. In
commercial areas, the ground floor is used as commercial space, while
other floors are used for housing. Generally behind the houses there
is a small garden.
The outskirts of the city are also generally made of brick terraced
houses. They nevertheless have the largest green spaces in the front
or rear. In more remote areas of the centre, there are four façades
of the villas.
After the Second World War the city experienced rather limited
construction of buildings. Some public housing have been built in
Jemappes and in the suburbs of the city. Since the late
1990s and especially since the arson which took place in one of
these buildings, the city undertook a policy of deconstruction of
these houses which is still in progress at the moment. A whole series
of social buildings are evenly dispersed in the downtown and
16,5% of the city's population lives in apartments (17% in Belgium)
and 82.7% in single-family homes (82.3% in Belgium). Of the 82.7% who
live in single family homes, only 26% (37.3% in Belgium) are separate
houses, while 55.7% (44.4 in Belgium) are detached or terraced houses.
That's pretty much a small town in Belgium. Large municipalities have
in fact fewer single family homes, but many more apartments whereas
the smallest towns have few apartments and a lot of single family
homes. It is interesting to note that the figures show very clearly
the strong presence of terraced houses rather than separate houses: it
exemplifies the urbanization of downtown, but also urban cores such as
Jemappes et Cuesmes.
The main square is the centre of the old city. It is situated near the
shopping street (pedestrian) and the belfry. It is paved in the manner
of old cities and is home to many cafes and restaurants, as well as
the town hall.
The outskirts of the place is accessible by car, but it is forbidden
to park or drive through the centre.
Each year it is used as an action theatre called Lumeçon to stage a
Saint George and Dragon.
The main square is also equipped with a fountain, which opened on 21
March 2006. It also hosts a Christmas market and sometimes an ice rink
during the holiday period.
The façade of the building called "au Blan Levrie" shows the care
with which the city attempted to unite the old and the modern. It is
the first authorised building in the main square which was made of
stone to avoid fire incidents. It was originally built in 1530 in the
Gothic style, for the Malaperts, a wealthy local family. In 1975, the
architects A. Godart and O. Dupire were assigned to design a bank.
They proceeded to gut the interior and conduct a precise survey of the
whole before beginning the restoration project. The façade was
completely restored, sometimes (as below) by extending the design of
mouldings, but the fenestration proved impossible to restore as there
were not enough clues from the remains of the original to do so.
Therefore, "The choice was directed towards a contemporary discrete
[style], appearing in second test [?]: they are steel frame whose
profiles are thinner. » Impression yet reinforced by the way of
which was treated at the entrance gate.[?]
The main square.
The house called Blan Levrie.
The former St. George's Chapel.
The house called de la Toison d’Or.
The old hotel in the circle.
View of the beginning of the street
Nimy and the Church of St.
The gardens of the old castle and the romanesque St.Calixte chapel.
Rue de la Tour Auberon - faience street sign
L'hôtel de ville.
Originally its communal organization,
Mons was a City Hall called
"House of Peace." Earlier the deputy mayors were on the castle of the
Counts of Hainaut, and now it is only the conciergerier, Saint-Calixte
chapel and some underground rooms and the chamber. This place is now
Castle Park, where we can also see the belfry. Already in the 13th
century, the counts mentioned the House of Peace, located in Nimy
Street. Other documents of the same time let one suppose that there
existed two Houses of Peace, the one in
Nimy Street and the other in
the market area.
It was in 1323 that Count William I gave permission to build the House
of Peace on the location of the current City Hall. This is called a
"Town House" built of stones and bricks at the base, while the
superstructure is of wood. This building underwent various changes
during the 15th century until 1477, when the nearby shop in the
Current City Hall
The destroyed buildings were rebuilt and benefitted from new changes
and additions over the centuries.
The architect of the City Hall, Matthew Layens of Leuven, was called
to draw up plans. It was to be a building in Gothic style, but it
seems that the plan (which was not found) was not completed, including
the abandonment of the second floor, which was still intended for
construction. The Renaissance campanile was added in the 18th century.
It contains a bell dating from 1390, the Bancloque, and carries a
clock dial overlooking the Grand Place and a light clock. The 19th
century saw various modifications of the façade, the removal of stone
mullions to the floor and various stone ornaments.
In its current state, the Town Hall consists of a remarkable
collection of various buildings housing a large proportion of
municipal services. These buildings have undergone many changes over
the centuries, restorations and additions of elements from other
buildings, such as a Gothic style fireplace from castle Trazegnies,
carved doors of the 16th century saved from demolition, a fireplace
from the castle of Gouy-lez-Pedestrian, and another fireplace in 1603
from the Château d'Havre.
On 23 April 2006 was inaugurated a bronze statuary group by Garouste
Gerard, creator of a fresco for the wedding hall. The work, evoking
the combat of St. George and the dragon, is in front of City Hall at
the bottom of the stair-ramps providing access to one of the entrances
to City Hall.
Le jardin du maïeur.
These buildings surround a small, irregularly shaped square, the
Mayor's Garden, from which the rue d'
Enghien descends. The Ropieur
Fountain, by sculptor Léon Gobert (1869–1935), can be found in the
middle of the square. The ropieur symbolizes a young insolent resident
of Mons, drenching passersby with water from the fountain.
Le singe du grand'garde
Outside the main entrance of City Hall is a small iron statue of a
monkey. Its origin is not really known, but it dates back several
centuries. Some historians claim it was placed there in order to bring
luck to the city and its inhabitants. Today, the tradition is that
whoever passes the monkey has to touch its head with his left hand for
the fulfillment of a wish. You can clearly see in the picture that the
monkey's head is no longer the same colour as the rest of his body as
a result of the many hands that have stroked it for luck. There are
three hypotheses concerning the monkey's origins:
it may be a "masterpiece" produced by a blacksmith as a test which, if
passed, would grant him the title of "master blacksmith" and allow him
to set up his own smithy;
it might also have served as a pillory, a public place where
offenders, in this case naughty children, where humiliated; or
it may have been part of a sign hanging outside a tavern, "The tavern
in the town square" beneath the Town Hall.
Waltrude Collegiate Church
Although located in the heart of the old County of Hainaut, the Saint
Waltrude Collegiate Church is one of the most characteristic churches
and most homogeneous of Brabantine Gothic architecture.
The collegiate was built in the 15th century on the orders of canons.
Along with the nearby belfry it is considered as a major symbol of the
city of Mons. It contains many works of Jacques du Broeucq.
It is made of local materials like sandstone, blue stone and brick. It
is designed in a classic form, which is expressed by a
sign. It measures 115 metres long, 32 metres wide and rises to 24.5
metres at the keystone. The chancel is surrounded by an ambulatory and
Saint-Waudru Collegiate Church
Statue of Saint-Bartholemy in the choir of the Sainte-Waudru
Collegiate Church (sculpture by Jacques Du Brœucq)
Bas-relief on the western wall in the Sainte-Waudru Collegiate Church
The Car d'Or (Golden Carriage) shown in the collegiate church
Also called El Catiau by Montois, it was built in the 17th century.
The belfry is the only baroque style building in
Belgium that reaches
a height of 87 meters. In its top section it contains a 49 bell
carillon. It was classified as a
UNESCO World Heritage site
UNESCO World Heritage site on 1
Victor Hugo described the belfry in a letter to his wife as "a
coffeepot flanked by four smaller teapots."
Press house (Spanish house)
The Press House dates back to the 16th century and is a rare example
of a house in traditional Spanish style in Mons. It is made in a
simple architectural way using brick. This material was economical and
used after the fire in 1548, because when it was rebuilt, the cost of
stone had increased. In 1548 the deputy mayor had prohibited the use
of flammable materials.
The buildings were restored in 1919–1920, on the plans of the
communal architect E. Bertiaux and are occupied by the Maison de la
The site of the former water machine.
This industrial hall is all that remains of the “machine” that
Mons with drinkable water from 1871, the year when the river
Trouille was diverted. Designed by the architect Hubert and the
engineer Celi Moullan, this impressive machinery of pipes and mains
was built in metal and glass and forced the water from the valley
level up to the town water tanks in the castle place yard. To source
Mons purchased two springs known as the "Mouse Hole" and
"La Vallière," and the water was transported via hydraulic motor.
The "water machine” still bears witness to the sanitary and hygiene
concerns which arose in
Mons in 1865-1870 and marks the transition
from medieval water supply wells, springs and hand pumps, to operation
of pumps suction and force.
This progress at domestic level transformed the townspeople's way of
life and changed the boundaries of
Mons and Spiennes. They used to get
water from wells or fountains, sometimes over a hundred yards from
their homes. Soon followed another urban project: the introduction in
1828 of city gas to illuminate new avenues and streets. These two
changes are made possible by the demolition of the fortifications,
which releases the land, and the diversion of Trouille including the
strategic role of supply ditches was then passed.
The “water machine" was restored in the early 1990s, and the
building now hosts various cultural events. The machinery was
The main pavillon of the Waux-Hall.
Waux Hall park was built in the 19th century (1862–1864) at the
initiative of the Society of Waux Hall created for this purpose by
members of the bourgeoisie. It is therefore the source of a private
park. It is located at the site of Fort said that the Dutch formed an
outwork the last fortification (1815–1864). Remnants of the fort
still exist under the current pavillon. The gardens were designed by
Louis Fuchs and the central pavilion was built by architect Joseph
Hubert in tavern style.
Le noisetier de Byzance remarquable du parc.
The Turkish hezel is one of the remarkable trees in the park. A 5
hectare landscaped park was built in the mid 19th century and consists
of age-old trees, water features, lakes and lawns. Various memorials
and outdoor sculptures, including works of sculptors Grard, Deville,
Hupet, and Guilmot Harvent, are placed. The park also contains various
species of age-old trees.
The Technical and Vocational School of Horticulture was established in
1863, it was installed under the authority of the corporation of Waux
Hall. It became communal in 1892 at the time of acquisition of Waux
Hall by the city of Mons, and then came under the authority of the
province of Hainaut in 2006. In 2009 this event was moved to the Grand
La Parfaite Union
The Lodge masonic the Perfect Union is the oldest in Belgium and
perhaps even the continent. It was founded in 1721. At that time, Mons
became a masonic centre followed by the creation of several new lodges
(Vraie et parfaite harmonie (1767), À l'Orient de
Mons (1783) et la
Ligue équitable (1786)).
After the French Revolution, the meetings were held in different
locations, and an event was organised by the Perfect Union for the
construction of a permanent building. The plans of the architect
Hector Puchot were retained in 1890. The Neo-Egyptian style then
became a reference for Masonic architecture, and we can consider the
Mons as a model of its kind with its numerous
motifs—"Egyptian" papyrus capitals, frieze lotus bud, etc..
Le Carré des Arts
William Barracks, renamed barracks Major Sabbe after the First World
War and named for the 1990 Arts Square, dates from 1824–1827, at the
time of the
United Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is the work of the
architect Rémi de Puydt (1789–1844). The façade and roof of the
building were listed in 1983 on the advice of the Royal Commission of
Monuments, Sites and Excavations.
Maintaining its military purpose until the late 1940s, the building
was then used by the Royal Grammar School John Avesnes from the 1960s
to the early 1990s. Since the completion of the conversion carried out
between 1993 and 1995, Carré des Arts hosts the Graduate School of
Arts and visual (ESAPV) and regional television TV
Le Rouge-Puits, at the corner of the rue de la Coupe and the rue de la
Three wells, fountains that decorated the streets of
survived until today. This is the case of the fountain-pillory, Louis
XVI style, built in 1779 by the blue stone Ouvertus architect.
Built in 1831 by Albert Jamot, this well was transferred to the
central Marché-aux-Herbes in 1877 and has served as a fountain after
the development of the water supply in the city during the years
1869–1870. It has regained its original location at the corner of
the Coupe and the Chaussée in 1981. After the Marché aux Herbes,
the fountain (not connected to the water) was placed for a few years
in the park at the far end of rue des 4 Fils Aymond.
Les Casemates, place Nervienne.
The casemates and the bakery are the remains of military
fortifications dating from the kingdom of the Netherlands
(1814–1830). The law dividing the disassembly of the fortifications
dates back to 1861. They are located near the Nervienne site. The
roof of the old bakery has been transformed into a public park and
playground for children, while the casemates accommodate the musée de
This is the last existing trace of the medieval walls surrounding the
city. This defensive structure built of sandstone from Bray was built
around 1358. Its walls equipped with loopholes have a thickness of up
to 4 meters. The tower has lost about a third of its original size. A
project to install a terrace on its top open to the public had just
been completed in 2009. The tower has housed a sound installation in
the festival of contemporary art audio-visual CitySonics when it
Concourse of the Courts
In 1966, the Council of Ministers decided to build new buildings to
house the Courts of Justice: Assize Court, Labour Court, Court of
Appeal, Court of Commerce, ... The choice is the site of the former
"Hall of exposure." The Building Authority designated as architects
for the project the Office Aura (John Bartholomew). The triangular
shape of the land has created interior spaces, decreasing in height
and width, forming a sort of "cathedral space" underlined by a
continuous central luminous line. On this major axis, the "backbone"
of the project, has created spaces for encounter and relaxation. The
latest techniques have been implemented for the economic management of
energy, giving maximum comfort to staff and the public while ensuring
the development of architectural building.
Opened in May 2007, by January 2011 all buildings already had
developed many problems of water seepage and stability. Thus one of
the gateways weighing a hundred kilos came off its hinges and nearly
fell on a lawyer who entered, cracks opened between concrete blocks,
the joints of windows let in wind and water when it rains in the
concourse, etc. The lack of any maintenance contracts might be a
significant cause of these problems, since minor problems might
otherwise have been prevented from getting worse.
The patron saint of
Mons is Waltrude.
People born in Mons
Gilles Binchois, composer (15th century, birth in
Mons is uncertain)
Guido de Bres, theologian (1522 to 31 May 1567)
Jacques du Broeucq, painter and architect (16th century, birth in Mons
François-Joseph Fétis, musicologist, composer, critic, and teacher
Giuseppe Grisoni, painter and sculptor (17th century)
François-Philippe de Haussy, first governor of the National Bank of
Belgium (18th century)
Orlande de Lassus, composer (16th century)
Eugène Lafont, S.J.,
Jesuit missionary to India, educator and leading
figure in the field of science in that nation
Émile Motte, painter (19th century)
Davide Moscardelli, Italian Footballer
Nicolas Neufchatel, painter (16th century)
Charles Plisnier, Walloon writer,
Prix Goncourt and Walloon movement
Jan Provoost, painter (15th-16th century)
Paul Émile de Puydt, botanist, economist, and writer (19th century)
Jean Yeuwain, writer (16th - 17th century)
United Kingdom: Sefton
United States: Little Rock, Arkansas
Angels of Mons
Initialis Science Park
Mundaneum (Paul Otlet)
^ Population per municipality as of 1 January 2017 (XLS; 397 KB)
^ Martin Blumenson: Breakout and Pursuit.
United States Army in World
War II, European Theater of Operations. Center of Military History,
United States Army, Washington D.C. 1961. (Online: archive.org,
ibiblio). Chapter 32: The
^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
^ Incendie dans un HLM à
Mons – p. 4[dead link]
^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). archive.org. 29 September 2007. Retrieved
20 March 2018.
^ Enquête 2001 de l'INS – Population par type de logements.
Archived 24 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Christiane Piérard et André Godart « L'immeuble dit au Blan
Levrie, Grand-Place n° 35 » dans Le patrimoine majeur de
Wallonie, Éditions de la Région wallonne et diffusion Éditions du
Perron, Namur et Liège, 1993, pp. 142-144.
^ "Historique de la collégiale". La collégiale Sainte-Waudru (in
French). ASBL Sainte Waudru, Mons, Belgium. Archived from the original
on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011. With sub links: the
church: édifices antérieurs Archived 27 March 2012 at the Wayback
Machine., projet Archived 27 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.,
chantier Archived 27 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine., réparations
et restauration Archived 27 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.; the
tower: projet Archived 27 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine., chantier
Archived 27 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 15 July 2011
"Sainte-Waudru et le gothique brabançon - introduction". La
collégiale Sainte-Waudru (in French). ASBL Sainte Waudru, Mons,
Belgium. Retrieved 15 July 2011. Continued with: pourquoi
brabançonne ? Archived 27 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.,
relation avec autres églises brabançonnes Retrieved 15 July 2011
^ Lettre du 18 août 1837, consultable sur le site de Mons[dead link]
^ Karl Petit & Gérard Mathieu, op. cit., p. 44 ou Léopold
Genicot, Racines d'espérance, Didier Hatier, Bruxelles, 1986, p. 134.
^ "Le " Carré des Arts " (Ancienne Caserne Major Sabbe ou Caserne
Guillaume), document de la ville de Mons" (PDF)format= requires url=
External link in publisher= (help); Missing or empty url= (help)
^ Renseignements figurant sur le panneau explicatif apposé par la
^ Ministère de la région wallonne, Brochure Patrimoine Militaire:
19e Journées du Patrimoine en Wallonie des 8 et 9 septembre 2007,
Éd. Institut du Patrimoine Wallon, 2007, p. 35.
^ "Citysonics". Citysonics.be. Archived from the original on 10 March
2012. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
Mons – Les Cours de Justice, Régie des Bâtiments, Service de
presse, Bruxelles, juin 2007.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012.
Retrieved 30 March 2011.
Waltrude at saints.sqpn.com. Retrieved 26.March 2013.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mons.
Cercle Archéologique de Mons, an exhaustive list of references on the
history of the
Mons region, in French.
Official site of the city, in French.
Official site of the Doudou, in French.
Unofficial site of the Doudou (Text ; Movies ; Music..., in
The World Heritage
Flint mines in Spiennes, in French (summary in
Conservatoire Royal de Mon, posted by Gerard Epure, in French
Places adjacent to Mons
Villages of the municipality of
Municipalities in the Province of Hainaut, Wallonia, Belgium
Les Bons Villers
European Capitals of Culture
Santiago de Compostela
Luxembourg City and Greater Region