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The Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
(Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren  listen (help·info); Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; [mɔŋɡ(ɔ)ɮˈiːŋ ɛt͡sˈɛnt ˈɡurəŋ]; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.[2] Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire
Empire
eventually stretched from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and parts of Central Europe all the way to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina, and the Iranian plateau, and westwards as far as the Levant and the Carpathians. The Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
emerged from the unification of several nomadic tribes in the Mongol
Mongol
homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan, whom a council proclaimed ruler of all the Mongols
Mongols
in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction.[3][4] The vast transcontinental empire connected the east with the west with an enforced Pax Mongolica, allowing the dissemination and exchange of trade, technologies, commodities, and ideologies across Eurasia.[5][6] The empire began to split due to wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
disputed whether the royal line should follow from his son and initial heir Ögedei
Ögedei
or from one of his other sons, such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued even among the descendants of Tolui. A key reason for the split was the dispute over whether the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
would become a sedentary, cosmopolitan empire, or would stay true to their nomadic and steppe lifestyle. After Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
died (1259), rival kurultai councils simultaneously elected different successors, the brothers Ariq Böke
Ariq Böke
and Kublai
Kublai
Khan, who then not only fought each other in the Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
(1260–1264), but also dealt with challenges from the descendants of other sons of Genghis.[7][8] Kublai
Kublai
successfully took power, but civil war ensued as he sought unsuccessfully to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families. During the reigns of Genghis and Ögedei, the Mongols
Mongols
suffered the occasional defeat when a less skilled general was given a command. The Siberian Tumads defeated the Mongol
Mongol
forces under Borokhula around 1215–1217; Jalal al-Din defeated Shigi-Qutugu at the Battle of Parwan; and the Jin generals Heda and Pu'a defeated Dolqolqu in 1230. In each case, the Mongols
Mongols
returned shortly after with a much larger army led by one of their best generals, and were invariably victorious. The Battle of Ain Jalut
Battle of Ain Jalut
in Galilee
Galilee
in 1260 marked the first time that the Mongols
Mongols
would not return to immediately avenge a defeat, due to a combination of the death of Möngke Khan, the Toluid Civil War between Arik Boke and Khubilai, and Berke
Berke
of the Golden Horde attacking Hulegu in Persia. Though the Mongols
Mongols
launched many more invasions of the Levant, briefly occupying it and raiding as far as Gaza after a decisive victory at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
in 1299, they withdrew due to various geopolitical factors. By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives:

the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
khanate in the northwest the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
in Central Asia the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in the southwest the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in the east based in modern-day Beijing.[9]

In 1304 the three western khanates briefly accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan dynasty,[10][11] but in 1368 the Han Chinese Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
took over the Mongol
Mongol
capital. The Genghisid rulers of the Yuan retreated to the Mongolian homeland and continued to rule there as the Northern Yuan dynasty. The Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
disintegrated in the period 1335–1353. The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
had broken into competing khanates by the end of the 15th century whilst the Chagatai Khanate lasted in one form or another until 1687.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Pre-empire context 2.2 Rise of Genghis Khan 2.3 Early organization

2.3.1 Push into Central Asia 2.3.2 Religious policies

2.4 Death of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and expansion under Ögedei
Ögedei
(1227–1241)

2.4.1 Invasions of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and central China 2.4.2 Push into central Europe

2.5 Post- Ögedei
Ögedei
power struggles (1241–1251)

2.5.1 Death of Güyük
Güyük
(1248)

2.6 Rule of Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
(1251–1259)

2.6.1 Administrative reforms 2.6.2 New invasions of the Middle East and Southern China 2.6.3 Death of Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
(1259)

2.7 Disunity

2.7.1 Dispute over succession 2.7.2 Mongolian Civil War 2.7.3 Campaigns of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
(1264–1294)

2.8 Disintegration into competing entities

2.8.1 Development of the khanates

2.9 Relict states of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire

3 Military organization 4 Society

4.1 Law and governance 4.2 Religions 4.3 Arts and literature 4.4 Mail system

5 Silk Road 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Sources

9 Further reading 10 External links

Name[edit] What is referred to in English as the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
was called the Ikh Mongol
Mongol
Uls (ikh: great, uls: state; Great Mongolian State).[12] In the 1240s, one of Genghis's descendants, Güyük
Güyük
Khan, wrote a letter to Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV
which used the preamble "Dalai (great/oceanic) Khagan of the great Mongolian state (ulus)".[13] After the succession war between Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
and his brother Ariq Böke, Ariq limited Kublai's power to the eastern part of the empire. Kublai
Kublai
officially issued an imperial edict on 18 December 1271 to name the country "Great Yuan" (Dai Yuan, or Dai Ön Ulus) to establish the Yuan dynasty. Some sources state that the full Mongolian name was Dai Ön Yehe Monggul Ulus.[14] History[edit] Pre-empire context[edit] Main article: Proto-Mongols

Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
(907–1125)

Eurasia
Eurasia
on the eve of the Mongol
Mongol
invasions, c. 1200.

The area around Mongolia, Manchuria, and parts of North China
North China
had been controlled by the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
since the 10th century. In 1125, the Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens
Jurchens
overthrew the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
and attempted to gain control over former Liao territory in Mongolia. In the 1130s the Jin dynasty rulers, known as the Golden Kings, successfully resisted the Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
confederation, ruled at the time by Khabul Khan, great-grandfather of Temujin
Temujin
(Genghis Khan).[15] The Mongolian plateau was occupied mainly by five powerful tribal confederations (khanlig): Keraites, Khamag Mongol, Naiman, Mergid, and Tatar. The Jin emperors, following a policy of divide and rule, encouraged disputes among the tribes, especially between the Tatars and the Mongols, in order to keep the nomadic tribes distracted by their own battles and thereby away from the Jin. Khabul's successor was Ambaghai Khan, who was betrayed by the Tatars, handed over to the Jurchen, and executed. The Mongols
Mongols
retaliated by raiding the frontier, resulting in a failed Jurchen counter-attack in 1143.[15] In 1147, the Jin somewhat changed their policy, signing a peace treaty with the Mongols
Mongols
and withdrawing from a score of forts. The Mongols then resumed attacks on the Tatars to avenge the death of their late khan, opening a long period of active hostilities. The Jin and Tatar armies defeated the Mongols
Mongols
in 1161.[15] During the rise of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
in the 13th century, the usually cold, parched steppes of Central Asia
Central Asia
enjoyed their mildest, wettest conditions in more than a millennium. It is thought that this resulted in a rapid increase in the number of war horses and other livestock significantly enhanced Mongol
Mongol
military strength.[16] Rise of Genghis Khan[edit] Main articles: Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
and Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan, National Palace Museum
National Palace Museum
in Taipei, Taiwan

Known during his childhood as Temujin, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
was a son of a Mongol
Mongol
chieftain. As a young man he rose very rapidly by working with Toghrul Khan of the Kerait. The most powerful Mongol
Mongol
leader at the time was Kurtait; he was given the Chinese title "Wang", which means Prince.[17] Temujin
Temujin
went to war with Wang Khan. After Temujin
Temujin
defeated Wang Khan
Wang Khan
he gave himself the name Genghis Khan. He then enlarged his Mongol
Mongol
state under himself and his kin. The term Mongol
Mongol
came to be used to refer to all Mongolic speaking tribes under the control of Genghis Khan. His most powerful allies were his father's friend, Khereid
Khereid
chieftain Wang Khan
Wang Khan
Toghoril, and Temujin's childhood anda (friend) Jamukha of the Jadran clan. With their help, Temujin
Temujin
defeated the Merkit
Merkit
tribe, rescued his wife Börte, and went on to defeat the Naimans
Naimans
and the Tatars.[18] Temujin
Temujin
forbade looting of his enemies without permission, and he implemented a policy of sharing spoils with his warriors and their families instead of giving it all to the aristocrats.[19] These policies brought him into conflict with his uncles, who were also legitimate heirs to the throne; they regarded Temujin
Temujin
not as a leader but as an insolent usurper. This dissatisfaction spread to his generals and other associates, and some Mongols
Mongols
who had previously been allies broke their allegiance.[18] War ensued, and Temujin
Temujin
and the forces still loyal to him prevailed, defeating the remaining rival tribes between 1203 and 1205 and bringing them under his sway. In 1206, Temujin
Temujin
was crowned as the khagan of the Yekhe Mongol
Mongol
Ulus (Great Mongol
Mongol
State) at a kurultai (general assembly/council). It was there that he assumed the title of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
(universal leader) instead of one of the old tribal titles such as Gur Khan or Tayang Khan, marking the start of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire.[18] Early organization[edit]

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
ascended the throne in the Yeke Quriltay region in the Onan river, from the Jami' al-tawarikh.

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
introduced many innovative ways of organizing his army: for example dividing it into decimal subsections of arbans (10 soldiers), zuuns (100), Mingghans (1000), and tumens (10,000). The Kheshig, the imperial guard, was founded and divided into day (khorchin torghuds) and night (khevtuul) guards.[20] Genghis rewarded those who had been loyal to him and placed them in high positions, as heads of army units and households, even though many of them came from very low-ranking clans.[21] Compared to the units he gave to his loyal companions, those assigned to his own family members were relatively few. He proclaimed a new code of law of the empire, Ikh Zasag or Yassa; later he expanded it to cover much of the everyday life and political affairs of the nomads. He forbade the selling of women, theft, fighting among the Mongols, and the hunting of animals during the breeding season.[21] He appointed his adopted brother Shigi-Khuthugh as supreme judge (jarughachi), ordering him to keep records of the empire. In addition to laws regarding family, food, and the army, Genghis also decreed religious freedom and supported domestic and international trade. He exempted the poor and the clergy from taxation.[22] He also encouraged literacy, adopting the Uyghur script, which would form the Uyghur- Mongolian script
Mongolian script
of the empire, and he ordered the Uyghur Tatatunga, who had previously served the khan of Naimans, to instruct his sons.[23] Push into Central Asia[edit] Main article: Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Central Asia

Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
circa 1207

Genghis quickly came into conflict with the Jin dynasty of the Jurchens
Jurchens
and the Western Xia
Western Xia
of the Tanguts
Tanguts
in northern China. He also had to deal with two other powers, Tibet
Tibet
and Qara Khitai.[24] Towards the west he moved into Central Asia, devastating Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and eastern Persia, then raiding into Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
(a predecessor state of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine) and the Caucasus.[18] Before his death, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
divided his empire among his sons and immediate family, making the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
the joint property of the entire imperial family who, along with the Mongol
Mongol
aristocracy, constituted the ruling class.[25] Religious policies[edit] Prior to the three western khanates' adoption of Islam, Genghis Khan and a number of his Yuan successors placed restrictions on religious practices they saw as alien. Muslims, including Hui, and Jews, were collectively referred to as Huihui. Muslims were forbidden from Halal or Zabiha butchering, while Jews were similarly forbidden from Kashrut or Shehita butchering.[26] Referring to the conquered subjects as "our slaves," Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
demanded they no longer be able to refuse food or drink, and imposed restrictions on slaughter. Muslims had to slaughter sheep in secret.[27]

Among all the [subject] alien peoples only the Hui-hui say “we do not eat Mongol
Mongol
food”. [Cinggis Qa’an replied:] “By the aid of heaven we have pacified you; you are our slaves. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right?” He thereupon made them eat. “If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime.” He issued a regulation to that effect ... [In 1279/1280 under Qubilai] all the Muslims say: “if someone else slaughters [the animal] we do not eat”. Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision.[28]

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
arranged for the Chinese Taoist master Qiu Chuji
Qiu Chuji
to visit him in Afghanistan, and also gave his subjects the right to religious freedom, despite his own shamanistic beliefs. Death of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and expansion under Ögedei
Ögedei
(1227–1241)[edit] Main article: Mongol
Mongol
invasions and conquests

Coronation of Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan
in 1229 as the successor of Genghis Khan. By Rashid al-Din, early 14th century.

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
died on 18 August 1227, by which time the Mongol Empire
Empire
ruled from the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea – an empire twice the size of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
or the Muslim Caliphate
Caliphate
at their height. Genghis named his third son, the charismatic Ögedei, as his heir. According to Mongol
Mongol
tradition, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
was buried in a secret location. The regency was originally held by Ögedei's younger brother Tolui
Tolui
until Ögedei's formal election at the kurultai in 1229.[29] Among his first actions Ögedei
Ögedei
sent troops to subjugate the Bashkirs, Bulgars, and other nations in the Kipchak-controlled steppes.[30] In the east, Ögedei's armies re-established Mongol
Mongol
authority in Manchuria, crushing the Eastern Xia regime and the Water Tatars. In 1230, the great khan personally led his army in the campaign against the Jin dynasty of China. Ögedei's general Subutai
Subutai
captured the capital of Emperor Wanyan Shouxu in the siege of Kaifeng in 1232.[31] The Jin dynasty collapsed in 1234 when the Mongols
Mongols
captured Caizhou, the town to which Wanyan Shouxu had fled. In 1234, three armies commanded by Ögedei's sons Kochu and Koten and the Tangut general Chagan invaded southern China. With the assistance of the Song dynasty the Mongols
Mongols
finished off the Jin in 1234.[32][33] Many Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Khitan defected to the Mongols
Mongols
to fight against the Jin. Two Han Chinese
Han Chinese
leaders, Shi Tianze, Liu Heima (劉黑馬, Liu Ni),[34] and the Khitan Xiao Zhala defected and commanded the 3 Tumens in the Mongol
Mongol
army.[35] Liu Heima and Shi Tianze served Ogödei Khan.[36] Liu Heima and Shi Tianxiang led armies against Western Xia for the Mongols.[37] There were four Han Tumens and three Khitan Tumens, with each Tumen consisting of 10,000 troops. The Yuan dynasty created a Han army 漢軍 from Jin defectors, and another of ex-Song troops called the Newly Submitted Army 新附軍.[38] In the West Ögedei's general Chormaqan destroyed Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the last shah of the Khwarizmian Empire. The small kingdoms in southern Persia voluntarily accepted Mongol
Mongol
supremacy.[39][40] In East Asia, there were a number of Mongolian campaigns into Goryeo Korea, but Ögedei's attempt to annex the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
met with little success. Gojong, the king of Goryeo, surrendered but later revolted and massacred Mongol
Mongol
darughachis (overseers); he then moved his imperial court from Gaeseong
Gaeseong
to Ganghwa Island.[41] As the empire grew, Ögedei
Ögedei
established a Mongol
Mongol
capital at Karakorum in northwestern Mongolia.[42] Invasions of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and central China[edit] Main articles: Mongol invasion of Rus'
Mongol invasion of Rus'
and Mongol
Mongol
invasion of China See also: Mongol
Mongol
invasions of India, Mongol
Mongol
invasions of Korea, and Mongol
Mongol
conquest of Tibet

The sack of Suzdal
Suzdal
by Batu Khan
Batu Khan
in 1238, miniature from a 16th-century chronicle

Meanwhile, in an offensive action against the Song dynasty, Mongol armies captured Siyang-yang, the Yangtze and Sichuan, but did not secure their control over the conquered areas. The Song generals were able to recapture Siyang-yang from the Mongols
Mongols
in 1239. After the sudden death of Ögedei's son Kochu in Chinese territory the Mongols withdrew from southern China, although Kochu's brother Prince Koten invaded Tibet
Tibet
immediately after their withdrawal.[18] Batu Khan, another grandson of Genghis Khan, overran the territories of the Bulgars, the Alans, the Kypchaks, Bashkirs, Mordvins, Chuvash, and other nations of the southern Russian steppe. By 1237 the Mongols were encroaching upon Ryazan, the first Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
principality they were to attack. After a three-day siege involving fierce fighting, the Mongols
Mongols
captured the city and massacred its inhabitants. They then proceeded to destroy the army of the Grand Principality of Vladimir
Grand Principality of Vladimir
at the Battle of the Sit River.[43] The Mongols
Mongols
captured the Alania
Alania
capital Maghas
Maghas
in 1238. By 1240, all Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
had fallen to the Asian invaders except for a few northern cities. Mongol
Mongol
troops under Chormaqan in Persia connecting his invasion of Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
with the invasion of Batu and Subutai, forced the Georgian and Armenian nobles to surrender as well.[43] Giovanni de Plano Carpini, the pope's envoy to the Mongol
Mongol
great khan, travelled through Kiev
Kiev
in February 1246 and wrote:

They [the Mongols] attacked Russia, where they made great havoc, destroying cities and fortresses and slaughtering men; and they laid siege to Kiev, the capital of Russia; after they had besieged the city for a long time, they took it and put the inhabitants to death. When we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls and bones of dead men lying about on the ground. Kiev
Kiev
had been a very large and thickly populated town, but now it has been reduced almost to nothing, for there are at the present time scarce two hundred houses there and the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery.[44]

Despite the military successes, strife continued within the Mongol ranks. Batu's relations with Güyük, Ögedei's eldest son, and Büri, the beloved grandson of Chagatai Khan, remained tense and worsened during Batu's victory banquet in southern Kievan Rus'. Nevertheless, Güyük
Güyük
and Buri could not do anything to harm Batu's position as long as his uncle Ögedei
Ögedei
was still alive. Ögedei
Ögedei
continued with offensives into the Indian subcontinent, temporarily investing Uchch, Lahore, and Multan
Multan
of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
and stationing a Mongol overseer in Kashmir,[45] though the invasions into India eventually failed and were forced to retreat. In northeastern Asia, Ögedei agreed to end the conflict with Goryeo
Goryeo
by making it a client state and sent Mongolian princesses to wed Goryeo
Goryeo
princes. He then reinforced his keshig with the Koreans through both diplomacy and military force.[46][47][48] Push into central Europe[edit] Main article: Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Europe

The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.

The advance into Europe continued with Mongol
Mongol
invasions of Poland and Hungary. When the western flank of the Mongols
Mongols
plundered Polish cities, a European alliance among the Poles, the Moravians, and the Christian military orders of the Hospitallers, Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
and the Templars assembled sufficient forces to halt, although briefly, the Mongol
Mongol
advance at Legnica. The Hungarian army, their Croatian allies and the Templar Knights were beaten by Mongols
Mongols
at the banks of the Sajo River on 11 April 1241. Before Batu's forces could continue on to Vienna
Vienna
and northern Albania, news of Ögedei's death in December 1241 brought a halt to the invasion.[49][50] As was customary in Mongol
Mongol
military tradition, all princes of Genghis's line had to attend the kurultai to elect a successor. Batu and his western Mongol army withdrew from Central Europe
Central Europe
the next year.[51] Post- Ögedei
Ögedei
power struggles (1241–1251)[edit] Following the Great Khan
Great Khan
Ögedei's death in 1241, and before the next kurultai, Ögedei's widow Töregene took over the empire. She persecuted her husband's Khitan and Muslim officials and gave high positions to her own allies. She built palaces, cathedrals, and social structures on an imperial scale, supporting religion and education.[52] She was able to win over most Mongol
Mongol
aristocrats to support Ögedei's son Güyük. But Batu, ruler of the Golden Horde, refused to come to the kurultai, claiming that he was ill and that the Mongolian climate was too harsh for him. The resulting stalemate lasted more than four years and further destabilized the unity of the empire.[52]

Batu Khan
Batu Khan
consolidates the Golden Horde

When Genghis Khan's youngest brother Temüge threatened to seize the throne, Güyük
Güyük
came to Karakorum
Karakorum
to try to secure his position.[53] Batu eventually agreed to send his brothers and generals to the kurultai convened by Töregene in 1246. Güyük
Güyük
by this time was ill and alcoholic, but his campaigns in Manchuria
Manchuria
and Europe gave him the kind of stature necessary for a great khan. He was duly elected at a ceremony attended by Mongols
Mongols
and foreign dignitaries from both within and without the empire – leaders of vassal nations, representatives from Rome, and other entities who came to the kurultai to show their respects and conduct diplomacy.[54][55]

Güyük Khan
Güyük Khan
demanding Pope Innocent IV's submission. The letter was written in Persian.

Güyük
Güyük
took steps to reduce corruption, announcing that he would continue the policies of his father Ögedei, not those of Töregene. He punished Töregene's supporters, except for governor Arghun
Arghun
the Elder. He also replaced young Qara Hülëgü, the khan of the Chagatai Khanate, with his favorite cousin Yesü Möngke, to assert his newly conferred powers.[56] He restored his father's officials to their former positions and was surrounded by Uyghur, Naiman and Central Asian officials, favoring Han Chinese
Han Chinese
commanders who had helped his father conquer Northern China. He continued military operations in Korea, advanced into Song China in the south, and into Iraq
Iraq
in the west, and ordered an empire-wide census. Güyük
Güyük
also divided the Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum
between Izz-ad-Din Kaykawus and Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan, though Kaykawus disagreed with this decision.[56] Not all parts of the empire respected Güyük's election. The Hashshashins, former Mongol
Mongol
allies whose Grand Master Hasan Jalalud-Din had offered his submission to Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1221, angered Güyük
Güyük
by refusing to submit. Instead he murdered the Mongol generals in Persia. Güyük
Güyük
appointed his best friend's father Eljigidei as chief commander of the troops in Persia and gave them the task of both reducing the strongholds of the Assassins
Assassins
Muslim movement and conquering the Abbasids
Abbasids
at the center of the Islamic world, Iran and Iraq.[56][57][58] Death of Güyük
Güyük
(1248)[edit] In 1248, Güyük
Güyük
raised more troops and suddenly marched westwards from the Mongol
Mongol
capital of Karakorum. The reasoning was unclear. Some sources wrote that he sought to recuperate at his personal estate, Emyl; others suggested that he might have been moving to join Eljigidei to conduct a full-scale conquest of the Middle East, or possibly to make a surprise attack on his rival cousin Batu Khan
Batu Khan
in Russia.[59] Suspicious of Güyük's motives, Sorghaghtani Beki, the widow of Genghis's son Tolui, secretly warned her nephew Batu of Güyük's approach. Batu had himself been traveling eastwards at the time, possibly to pay homage, or perhaps with other plans in mind. Before the forces of Batu and Güyük
Güyük
met, Güyük, sick and worn out by travel, died en route at Qum-Senggir (Hong-siang-yi-eulh) in Xinjiang, possibly a victim of poison.[59]

A Stone Turtle at the site of the Mongol
Mongol
capital, Karakorum.

Güyük's widow Oghul Qaimish stepped forward to take control of the empire, but she lacked the skills of her mother-in-law Töregene, and her young sons Khoja and Naku and other princes challenged her authority. To decide on a new great khan, Batu called a kurultai on his own territory in 1250. As it was far from the Mongolian heartland, members of the Ögedeid and Chagataid families refused to attend. The kurultai offered the throne to Batu, but he rejected it, claiming he had no interest in the position.[60] Batu instead nominated Möngke, a grandson of Genghis from his son Tolui's lineage. Möngke was leading a Mongol
Mongol
army in Russia, the northern Caucasus
Caucasus
and Hungary. The pro- Tolui
Tolui
faction supported Batu's choice, and Möngke was elected; though given the kurultai's limited attendance and location, it was of questionable validity.[60] Batu sent Möngke, under the protection of his brothers, Berke
Berke
and Tukhtemur, and his son Sartaq to assemble a more formal kurultai at Kodoe Aral in the heartland. The supporters of Möngke repeatedly invited Oghul Qaimish and the other major Ögedeid and Chagataid princes to attend the kurultai, but they refused each time. The Ögedeid and Chagataid princes refused to accept a descendant of Genghis's son Tolui
Tolui
as leader, demanding that only descendants of Genghis's son Ögedei
Ögedei
could be great khan.[60] Rule of Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
(1251–1259)[edit] When Möngke's mother Sorghaghtani and their cousin Berke
Berke
organized a second kurultai on 1 July 1251, the assembled throng proclaimed Möngke great khan of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire. This marked a major shift in the leadership of the empire, transferring power from the descendants of Genghis's son Ögedei
Ögedei
to the descendants of Genghis's son Tolui. The decision was acknowledged by a few of the Ögedeid and Chagataid princes, such as Möngke's cousin Kadan
Kadan
and the deposed khan Qara Hülëgü, but one of the other legitimate heirs, Ögedei's grandson Shiremun, sought to topple Möngke.[61] Shiremun moved with his own forces towards the emperor's nomadic palace with a plan for an armed attack, but Möngke was alerted by his falconer of the plan. Möngke ordered an investigation of the plot, which led to a series of major trials all across the empire. Many members of the Mongol
Mongol
elite were found guilty and put to death, with estimates ranging from 77–300, though princes of Genghis's royal line were often exiled rather than executed.[61] Möngke confiscated the estates of the Ögedeid and the Chagatai families and shared the western part of the empire with his ally Batu Khan. After the bloody purge, Möngke ordered a general amnesty for prisoners and captives, but thereafter the power of the great khan's throne remained firmly with the descendants of Tolui.[61] Administrative reforms[edit] Möngke was a serious man who followed the laws of his ancestors and avoided alcoholism. He was tolerant of outside religions and artistic styles, leading to the building of foreign merchants' quarters, Buddhist monasteries, mosques, and Christian churches
Christian churches
in the Mongol capital. As construction projects continued, Karakorum
Karakorum
was adorned with Chinese, European, and Persian architecture. One famous example was a large silver tree with cleverly designed pipes that dispensed various drinks. The tree, topped by a triumphant angel, was crafted by Guillaume Boucher, a Parisian goldsmith.[62]

Hulagu, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Il-Khanate. From a medieval Persian manuscript.

Although he had a strong Chinese contingent, Möngke relied heavily on Muslim and Mongol
Mongol
administrators and launched a series of economic reforms to make government expenses more predictable. His court limited government spending and prohibited nobles and troops from abusing civilians or issuing edicts without authorization. He commuted the contribution system to a fixed poll tax which was collected by imperial agents and forwarded to units in need.[63] His court also tried to lighten the tax burden on commoners by reducing tax rates. He also centralized control of monetary affairs and reinforced the guards at the postal relays. Möngke ordered an empire-wide census in 1252 that took several years to complete and was not finished until Novgorod
Novgorod
in the far northwest was counted in 1258.[63] In another move to consolidate his power, Möngke assigned his brothers Hulagu
Hulagu
and Kublai
Kublai
to rule Persia and Mongol-held China respecively. In the southern part of the empire he continued his predecessors' struggle against the Song dynasty. In order to outflank the Song from three directions, Möngke dispatched Mongol
Mongol
armies under his brother Kublai
Kublai
to Yunnan, and under his uncle Iyeku to subdue Korea and pressure the Song from that direction as well.[56] Kublai
Kublai
conquered the Dali Kingdom
Dali Kingdom
in 1253 after the Dali King Duan Xingzhi defected to the Mongols
Mongols
and helped them conquer the rest of Yunnan. Möngke's general Qoridai stabilized his control over Tibet, inducing leading monasteries to submit to Mongol
Mongol
rule. Subutai's son Uryankhadai reduced the neighboring peoples of Yunnan
Yunnan
to submission and defeated the Trần dynasty
Trần dynasty
in northern Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1257, but they had to draw back in 1258.[56] The Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
tried to invade Vietnam
Vietnam
again in 1284 and 1287 but were defeated both times. New invasions of the Middle East and Southern China[edit] Main article: Mongol
Mongol
invasions of the Levant See also: Mongol invasion of China
Mongol invasion of China
and Siege of Baghdad (1258)

Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Baghdad

After stabilizing the empire's finances, Möngke once again sought to expand its borders. At kurultais in Karakorum
Karakorum
in 1253 and 1258 he approved new invasions of the Middle East and south China. Möngke put Hulagu
Hulagu
in overall charge of military and civil affairs in Persia, and appointed Chagataids and Jochids to join Hulagu's army.[64] The Muslims from Qazvin
Qazvin
denounced the menace of the Nizari
Nizari
Ismailis, a heretical sect of Shiites. The Mongol
Mongol
Naiman commander Kitbuqa
Kitbuqa
began to assault several Ismaili fortresses in 1253, before Hulagu
Hulagu
advanced in 1256. Ismaili Grand Master Rukn ud-Din surrendered in 1257 and was executed. All of the Ismaili strongholds in Persia were destroyed by Hulagu's army in 1257, except for Girdukh which held out until 1271.[64]

Fall of Baghdad, 1258

The center of the Islamic Empire
Empire
at the time was Baghdad, which had held power for 500 years but was suffering internal divisions. When its caliph al-Mustasim refused to submit to the Mongols, Baghdad was besieged and captured by the Mongols
Mongols
in 1258 and subjected to a merciless sack, an event considered as one of the most catastrophic events in the history of Islam, and sometimes compared to the rupture of the Kaaba. With the destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate, Hulagu had an open route to Syria and moved against the other Muslim powers in the region.[65] His army advanced towards Ayyubid-ruled Syria, capturing small local states en route. The sultan Al-Nasir Yusuf
Al-Nasir Yusuf
of the Ayyubids refused to show himself before Hulagu; however, he had accepted Mongol
Mongol
supremacy two decades earlier. When Hulagu
Hulagu
headed further west, the Armenians from Cilicia, the Seljuks from Rum
Rum
and the Christian realms of Antioch and Tripoli
Tripoli
submitted to Mongol
Mongol
authority, joining the them in their assault against the Muslims. While some cities surrendered without resisting, others such as Mayafarriqin fought back; their populations were massacred and the cities were sacked.[65] Death of Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
(1259)[edit]

The extent of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
after the death of Möngke Khan (reigned 1251–1259).

Meanwhile, in the northwestern portion of the empire, Batu's successor and younger brother Berke
Berke
sent punitive expeditions to Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland. Dissension began brewing between the northwestern and southwestern sections of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
as Batu suspected that Hulagu's invasion of Western Asia would result in the elimination of Batu's own dominance there.[66] In the southern part of the empire, Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
himself led his army to complete the conquest of China. Military operations were generally successful, but prolonged, so the forces did not withdraw to the north as was customary when the weather turned hot. Disease ravaged the Mongol
Mongol
forces with bloody epidemics, and Möngke died there on 11 August 1259. This event began a new chapter in the history of the Mongols, as again a decision needed to be made on a new great khan. Mongol
Mongol
armies across the empire withdrew from their campaigns to convene a new kurultai.[67] Disunity[edit] Dispute over succession[edit]

The Mongols
Mongols
at war

Möngke's brother Hulagu
Hulagu
broke off his successful military advance into Syria, withdrawing the bulk of his forces to Mughan
Mughan
and leaving only a small contingent under his general Kitbuqa. The opposing forces in the region, the Christian Crusaders and Muslim Mamluks, both recognizing that the Mongols
Mongols
were the greater threat, took advantage of the weakened state of the Mongol
Mongol
army and engaged in an unusual passive truce with each other.[68] In 1260, the Mamluks advanced from Egypt, being allowed to camp and resupply near the Christian stronghold of Acre, and engaged Kitbuqa's forces just north of Galilee
Galilee
at the Battle of Ain Jalut. The Mongols were defeated, and Kitbuqa
Kitbuqa
executed. This pivotal battle marked the western limit for Mongol
Mongol
expansion in the Middle East, and the Mongols were never again able to make serious military advances farther than Syria.[68] In a separate part of the empire, Kublai
Kublai
Khan, another brother of Hulagu
Hulagu
and Möngke, heard of the great khan's death at the Huai River in China. Rather than returning to the capital, he continued his advance into the Wuchang area of China, near the Yangtze River. Their younger brother Ariqboke took advantage of the absence of Hulagu
Hulagu
and Kublai, and used his position at the capital to win the title of great khan for himself, with representatives of all the family branches proclaiming him as the leader at the kurultai in Karakorum. When Kublai
Kublai
learned of this, he summoned his own kurultai at Kaiping, and nearly all the senior princes and great noyans in North China
North China
and Manchuria
Manchuria
supported his own candidacy over that of Ariqboke.[51] Mongolian Civil War[edit] See also: Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
and Berke– Hulagu
Hulagu
war

Kublai
Kublai
Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan dynasty

Battles ensued between the armies of Kublai
Kublai
and those of his brother Ariqboke, which included forces still loyal to Möngke's previous administration. Kublai's army easily eliminated Ariqboke's supporters and seized control of the civil administration in southern Mongolia. Further challenges took place from their cousins, the Chagataids.[69][70][71] Kublai
Kublai
sent Abishka, a Chagataid prince loyal to him, to take charge of Chagatai's realm. But Ariqboke captured and then executed Abishka, having his own man Alghu crowned there instead. Kublai's new administration blockaded Ariqboke in Mongolia
Mongolia
to cut off food supplies, causing a famine. Karakorum
Karakorum
fell quickly to Kublai, but Ariqboke rallied and re-took the capital in 1261.[69][70][71] In southwestern Ilkhanate, Hulagu
Hulagu
was loyal to his brother Kublai, but clashes with their cousin Berke, the ruler of the Golden Horde, began in 1262. The suspicious deaths of Jochid princes in Hulagu's service, unequal distribution of war booty, and Hulagu's massacres of Muslims increased the anger of Berke, who considered supporting a rebellion of the Georgian Kingdom against Hulagu's rule in 1259–1260.[72][full citation needed] Berke
Berke
also forged an alliance with the Egyptian Mamluks against Hulagu
Hulagu
and supported Kublai's rival claimant, Ariqboke.[73] Hulagu
Hulagu
died on 8 February 1264. Berke
Berke
sought to take advantage and invade Hulagu's realm, but he died along the way, and a few months later Alghu Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
died as well. Kublai
Kublai
named Hulagu's son Abaqa as new Ilkhan, and nominated Batu's grandson Möngke Temür to lead the Golden Horde. Abaqa sought foreign alliances, such as attempting to form a Franco- Mongol
Mongol
alliance against the Egyptian Mamluks.[74] Ariqboqe surrendered to Kublai
Kublai
at Shangdu
Shangdu
on 21 August 1264.[75] Campaigns of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
(1264–1294)[edit] Main article: Kublai
Kublai
Khan's Campaigns

The samurai Suenaga facing Mongol's bomb and Goryeo's arrows. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.

In the south, after the fall of Xiangyang in 1273, the Mongols
Mongols
sought the final conquest of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
in South China. In 1271, Kublai renamed the new Mongol
Mongol
regime in China as the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
and sought to sinicize his image as Emperor of China
Emperor of China
to win the control of the Chinese people. Kublai
Kublai
moved his headquarters to Dadu, the genesis for what later became the modern city of Beijing. His establishment of a capital there was a controversial move to many Mongols
Mongols
who accused him of being too closely tied to Chinese culture.[76][77] The Mongols
Mongols
were eventually successful in their campaigns against (Song) China, and the Chinese Song imperial family surrendered to the Yuan in 1276, making the Mongols
Mongols
the first non-Chinese people to conquer all of China. Kublai
Kublai
used his base to build a powerful empire, creating an academy, offices, trade ports and canals, and sponsoring arts and science. Mongol
Mongol
records list 20,166 public schools created during his reign.[78]

Mongol
Mongol
warrior on horseback, preparing a mounted archery shot.

After achieving actual or nominal dominion over much of Eurasia
Eurasia
and successfully conquering China, Kublai
Kublai
pursued further expansion. His invasions of Burma and Sakhalin
Sakhalin
were costly, and his attempted invasions of Annam and Champa
Champa
ended in devastating defeat, but secured vassal statuses of those countries. The Mongol
Mongol
armies were repeatedly beaten in Annam and were crushed at the Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288). Nogai and Konchi, the khan of the White Horde, established friendly relations with the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
and the Ilkhanate. Political disagreement among contending branches of the family over the office of great khan continued, but the economic and commercial success of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
continued despite the squabbling.[79][80][81] Disintegration into competing entities[edit] Main article: Division of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire

The funeral of Chagatai Khan.

Major changes occurred in the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
in the late 1200s. Kublai Khan, after having conquered all of China and established the Yuan dynasty, died in 1294. He was succeeded by his grandson Temür Khan, who continued Kublai's policies. At the same time the Toluid Civil War, along with the Berke– Hulagu
Hulagu
war and the subsequent Kaidu– Kublai
Kublai
war, greatly weakened the authority of the great khan over the entirety of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
and the empire fractured into autonomous khanates, the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
and the three western khanates: the Golden Horde, the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
and the Ilkhanate. Only the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
remained loyal to the Yuan court but endured its own power struggle, in part because of a dispute with the growing Islamic factions within the southwestern part of the empire.[82] After the death of Kaidu, the Chatagai ruler Duwa
Duwa
initiated a peace proposal and persuaded the Ögedeids to submit to Temür Khan.[83][84] In 1304, all of the khanates approved a peace treaty and accepted Yuan emperor Temür's supremacy.[85][86][87][88] This established the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
over the western khanates, which was to last for several decades. This supremacy was based on weaker foundations than that of the earlier Khagans and each of the four khanates continued to develop separately and function as independent states. Nearly a century of conquest and civil war was followed by relative stability, the Pax Mongolica, and international trade and cultural exchanges flourished between Asia and Europe. Communication between the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in China and the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in Persia further encouraged trade and commerce between east and west. Patterns of Yuan royal textiles could be found on the opposite side of the empire adorning Armenian decorations; trees and vegetables were transplanted across the empire; and technological innovations spread from Mongol dominions towards the West.[89][citation needed] Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII
was presented a memorandum from the eastern church describing the Pax Mongolica: "... Khagan
Khagan
is one of the greatest monarchs and all lords of the state, e.g., the king of Almaligh (Chagatai Khanate), emperor Abu Said and Uzbek Khan, are his subjects, saluting his holiness to pay their respects."[90] However, while the four khanates continued to interact with one another well into the 14th century, they did so as sovereign states and never again pooled their resources in a cooperative military endeavor.[91] Development of the khanates[edit]

A European depiction of the four khans, Temür (Yuan), Chapar (House of Ögedei), Toqta
Toqta
(Golden Horde), and Öljaitü
Öljaitü
(Ilkhanate), in the Fleur des histoires d'orient.[92]

In spite of his conflicts with Kaidu
Kaidu
and Duwa, Yuan emperor Temür established a tributary relationship with the war-like Shan people after his series of military operations against Thailand
Thailand
from 1297 to 1303. This was to mark the end of the southern expansion of the Mongols. When Ghazan
Ghazan
took the throne of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in 1295, he formally accepted Islam
Islam
as his own religion, marking a turning point in Mongol history after which Mongol
Mongol
Persia became more and more Islamic. Despite this, Ghazan
Ghazan
continued to strengthen ties with Temür Khan
Temür Khan
and the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in the east. It was politically useful to advertise the great khan's authority in the Ilkhanate, because the Golden Horde in Russia had long made claims on nearby Georgia.[82] Within four years, Ghazan
Ghazan
began sending tribute to the Yuan court and appealing to other khans to accept Temür Khan
Temür Khan
as their overlord. He oversaw an extensive program of cultural and scientific interaction between the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in the following decades.[93] Ghazan's faith may have been Islamic, but he continued his ancestors' war with the Egyptian Mamluks, and consulted with his old Mongolian advisers in his native tongue. He defeated the Mamluk army at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
in 1299, but he was only briefly able to occupy Syria, due to distracting raids from the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
under its de facto ruler Kaidu, who was at war with both the Ilkhans and the Yuan dynasty.[citation needed] Struggling for influence within the Golden Horde, Kaidu
Kaidu
sponsored his own candidate Kobeleg against Bayan (r. 1299–1304), the khan of the White Horde. Bayan, after receiving military support from the Mongols in Russia, requested assistance from both Temür Khan
Temür Khan
and the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
to organize a unified attack against Kaidu's forces. Temür was amenable and attacked Kaidu
Kaidu
a year later. After a bloody battle with Temür's armies near the Zawkhan River
Zawkhan River
in 1301, Kaidu
Kaidu
died and was succeeded by Duwa.[94][95]

Hungarian King Béla IV
Béla IV
in flight from the Mongols
Mongols
under general Kadan of the Golden Horde.

Duwa
Duwa
was challenged by Kaidu's son Chapar, but with the assistance of Temür, Duwa
Duwa
defeated the Ögedeids. Tokhta
Tokhta
of the Golden Horde, also seeking a general peace, sent 20,000 men to buttress the Yuan frontier.[96] Tokhta
Tokhta
died in 1312, though, and was succeeded by Ozbeg (r. 1313–41), who seized the throne of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and persecuted non-Muslim Mongols. The Yuan's influence on the Horde was largely reversed and border clashes between Mongol
Mongol
states resumed. Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan's envoys backed Tokhta's son against Ozbeg.[citation needed] In the Chagatai Khanate, Esen Buqa I (r. 1309–1318) was enthroned as khan after suppressing a sudden rebellion by Ögedei's descendants and driving Chapar into exile. The Yuan and Ilkhanid armies eventually attacked the Chagatai Khanate. Recognising the potential economic benefits and the Genghisid legacy, Ozbeg
Ozbeg
reopened friendly relations with the Yuan in 1326. He strengthened ties with the Muslim world as well, building mosques and other elaborate structures such as baths.[citation needed] By the second decade of the 14th century, Mongol
Mongol
invasions had further decreased. In 1323, Abu Said Khan (r. 1316–35) of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
signed a peace treaty with Egypt. At his request, the Yuan court awarded his custodian Chupan the title of commander-in-chief of all Mongol
Mongol
khanates, but Chupan died in late 1327.[97] Civil war
Civil war
erupted in the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in 1328–29. After the death of Yesün Temür in 1328, Tugh Temür
Tugh Temür
became the new leader in Dadu, while Yesün Temür's son Ragibagh succeeded to the throne in Shangdu, leading to the civil war known as the War of the Two Capitals. Tugh Temür defeated Ragibagh, but the Chagatai khan Eljigidey (r. 1326–29) supported Kusala, elder brother of Tugh Temür, as great khan. He invaded with a commanding force, and Tugh Temür
Tugh Temür
abdicated. Kusala was elected khan on 30 August 1329. Kusala was then poisoned by a Kypchak
Kypchak
commander under Tugh Temür, who returned to power. Tugh Temür
Tugh Temür
(1304–32) was knowledgeable about Chinese language
Chinese language
and history and was also a creditable poet, calligrapher, and painter. In order to be accepted by other khanates as the sovereign of the Mongol world, he sent Genghisid princes and descendants notable Mongol generals to the Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhan Abu Said, and Ozbeg. In response to the emissaries, they all agreed to send tribute each year.[98] Furthermore, Tugh Temür
Tugh Temür
gave lavish presents and an imperial seal to Eljigidey to mollify his anger. Relict states of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire[edit] With the death of Ilkhan Abu Said Bahatur in 1335, Mongol
Mongol
rule faltered and Persia fell into political anarchy. A year later his successor was killed by an Oirat governor, and the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
was divided between the Suldus, the Jalayir, Qasarid Togha Temür
Togha Temür
(d. 1353), and Persian warlords. Taking advantage of the chaos, the Georgians pushed the Mongols
Mongols
out of their territory, and the Uyghur commander Eretna established an independent state (Ertenids) in Anatolia
Anatolia
in 1336. Following the downfall of their Mongol
Mongol
masters, the loyal vassal, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, received escalating threats from the Mamluks and were eventually overrun.[99] Along with the dissolution of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in Persia, Mongol
Mongol
rulers in China and the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
were also in turmoil. The plague known as the Black Death, which started in the Mongol
Mongol
dominions and spread to Europe, added to the confusion. Disease devastated all the khanates, cutting off commercial ties and killing millions.[100] Plague may have taken 50 million lives in Europe alone in the 14th century.[101]

The Battle of Blue Waters
Battle of Blue Waters
between the armies of Lithuania
Lithuania
and the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in 1362

As the power of the Mongols
Mongols
declined, chaos erupted throughout the empire as non- Mongol
Mongol
leaders expanded their own influence. The Golden Horde lost all of its western dominions (including modern Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine) to Poland and Lithuania
Lithuania
between 1342 and 1369. Muslim and non-Muslim princes in the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
warred with each other from 1331–43, and the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
disintegrated when non-Genghisid warlords set up their own puppet khans in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and Moghulistan. Janibeg
Janibeg
Khan (r. 1342–1357) briefly reasserted Jochid dominance over the Chaghataids. Demanding submission from an offshoot of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in Azerbaijan, he boasted that "today three uluses are under my control".[102]

Crimean
Crimean
Tatar
Tatar
khan, Mengli Giray.

However, rival families of the Jochids began fighting for the throne of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
after the assassination of his successor Berdibek Khan in 1359. The last Yuan ruler Toghan Temür
Toghan Temür
(r. 1333–70) was powerless to regulate those troubles, a sign that the empire had nearly reached its end. His court's unbacked currency had entered a hyperinflationary spiral and the Han-Chinese people revolted due to the Yuan's harsh impositions. In the 1350s Gongmin of Goryeo successfully pushed Mongolian garrisons back and exterminated the family of Toghan Temür
Toghan Temür
Khan's empress while Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen managed to eliminate the Mongol
Mongol
influence in Tibet.[102] Increasingly isolated from their subjects, the Mongols
Mongols
quickly lost most of China to the rebellious Ming forces and in 1368 fled to their heartland in Mongolia. After the overthrow of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
lost touch with Mongolia
Mongolia
and China, while the two main parts of the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
were defeated by Timur
Timur
(Tamerlane) (1336–1405), who founded the Timurid Empire. However, remnants of the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
survived; the last Chagataid state to survive was the Yarkent Khanate, until its defeat by the Oirat Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
in the Dzungar conquest of Altishahr
Dzungar conquest of Altishahr
in 1680. The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
broke into smaller Turkic-hordes that declined steadily in power over four centuries. Among them, the khanate's shadow, the Great Horde, survived until 1502, when one of its successors, the Crimean
Crimean
Khanate, sacked Sarai.[103] The Crimean
Crimean
Khanate lasted until 1783, whereas khanates such as the Khanate of Bukhara
Khanate of Bukhara
and the Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
lasted even longer. Military organization[edit] Main article: Mongol
Mongol
military tactics and organization

Reconstruction of a Mongol
Mongol
warrior

The number of troops mustered by the partly Mongols
Mongols
and Turkic[104][105] is the subject of some scholarly debate,[106] but was at least 105,000 in 1206.[107] The Mongol
Mongol
military organization was simple but effective, based on the decimal system. The army was built up from squads of ten men each, arbans (10 people), zuuns (100), Mingghans (1000), and tumens (10,000).[108] The Mongols
Mongols
were most famous for their horse archers, but troops armed with lances were equally skilled, and the Mongols
Mongols
recruited other military talents from the lands they conquered. With experienced Chinese engineers and a bombardier corps which was expert at building trebuchets, catapults and other machines, the Mongols
Mongols
could lay siege to fortified positions, sometimes building machinery on the spot using available local resources.[108]

Mongol
Mongol
general Subutai
Subutai
of the Golden Horde

Forces under the command of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
were trained, organized, and equipped for mobility and speed. Mongol
Mongol
soldiers were more lightly armored than many of the armies they faced but were able to make up for it with maneuverability. Each Mongol
Mongol
warrior would usually travel with multiple horses, allowing him to quickly switch to a fresh mount as needed. In addition, soldiers of the Mongol
Mongol
army functioned independently of supply lines, considerably speeding up army movement.[109] Skillful use of couriers enabled the leaders of these armies to maintain contact with each other. Discipline was inculcated during a nerge (traditional hunt), as reported by Juvayni. These hunts were distinctive from hunts in other cultures, being the equivalent to small unit actions. Mongol
Mongol
forces would spread out in a line, surround an entire region, and then drive all of the game within that area together. The goal was to let none of the animals escape and to slaughter them all.[109] Another advantage of the Mongols
Mongols
was their ability to traverse large distances, even in unusually cold winters; for instance, frozen rivers led them like highways to large urban centers on their banks. The Mongols
Mongols
were adept at river-work, crossing the river Sajó
Sajó
in spring flood conditions with thirty thousand cavalry soldiers in a single night during the Battle of Mohi
Battle of Mohi
(April 1241) to defeat the Hungarian king Béla IV. Similarly, in the attack against the Muslim Khwarezmshah a flotilla of barges was used to prevent escape on the river.[citation needed] Traditionally known for their prowess with ground forces, the Mongols rarely used naval power. In the 1260s and 1270s they used seapower while conquering the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
of China, though their attempts to mount seaborne campaigns against Japan were unsuccessful. Around the Eastern Mediterranean, their campaigns were almost exclusively land-based, with the seas controlled by the Crusader and Mamluk forces.[110] All military campaigns were preceded by careful planning, reconnaissance, and the gathering of sensitive information relating to enemy territories and forces. The success, organization, and mobility of the Mongol
Mongol
armies permitted them to fight on several fronts at once. All adult males up to the age of 60 were eligible for conscription into the army, a source of honor in their tribal warrior tradition.[111] Society[edit] Main article: Society of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire Law and governance[edit] See also: Organization of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
under Genghis Khan

The executed – the long and full beard probably means he is not a Mongol
Mongol
– has been thrown off a cliff.

The Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
was governed by a code of law devised by Genghis, called Yassa, meaning "order" or "decree". A particular canon of this code was that those of rank shared much the same hardship as the common man. It also imposed severe penalties – e.g., the death penalty if one mounted soldier following another did not pick up something dropped from the mount in front. Penalties were also decreed for rape and to some extent for murder. Any resistance to Mongol
Mongol
rule was met with massive collective punishment. Cities were destroyed and their inhabitants slaughtered if they defied Mongol
Mongol
orders.[citation needed] Under Yassa, chiefs and generals were selected based on merit. The empire was governed by a non-democratic, parliamentary-style central assembly, called kurultai, in which the Mongol
Mongol
chiefs met with the great khan to discuss domestic and foreign policies. Kurultais were also convened for the selection of each new great khan.[112] Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
also created a national seal, encouraged the use of a written alphabet in Mongolia, and exempted teachers, lawyers, and artists from taxes.[citation needed] The Mongols
Mongols
imported Central Asian Muslims to serve as administrators in China and sent Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Khitans from China to serve as administrators over the Muslim population in Bukhara
Bukhara
in Central Asia, thus using foreigners to curtail the power of the local peoples of both lands.[113] The Mongols
Mongols
were tolerant of other religions, and rarely persecuted people on religious grounds. This was associated with their culture and progressive thought. Some historians of the 20th century thought this was a good military strategy: when Genghis was at war with Sultan Muhammad of Khwarezm, other Islamic leaders did not join the fight, as it was seen as a non-holy war between two individuals.[citation needed] Religions[edit] Main article: Religion
Religion
in the Mongol
Mongol
Empire

Persian miniature
Persian miniature
depicting Ghazan's conversion from Buddhism
Buddhism
to Islam.

At the time of Genghis Khan, virtually every religion had found Mongol converts, from Buddhism
Buddhism
to Christianity, from Manichaeism
Manichaeism
to Islam. To avoid strife, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
set up an institution that ensured complete religious freedom, though he himself was a tengrist or shamanist. Under his administration, all religious leaders were exempt from taxation and from public service.[114] Initially there were few formal places of worship because of the nomadic lifestyle. However, under Ögedei
Ögedei
(1186–1241), several building projects were undertaken in the Mongol
Mongol
capital. Along with palaces, Ögedei
Ögedei
built houses of worship for the Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, and Taoist followers. The dominant religions at that time were Shamanism, Tengrism, and Buddhism, although Ögedei's wife was a Nestorian Christian.[115] Eventually, each of the successor states adopted the dominant religion of the local populations: the Chinese-Mongolian Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in the East (originally the great khan's domain) embraced Buddhism
Buddhism
and Shamanism, while the three Western khanates adopted Islam.[116][117][118] Arts and literature[edit] See also: List of historical cities and towns of Mongolia The oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language
Mongolian language
is The Secret History of the Mongols, which was written for the royal family some time after Genghis Khan's death in 1227. It is the most significant native account of Genghis's life and genealogy, covering his origins and childhood through to the establishment of the Mongol Empire
Empire
and the reign of his son, Ögedei. Another classic from the empire is the Jami' al-tawarikh, or "Universal History". It was commissioned in the early 14th century by the Ilkhan Abaqa Khan
Abaqa Khan
as a way of documenting the entire world's history, to help establish the Mongols' own cultural legacy. Mongol
Mongol
scribes in the 14th century used a mixture of resin and vegetable pigments as a primitive form of correction fluid;[119] this is arguably its first known usage. The Mongols
Mongols
also appreciated the visual arts, though their taste in portraiture was strictly focused on portraits of their horses, rather than of people. Mail system[edit] Main article: Yam (route)

A 1305 letter (on a scroll measuring 302 by 50 centimetres (9.91 by 1.64 ft)) from the Ilkhan Mongol
Mongol
Öljaitü
Öljaitü
to King Philip IV of France.

The Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
had an ingenious and efficient mail system for the time, often referred to by scholars as the Yam. It had lavishly furnished and well-guarded relay posts known as örtöö set up throughout the Empire.[120] A messenger would typically travel 25 miles (40 km) from one station to the next, either receiving a fresh, rested horse, or relaying the mail to the next rider to ensure the speediest possible delivery. The Mongol
Mongol
riders regularly covered 125 miles (200 km) per day, better than the fastest record set by the Pony Express some 600 years later.[citation needed] The relay stations had attached households to service them. Anyone with a paiza was allowed to stop there for re-mounts and specified rations, while those carrying military identities used the Yam even without a paiza. Many merchants, messengers, and travelers from China, the Middle East, and Europe used the system. When the great khan died in Karakorum, news reached the Mongol
Mongol
forces under Batu Khan
Batu Khan
in Central Europe within 4–6 weeks thanks to the Yam.[49] Genghis and his successor Ögedei
Ögedei
built a wide system of roads, one of which carved through the Altai mountains. After his enthronement, Ögedei
Ögedei
further expanded the road system, ordering the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde
Golden Horde
to link up roads in western parts of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire.[121] Kublai
Kublai
Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty, built special relays for high officials, as well as ordinary relays, that had hostels. During Kublai's reign, the Yuan communication system consisted of some 1,400 postal stations, which used 50,000 horses, 8,400 oxen, 6,700 mules, 4,000 carts, and 6,000 boats.[citation needed] In Manchuria
Manchuria
and southern Siberia, the Mongols
Mongols
still used dogsled relays for the yam. In the Ilkhanate, Ghazan
Ghazan
restored the declining relay system in the Middle East on a restricted scale. He constructed some hostels and decreed that only imperial envoys could receive a stipend. The Jochids of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
financed their relay system by a special yam tax.[citation needed] Silk Road[edit] Main article: Silk Road See also: Pax Mongolica
Pax Mongolica
and Black Death

Tuda Mengu
Tuda Mengu
of the Golden Horde.

The Mongols
Mongols
had a history of supporting merchants and trade. Genghis Khan had encouraged foreign merchants early in his career, even before uniting the Mongols. Merchants provided information about neighboring cultures, served as diplomats and official traders for the Mongols, and were essential for many goods, since the Mongols
Mongols
produced little of their own. Mongols
Mongols
sometimes provided capital for merchants and sent them far afield, in an ortoq (merchant partner) arrangement. As the empire grew, any merchants or ambassadors with proper documentation and authorization received protection and sanctuary as they traveled through Mongol
Mongol
realms. Well-traveled and relatively well-maintained roads linked lands from the Mediterranean basin to China, greatly increasing overland trade and resulting in some dramatic stories of those who travelled through what would become known as the Silk Road. Western explorer Marco Polo
Marco Polo
traveled east along the Silk Road, and the Chinese Mongol
Mongol
monk Rabban Bar Sauma
Rabban Bar Sauma
made a comparably epic journey along the route, venturing from his home of Khanbaliq
Khanbaliq
(Beijing) as far as Europe. European missionaries, such as William of Rubruck, also traveled to the Mongol
Mongol
court to convert believers to their cause, or went as papal envoys to correspond with Mongol
Mongol
rulers in an attempt to secure a Franco- Mongol
Mongol
alliance. It was rare, however, for anyone to journey the full length of Silk Road. Instead, merchants moved products like a bucket brigade, goods being traded from one middleman to another, moving from China all the way to the West; the goods moved over such long distances fetched extravagant prices.[citation needed]

An Islamic gold coin inscribed in the name of Genghis Khan

After Genghis, the merchant partner business continued to flourish under his successors Ögedei
Ögedei
and Güyük. Merchants brought clothing, food, information, and other provisions to the imperial palaces, and in return the great khans gave the merchants tax exemptions and allowed them to use the official relay stations of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire. Merchants also served as tax farmers in China, Russia and Iran. If the merchants were attacked by bandits, losses were made up from the imperial treasury.[citation needed] Policies changed under the Great Khan
Great Khan
Möngke. Because of money laundering and overtaxing, he attempted to limit abuses and sent imperial investigators to supervise the ortoq businesses. He decreed that all merchants must pay commercial and property taxes, and he paid off all drafts drawn by high-ranking Mongol
Mongol
elites from the merchants. This policy continued under the Yuan dynasty.[citation needed] The fall of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
in the 14th century led to the collapse of the political, cultural, and economic unity along the Silk Road. Turkic tribes seized the western end of the route from the Byzantine Empire, sowing the seeds of a Turkic culture that would later crystallize into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under the Sunni
Sunni
faith. In the East, the native Chinese overthrew the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in 1368, launching their own Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and pursuing a policy of economic isolationism.[122] Legacy[edit] See also: History of Mongolia

Map showing the boundary of 13th century Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
compared to today's Mongols
Mongols
in Mongolia, Russia, the Central Asian States, and China

The Mongol
Mongol
Empire – at its height the largest contiguous empire in history – had a lasting impact, unifying large regions. Some of these (such as eastern and western Russia and the western parts of China) remain unified today.[123] Mongols
Mongols
might have been assimilated into local populations after the fall of the empire, and some of these descendants adopted local religions – for example, the eastern khanate largely adopted Buddhism, and the three western khanates adopted Islam, largely under Sufi
Sufi
influence.[116] According to some[specify] interpretations, Genghis Khan's conquests caused wholesale destruction on an unprecedented scale in certain geographical regions, leading to changes in the demographics of Asia. Non-military achievements of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
included the introduction of a writing system, a Mongol
Mongol
alphabet based on the characters of the Uyghur language, that is still used today in Mongolia.[124]

Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
and the armies of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
initiate the Siege of Moscow (1382).

Some of the other long-term consequences of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
include:

Moscow rose to prominence whilst under the Mongol- Tatar
Tatar
yoke, some time after Russian rulers were accorded the status of tax collectors for the Mongols. The fact that the Russians collected tribute and taxes for the Mongols
Mongols
meant that the Mongols
Mongols
themselves would rarely visit the lands that they owned. The Russians eventually gained military power, and their ruler Ivan III overthrew the Mongols completely to form the Russian Tsardom. After the Great stand on the Ugra river proved the Mongols
Mongols
vulnerable, the Grand Duchy of Moscow gained independence. Europe's knowledge of the known world was immensely expanded by the information brought back by ambassadors and merchants. When Columbus sailed in 1492, his mission was to reach Cathay, the land of the Grand Khan in China, and give him a letter from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.[citation needed] Some studies indicate that the Black Death
Black Death
that devastated Europe in the late 1340s may have traveled from China to Europe along the trade routes of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire. In 1347, the Genoese possessor of Caffa, a great trade emporium on the Crimean
Crimean
Peninsula, came under siege by an army of Mongol
Mongol
warriors under the command of Janibeg. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol
Mongol
army was reportedly withering from disease, they decided to use the infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants.[125] The Genoese traders fled, transferring the plague via their ships into the south of Europe, from where it rapidly spread. The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated at 75–200 million with up to 50 million deaths in Europe alone.[126]

Dominican martyrs killed by Mongols
Mongols
during the Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Poland in 1260.

Western researcher R. J. Rummel
R. J. Rummel
estimated that 30 million people were killed under the rule of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire. Some estimates go as high as 80 million killed, with 50 million deaths being the middle ground. The population of China fell by half in fifty years of Mongol
Mongol
rule. Before the Mongol
Mongol
invasion, the territories of the Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people. While it is tempting to attribute this major decline solely to Mongol
Mongol
ferocity, scholars today have mixed opinions regarding this subject. Scholars such as Frederick W. Mote argue that the wide drop in numbers reflects an administrative failure to record rather than a de facto decrease, whilst others such as Timothy Brook argue that the Mongols
Mongols
reduced much of the south Chinese population, and very debatably the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
population, to an invisible status through cancellation of the right to passports and denial of the right to direct land ownership. This meant that the Chinese had to depend on and be cared for chiefly by Mongols
Mongols
and Tartars, which also involved recruitment into the Mongol
Mongol
army. Other historians such as William McNeill and David Morgan argue that the bubonic plague was the main factor behind the demographic decline during this period.[citation needed] The Islamic world
Islamic world
was subject to massive changes as a result of Mongol invasions. The population of the Iranian plateau suffered from widespread disease and famine, resulting in the deaths of up to three-quarters of its population, possibly 10 to 15 million people. Historian Steven Ward estimates that Iran's population did not reach its pre- Mongol
Mongol
levels again until the mid-20th century.[127] David Nicole states in The Mongol
Mongol
Warlords, "terror and mass extermination of anyone opposing them was a well tested Mongol tactic."[128] About half of the Russian population may have died during the invasion.[129] However, Colin McEvedy in Atlas of World Population History, 1978 estimates the population of Russia-in-Europe dropped from 7.5 million prior to the invasion to 7 million afterwards.[128] Historians estimate that up to half of Hungary's two million population were victims of the Mongol
Mongol
invasion.[130] Historian Andrea Peto says that Rogerius, an eyewitness, said "the Mongols killed everybody regardless of gender or age" and that "the Mongols especially 'found pleasure' in humiliating women."[131]

The first Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Babur
Babur
and his heir Humayun

One of the more successful tactics employed by the Mongols
Mongols
was to wipe out urban populations that refused to surrender. During the Mongol invasion of Rus', almost all major cities were destroyed. If they chose to submit, the people were generally spared, though this was not guaranteed. For example, the city of Hamadan in modern-day Iran was destroyed and every man, woman, and child executed by Mongol
Mongol
general Subadai, after surrendering to him but failing to have enough provisions for his Mongol
Mongol
scouting force. Several days after the initial razing of the city, Subadai sent a force back to the burning ruins and the site of the massacre to kill any inhabitants of the city who had been away at the time of the initial slaughter and had returned in the meantime. Mongolian armies made use of local peoples and their soldiers, often incorporating them into their armies. Prisoners of war sometimes were given the choice between death and becoming part of the Mongol
Mongol
army to aid in future conquests.[132] In addition to intimidation tactics, the rapid expansion of the empire was facilitated by military hardiness (especially during bitterly cold winters), military skill, meritocracy, and discipline.

Kalmyk migration from Russia to China in 1770–1771

The Crimean
Crimean
Khanate and other descendants, such as the Mughal royal family of South Asia, are descended from Genghis Khan: Babur's mother was a descendant, whereas his father was directly descended from Timur (Tamerlane). The word "Mughol" is a Persian word for Mongol. The Kalmyks
Kalmyks
were the last Mongol
Mongol
nomads to penetrate European territory, having migrated to Europe from Central Asia
Central Asia
at the turn of the 17th century. In the winter of 1770–1771, approximately 200,000 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
began the journey from their pastures on the left bank of the Volga River
Volga River
to Dzungaria, through the territories of their Kazakh and Kyrgyz enemies. After several months of travel, only one-third of the original group reached Dzungaria
Dzungaria
in northwest China.[133] Some Turko- Mongol
Mongol
Khanates lasted into recent centuries: The Crimean Khanate lasted until 1783; the Khanate of Bukhara
Khanate of Bukhara
until 1920; the Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
until 1847; the Khanate of Kokand
Khanate of Kokand
until 1876; and the Khanate of Khiva
Khanate of Khiva
survived as a Russian protectorate until 1917.

See also[edit]

Mughal- Mongol
Mongol
genealogy Destruction under the Mongol
Mongol
Empire Yelü Chucai

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

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Khan by Da Pian Del Carpine Giovanni and Erik Hildinger (Branden BooksApril 1996 ISBN 978-0-8283-2017-7) ^ Michael Khodarkovsky (2002)."Russia's Steppe
Steppe
Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500–1800". Indiana University Press. p. 142. ISBN 0253217709

Sources[edit]

Allsen, Thomas T. (1987). Mongol
Mongol
Imperialism: The Policies of the Grand Qan Möngke in China, Russia, and the Islamic Lands, 1251–1259. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520055278.  Allsen, Thomas T. (2004). Culture and conquest in Mongol
Mongol
Eurasia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-60270-9.  Amitai-Preiss, Reuven (1995). Mongols
Mongols
and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260–1281. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46226-6.  Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9.  Barfield, Thomas Jefferson (1992). The perilous frontier: nomadic empires and China. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-55786-324-9.  Burgan, Michael (2005). Empire
Empire
of the Mongols. New York: Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-0318-1.  Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0393317558.  Finlay, Robert (2010). The Pilgrim Art: Cultures of Porcelain in World History. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24468-9.  Foltz, Richard C. (1999). Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-23338-8.  Franke, Herbert (1994). Twitchett, Denis; Fairbank, John King, eds. Alien Regimes and Border States, 907–1368. The Cambridge History of China. 6. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire
Empire
of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia (translated from French by Naomi Walford). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.  Halperin, Charles J. (1985). Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20445-3.  Howorth, Henry H. (1965) [London edition, 1876]. History of the Mongols
Mongols
from the 9th to the 19th Century: Part I: The Mongols
Mongols
Proper and the Kalmuks. New York: Burt Frankin.  Hull, Mary. (1997). The Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
(World History Series). Greenhaven Press. ISBN 978-1560063124.  Jackson, Peter (1978). "The dissolution of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire". Central Asiatic Journal. XXXII: 208–351.  Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54329-0.  Jackson, Peter (2005). The Mongols
Mongols
and the West: 1221–1410. Harlow, UK; New York: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-36896-5.  Lane, George (2006). Daily life in the Mongol
Mongol
empire. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-33226-5.  Man, John (2004). Genghis Khan: Life, death and resurrection. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-36624-7.  Man, John (2007). Kublai
Kublai
Khan: from Xanadu to superpower. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-81718-8.  Morgan, David (June 1989). Arbel, B.; et al., eds. "The Mongols
Mongols
and the Eastern Mediterranean: Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204". Mediterranean Historical Review. Tel Aviv, Illinois: Routledge. 4 (1): 204. doi:10.1080/09518968908569567. ISSN 0951-8967. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Morgan, David (2007). The Mongols
Mongols
(2nd ed.). Malden, Massachusetts; Oxford, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-3539-9.  Prawdin, Michael (pseudonym for Charol, Michael) (1961) [1940]. Mongol Empire. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Collier-Macmillan Canada. ISBN 1-4128-0519-8. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ratchnevsky, Paul (1993). Haining, Thomas Nivison (translator), ed. Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631189497.  Rossabi, Morris (1983). China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th–14th Centuries. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04383-9.  Sanders, Alan J. K. (2010). Historical Dictionary of Mongolia. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6191-6.  Saunders, John Joseph (2001). The history of the Mongol
Mongol
conquests. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1766-7.  Rybatzki, Volker (2009). The Early Mongols: Language, Culture and History. Indiana University. ISBN 978-0933070578.  Sverdrup, Carl (November 2010). "Numbers in Mongol
Mongol
Warfare". In Rogers, Clifford J.; DeVries, Kelly; France, John. Journal of Medieval Military History. 8. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-1-84383-596-7. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Vladimortsov, Boris (1969). The Life of Chingis Khan. B. Blom.  Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and the Making of the Modern World. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-609-80964-4. 

Further reading[edit]

Brent, Peter. The Mongol
Mongol
Empire: Genghis Khan: His Triumph and his Legacy. Book Club Associates, London. 1976. Buell, Paul D. (2003). Historical Dictionary of the Mongol
Mongol
World Empire. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-4571-7.  Cleaves, Francis Woodman. 1954. “A Medical Practice of the Mongols in the Thirteenth Century”. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 17 (3/4). Harvard-Yenching Institute: 428–44. doi:10.2307/2718323. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2718323 Halperin, Charles J.. 1983. “Russia in the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
in Comparative Perspective”. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 43 (1). Harvard-Yenching Institute: 239–61. doi:10.2307/2719023. Findlay, Ronald, and Mats Lundahl. 2016. "The First Globalization Episode: The Creation of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, or the Economics of Chinggis Khan." in The Economics of the Frontier, pp 173–221 May, Timothy. "The Mongol
Mongol
Art of War." Westholme Publishing, Yardley. 2007. ISBN 978-1-59416-046-2 / ISBN 1-59416-046-5 May, Timothy. The Mongol
Mongol
Conquests in World History (Reaktion Books, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 2012) 319 pages Ostrowski, Donald. 1998. “The "tamma" and the Dual-administrative Structure of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 61 (2). Cambridge University Press: 262–77. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3107652. Rossabi, Morris. The Mongols: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0199840892

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25630

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