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The Mongols
Mongols
(Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɡɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia
Mongolia
and China's Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China
China
(e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia
Buryatia
and Kalmykia. The Mongols
Mongols
are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language. The ancestors of the modern-day Mongols
Mongols
are referred to as Proto-Mongols.

Contents

1 Definition 2 History

2.1 In the Chinese classics 2.2 Era of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and Northern Yuan 2.3 Qing-era Mongols 2.4 Post-Qing era

3 Language 4 Religion 5 Military 6 Kinship and family life 7 Historical population 8 Geographic distribution

8.1 Subgroups 8.2 Mongolia 8.3 China 8.4 Russia 8.5 Elsewhere

9 Gallery 10 Data tables 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Definition Broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols
Mongols
proper (also known as the Khalkha
Khalkha
Mongols), Buryats, Oirats, the Kalmyk people
Kalmyk people
and the Southern Mongols. The latter comprises the Abaga Mongols, Abaganar, Aohans, Baarins, Gorlos
Gorlos
Mongols, Jalaids, Jaruud, Khishigten, Khuuchid, Muumyangan and Onnigud. The designation "Mongol" briefly appeared in 8th century records of Tang China
China
to describe a tribe of Shiwei. It resurfaced in the late 11th century during the Khitan-ruled Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao in 1125, the Khamag Mongols
Mongols
became a leading tribe on the Mongolian Plateau. However, their wars with the Jurchen-ruled Jin dynasty and the Tatar confederation
Tatar confederation
had weakened them. In the thirteenth century, the word Mongol grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic-speaking tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan.[14]

History of the Mongols

Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility Culture · Language · Proto-Mongols

States

Mongol khanates IX-X

Khereid
Khereid
Khanate X-1203

Merkit
Merkit
Khanate XI–XII

Tatar Khanate IX – XII

Naiman Khanate -1204

Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
Khanate X-1206

Mongol Empire 1206-1368

Yuan dynasty 1271-1368

Khitan Sultanate 1220s-1306

Chagatai Khanate 1225-1340s

Moghulistan 1346-1462

Golden Horde 1240-1502

Ilkhanate 1256-1335

Chobanids 1335-1357

Jalairid Sultanate 1335-1432

Injuids 1335-1357

Northern Yuan dynasty 1368-1691

Timurid Empire 1370–1507

Kara Del 1383-1513

Four Oirat 1399-1634

Arghun dynasty 1479-1599

Mughal Empire 1526–1857

Kalmyk Khanate 1630-1731

Khoshut
Khoshut
Khanate 1640s-1717

Dzungar Khanate 1634-1758

Bogd Khaganate 1911-1924

Mongolian People's Republic 1924–1992

Mongolia 1992-present

Mongolia
Mongolia
portal

v t e

History Main article: History of Mongolia In various times Mongolic peoples have been equated with the Scythians, the Magog and the Tungusic peoples. Based on Chinese historical texts the ancestry of the Mongolic peoples can be traced back to the Donghu, a nomadic confederation occupying eastern Mongolia and Manchuria. The identity of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(Hünnü) is still debated today. Although some scholars maintain that they were proto-Mongols, they were more likely a multi-ethnic group of Mongolic and Turkic tribes.[15] It has been suggested that the language of the Huns
Huns
was related to the Hünnü.[16][17] The Donghu, however, can be much more easily labeled proto-Mongol since the Chinese histories trace only Mongolic tribes and kingdoms ( Xianbei
Xianbei
and Wuhuan
Wuhuan
peoples) from them, although some historical texts claim a mixed Xiongnu-Donghu ancestry for some tribes (e.g. the Khitan).[18] In the Chinese classics See also: Timeline of Mongols
Mongols
prior to the Mongol Empire The Donghu are mentioned by Sima Qian
Sima Qian
as already existing in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
north of Yan in 699–632 BCE along with the Shanrong. Mentions in the Yi Zhou Shu ("Lost Book of Zhou") and the Classic of Mountains and Seas indicate the Donghu were also active during the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(1600–1046 BCE). The Xianbei
Xianbei
formed part of the Donghu confederation, but had earlier times of independence, as evidenced by a mention in the Guoyu ("晉語八" section), which states that during the reign of King Cheng of Zhou (reigned 1042–1021 BCE) they came to participate at a meeting of Zhou subject-lords at Qiyang (岐阳) (now Qishan County) but were only allowed to perform the fire ceremony under the supervision of Chu since they were not vassals by covenant (诸侯). The Xianbei
Xianbei
chieftain was appointed joint guardian of the ritual torch along with Xiong Yi. These early Xianbei
Xianbei
came from the nearby Zhukaigou culture (2200–1500 BCE) in the Ordos Desert, where maternal DNA corresponds to the Mongol Daur people
Daur people
and the Tungusic Evenks. The Zhukaigou Xianbei
Xianbei
(part of the Ordos culture
Ordos culture
of Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and northern Shaanxi) had trade relations with the Shang. In the late 2nd century, the Han dynasty scholar Fu Qian (服虔) wrote in his commentary "Jixie" (集解) that " Shanrong and Beidi
Beidi
are ancestors of the present-day Xianbei". Again in Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
another closely connected core Mongolic Xianbei
Xianbei
region was the Upper Xiajiadian culture (1000–600 BCE) where the Donghu confederation was centered. After the Donghu were defeated by Xiongnu
Xiongnu
king Modu Chanyu, the Xianbei
Xianbei
and Wuhuan
Wuhuan
survived as the main remnants of the confederation. Tadun Khan of the Wuhuan
Wuhuan
(died 207 AD) was the ancestor of the proto-Mongolic Kumo Xi.[19] The Wuhuan
Wuhuan
are of the direct Donghu royal line and the New Book of Tang says that in 209 BCE, Modu Chanyu defeated the Wuhuan
Wuhuan
instead of using the word Donghu. The Xianbei, however, were of the lateral Donghu line and had a somewhat separate identity, although they shared the same language with the Wuhuan. In 49 CE the Xianbei
Xianbei
ruler Bianhe (Bayan Khan?) raided and defeated the Xiongnu, killing 2000, after having received generous gifts from Emperor Guangwu of Han. The Xianbei
Xianbei
reached their peak under Tanshihuai Khan (reigned 156–181) who expanded the vast, but short lived, Xianbei
Xianbei
state (93–234). Three prominent groups split from the Xianbei
Xianbei
state as recorded by the Chinese histories: the Rouran
Rouran
(claimed by some to be the Pannonian Avars), the Khitan people
Khitan people
and the Shiwei
Shiwei
(a subtribe called the " Shiwei
Shiwei
Menggu" is held to be the origin of the Genghisid Mongols).[20] Besides these three Xianbei
Xianbei
groups, there were others such as the Murong, Duan and Tuoba. Their culture was nomadic, their religion shamanism or Buddhism
Buddhism
and their military strength formidable. There is still no direct evidence that the Rouran
Rouran
spoke Mongolic languages, although most scholars agree that they were Proto-Mongolic.[21] The Khitan, however, had two scripts of their own and many Mongolic words are found in their half-deciphered writings. Geographically, the Tuoba
Tuoba
Xianbei
Xianbei
ruled the southern part of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
and northern China, the Rouran
Rouran
( Yujiulü Shelun was the first to use the title khagan in 402) ruled eastern Mongolia, western Mongolia, the northern part of Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and northern Mongolia, the Khitan were concentrated in eastern part of Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
north of Korea
Korea
and the Shiwei
Shiwei
were located to the north of the Khitan. These tribes and kingdoms were soon overshadowed by the rise of the Turkic Khaganate in 555, the Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
in 745 and the Yenisei Kirghiz states in 840. The Tuoba
Tuoba
were eventually absorbed into China. The Rouran
Rouran
fled west from the Göktürks and either disappeared into obscurity or, as some say, invaded Europe as the Avars under their Khan, Bayan I. Some Rouran
Rouran
under Tatar Khan migrated east, founding the Tatar confederation, who became part of the Shiwei. The Khitan, who were independent after their separation from the Kumo Xi (of Wuhuan
Wuhuan
origin) in 388, continued as a minor power in Manchuria
Manchuria
until one of them, Ambagai (872–926), established the Liao dynasty (907–1125) as Emperor Taizu of Liao. Era of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and Northern Yuan Main articles: Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and Northern Yuan dynasty

Asia in 500, showing the Rouran
Rouran
Khaganate and its neighbors, including the Northern Wei and the Tuyuhun Khanate, all of them were established by Proto-Mongols

The destruction of Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
by the Kirghiz resulted in the end of Turkic dominance in Mongolia. According to historians, Kirghiz were not interested in assimilating newly acquired lands; instead, they controlled local tribes through various manaps (tribal leader). The Khitans occupied the areas vacated by the Turkic Uyghurs
Uyghurs
bringing them under their control. The Yenisei Kirghiz
Yenisei Kirghiz
state was centered on Khakassia
Khakassia
and they were expelled from Mongolia
Mongolia
by the Khitans in 924. Beginning in the 10th century, the Khitans, under the leadership of Abaoji, prevailed in a several military campaigns against the Tang Dynasty's border guards, and the Xi, Shiwei
Shiwei
and Jurchen nomadic groups.[22] The Khitan fled west after being defeated by the Jurchens
Jurchens
(later known as Manchu) and founded the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
(1125–1218) in eastern Kazakhstan. In 1218, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
destroyed the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
after which the Khitan passed into obscurity. With the expansion of the Mongol Empire, the Mongolic peoples settled over almost all Eurasia and carried on military campaigns from the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to Indonesian Java
Java
island and from Japan
Japan
to Palestine (Gaza). They simultaneously became Padishahs of Persia, Emperors of China, and Great Khans
Great Khans
of Mongolia, and one became Sultan of Egypt
Sultan of Egypt
(Al-Adil Kitbugha). The Mongolic peoples of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
established themselves to govern Russia
Russia
by 1240.[23] By 1279, they conquered the Song dynasty and brought all of China
China
under control of the Yuan dynasty.[23]

Mongols
Mongols
using Chinese gunpowder bombs during the Mongol Invasions of Japan, 1281

With the breakup of the empire, the dispersed Mongolic peoples quickly adopted the mostly Turkic cultures surrounding them and were assimilated, forming parts of Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Tatars, Bashkirs, Turkmens, Uyghurs, Nogays, Kyrgyzs, Kazakhs, Caucasaus peoples, Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
and Moghuls; linguistic and cultural Persianization also began to be prominent in these territories. Some Mongols
Mongols
assimilated into the Yakuts
Yakuts
after their migration to Northern Siberia
Siberia
and about 30% of Yakut words have Mongol origin. However, most of the Yuan Mongols
Mongols
returned to Mongolia
Mongolia
in 1368, retaining their language and culture. There were 250,000 Mongols in Southern China
China
and many Mongols
Mongols
were massacred by the rebel army. The survivors were trapped in southern china and eventually assimilated. The Dongxiangs, Bonans, Yugur
Yugur
and Monguor people
Monguor people
were invaded by Chinese Ming dynasty. After the fall of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in 1368, the Mongols
Mongols
continued to rule the Northern Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in Mongolia
Mongolia
homeland. However, the Oirads began to challenge the Eastern Mongolic peoples under the Borjigin
Borjigin
monarchs in the late 14th century and Mongolia
Mongolia
was divided into two parts: Western Mongolia
Mongolia
(Oirats) and Eastern Mongolia (Khalkha, Inner Mongols, Barga, Buryats). The earliest written references to the plough in Middle Mongolian language
Mongolian language
sources appear towards the end of the 14th c.[24] In 1434, Eastern Mongolian Taisun Khan's (1433–1452) prime minister Western Mongolian Togoon Taish reunited the Mongols
Mongols
after killing Eastern Mongolian another king Adai (Khorchin). Togoon died in 1439 and his son Esen Taish
Esen Taish
became prime minister.Esen carried out successful policy for Mongolian unification and independence. The Ming Empire attempted to invade Mongolia
Mongolia
in the 14–16th centuries, however, the Ming Empire was defeated by the Oirat, Southern Mongol, Eastern Mongol and united Mongolian armies. Esen's 30,000 cavalries defeated 500,000 Chinese soldiers in 1449. Within eighteen months of his defeat of the titular Khan Taisun, in 1453, Esen himself took the title of Great Khan
Great Khan
(1454–1455) of the Great Yuan.[25] The Khalkha
Khalkha
emerged during the reign of Dayan Khan (1479–1543) as one of the six tumens of the Eastern Mongolic peoples. They quickly became the dominant Mongolic clan in Mongolia
Mongolia
proper.[26][27] He reunited the Mongols
Mongols
again. The Mongols
Mongols
voluntarily reunified during Eastern Mongolian Tümen Zasagt Khan
Tümen Zasagt Khan
rule (1558–1592) for the last time (the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
united all Mongols
Mongols
before this). Eastern Mongolia
Mongolia
was divided into three parts in the 17th century: Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
(Khalkha), Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
(Inner Mongols) and the Buryat region in southern Siberia. The last Mongol khagan was Ligdan in the early 17th century. He got into conflicts with the Manchus over the looting of Chinese cities, and managed to alienate most Mongol tribes. In 1618, Ligdan signed a treaty with the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
to protect their northern border from the Manchus attack in exchange for thousands of taels of silver. By the 1620s, only the Chahars
Chahars
remained under his rule. Qing-era Mongols See also: Mongolia
Mongolia
under Qing rule The Chahar army was defeated in 1625 and 1628 by the Inner Mongol and Manchu armies due to Ligdan's faulty tactics. The Qing forces secured their control over Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
by 1635, and the army of the last khan Ligdan moved to battle against Tibetan Gelugpa
Gelugpa
sect (Yellow Hat sect) forces. The Gelugpa
Gelugpa
forces supported the Manchus, while Ligdan supported Kagyu
Kagyu
sect (Red Hat sect) of Tibetan Buddhism. Ligden died in 1634 on his way to Tibet. By 1636, most Inner Mongolian nobles had submitted to the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
founded by the Manchus. Inner Mongolian Tengis noyan revolted against the Qing in the 1640s and the Khalkha battled to protect Sunud. Western Mongolian Oirats
Oirats
and Eastern Mongolian Khalkhas vied for domination in Mongolia
Mongolia
since the 15th century and this conflict weakened Mongolian strength. In 1688, Western Mongolian Dzungar Khanate's king Galdan Boshugtu attacked Khalkha
Khalkha
after murder of his younger brother by Tusheet Khan Chakhundorj (main or Central Khalkha leader) and the Khalkha-Oirat War began. Galdan threatened to kill Chakhundorj and Zanabazar
Zanabazar
(Javzandamba Khutagt I, spiritual head of Khalkha) but they escaped to Sunud
Sunud
(Inner Mongolia). Many Khalkha nobles and folks fled to Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
because of the war. Few Khalkhas fled to the Buryat region and Russia
Russia
threatened to exterminate them if they did not submit, but many of them submitted to Galdan Boshugtu. In 1683 Galdan's armies reached Tashkent
Tashkent
and the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
and crushed two armies of the Kazakhs. After that Galdan subjugated the Black Khirgizs and ravaged the Fergana Valley. From 1685 Galdan's forces aggressively pushed the Kazakhs. While his general Rabtan took Taraz, and his main force forced the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
to migrate westwards.[28] In 1687, he besieged the City of Turkistan. Under the leadership of Abul Khair Khan, the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
won major victories over the Dzungars at the Bulanty River in 1726, and at the Battle of Anrakay in 1729.[29] The Khalkha
Khalkha
eventually submitted to Qing rule in 1691 by Zanabazar's decision, thus bringing all of today's Mongolia
Mongolia
under the rule of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
but Khalkha
Khalkha
de facto remained under the rule of Galdan Boshugtu Khaan until 1696. The Mongol-Oirat's Code (a treaty of alliance) against foreign invasion between the Oirats
Oirats
and Khalkhas was signed in 1640, however, the Mongols
Mongols
could not unite against foreign invasions. Chakhundorj fought against Russian invasion of Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
until 1688 and stopped Russian invasion of Khövsgöl Province. Zanabazar
Zanabazar
struggled to bring together the Oirats
Oirats
and Khalkhas before the war. Galdan Boshugtu sent his army to "liberate" Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
after defeating the Khalkha's army and called Inner Mongolian nobles to fight for Mongolian independence. Some Inner Mongolian nobles, Tibetans, Kumul Khanate
Kumul Khanate
and some Moghulistan's nobles supported his war against the Manchus, however, Inner Mongolian nobles did not battle against the Qing. There were three khans in Khalkha
Khalkha
and Zasagt Khan Shar (Western Khalkha
Khalkha
leader) was Galdan's ally. Tsetsen Khan (Eastern Khalkha leader) did not engage in this conflict. While Galdan was fighting in Eastern Mongolia, his nephew Tseveenravdan seized the Dzungarian throne in 1689 and this event made Galdan impossible to fight against the Qing Empire. The Russian and Qing Empires supported his action because this coup weakened Western Mongolian strength. Galdan Boshugtu's army was defeated by the outnumbering Qing army in 1696 and he died in 1697. The Mongols
Mongols
who fled to the Buryat region and Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
returned after the war. Some Khalkhas mixed with the Buryats.

A soldier from the late Qing era, by William Alexander, 1793

The Buryats
Buryats
fought against Russian invasion since the 1620s and thousands of Buryats
Buryats
were massacred. The Buryat region was formally annexed to Russia
Russia
by treaties in 1689 and 1727, when the territories on both the sides of Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
were separated from Mongolia. In 1689 the Treaty of Nerchinsk
Treaty of Nerchinsk
established the northern border of Manchuria north of the present line. The Russians retained Trans-Baikalia between Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
and the Argun River north of Mongolia. The Treaty of Kyakhta (1727), along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk, regulated the relations between Imperial Russia
Russia
and the Qing Empire until the mid-nineteenth century. It established the northern border of Mongolia. Oka Buryats
Buryats
revolted in 1767 and Russia
Russia
completely conquered the Buryat region in the late 18th century. Russia
Russia
and Qing were rival empires until the early 20th century, however, both empires carried out united policy against Central Asians.

The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1755 between the Qing (that ruled China at the time) and Mongol Dzungar armies. The fall of the Dzungar Khanate

The Qing Empire conquered Upper Mongolia
Mongolia
or the Oirat's Khoshut Khanate in the 1720s and 80,000 people were killed.[30] By that period, Upper Mongolian population reached 200,000. The Dzungar Khanate conquered by the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1755–1758 because of their leaders and military commanders conflicts. Some scholars estimate that about 80% of the Dzungar population were destroyed by a combination of warfare and disease during the Qing conquest of the Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
in 1755–1758.[31] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide,[32] has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence."[33] The Dzungar population reached 600,000 in 1755. About 200,000–250,000 Oirats
Oirats
migrated from Western Mongolia
Mongolia
to Volga River in 1607 and established the Kalmyk Khanate.The Torghuts were led by their Tayishi, Höö Örlög. Russia
Russia
was concerned about their attack but the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
became Russian ally and a treaty to protect Southern Russian border was signed between the Kalmyk Khanate
Kalmyk Khanate
and Russia.In 1724 the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
came under control of Russia. By the early 18th century, there were approximately 300–350,000 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
and 15,000,000 Russians.[citation needed] The Tsardom of Russia
Russia
gradually chipped away at the autonomy of the Kalmyk Khanate. These policies, for instance, encouraged the establishment of Russian and German settlements on pastures the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
used to roam and feed their livestock. In addition, the Tsarist government imposed a council on the Kalmyk Khan, thereby diluting his authority, while continuing to expect the Kalmyk Khan to provide cavalry units to fight on behalf of Russia. The Russian Orthodox church, by contrast, pressured Buddhist Kalmyks
Kalmyks
to adopt Orthodoxy.In January 1771, approximately 200,000 (170,000)[34] Kalmyks
Kalmyks
began the migration from their pastures on the left bank of the Volga River
Volga River
to Dzungaria (Western Mongolia), through the territories of their Bashkir and Kazakh enemies. The last Kalmyk khan Ubashi led the migration to restore Mongolian independence. Ubashi Khan
Ubashi Khan
sent his 30,000 cavalries to the Russo-Turkish War in 1768–1769 to gain weapon before the migration.The Empress Catherine the Great ordered the Russian army, Bashkirs
Bashkirs
and Kazakhs
Kazakhs
to exterminate all migrants and the Empress abolished the Kalmyk Khanate.[34][35][36][37][38] The Kyrgyzs
Kyrgyzs
attacked them near Balkhash Lake. About 100,000–150,000 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
who settled on the west bank of the Volga River
Volga River
could not cross the river because the river did not freeze in the winter of 1771 and Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
executed influential nobles of them. After seven months of travel, only one-third (66,073)[34] of the original group reached Dzungaria (Balkhash Lake, western border of the Qing Empire).[39] The Qing Empire transmigrated the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
to five different areas to prevent their revolt and influential leaders of the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
died soon (killed by the Manchus). Russia
Russia
states that Buryatia
Buryatia
voluntarily merged with Russia
Russia
in 1659 due to Mongolian oppression and the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
voluntarily accepted Russian rule in 1609 but only Georgia voluntarily accepted Russian rule.[40][41]

Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of the Mongolian People's Republic (left), and Georgy Zhukov
Georgy Zhukov
consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol against Japanese troops, 1939

In the early 20th century, the late Qing government encouraged Han Chinese colonization of Mongolian lands under the name of "New Policies" or "New Administration" (xinzheng). As a result, some Mongol leaders (especially those of Outer Mongolia) decided to seek Mongolian independence. After the Xinhai Revolution, the Mongolian Revolution on 30 November 1911 in Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
ended over 200-year rule of the Qing dynasty. Post-Qing era With the independence of Outer Mongolia, the Mongolian army controlled Khalkha
Khalkha
and Khovd regions (modern day Uvs, Khovd, and Bayan-Ölgii provinces), but Northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(the Altai and Ili regions of the Qing Empire), Upper Mongolia, Barga and Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
came under control of the newly formed Republic of China. On February 2, 1913 the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia
Mongolia
sent Mongolian cavalries to "liberate" Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
from China. Russia
Russia
refused to sell weapons to the Bogd Khanate, and the Russian czar, Nicholas II, referred to it as "Mongolian imperialism". Additionally, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
urged Russia to abolish Mongolian independence as it was concerned that "if Mongolians gain independence, then Central Asians will revolt". 10,000 Khalkha
Khalkha
and Inner Mongolian cavalries (about 3,500 Inner Mongols) defeated 70,000 Chinese soldiers and controlled almost all of Inner Mongolia; however, the Mongolian army retreated due to lack of weapons in 1914. 400 Mongol soldiers and 3,795 Chinese soldiers died in this war. The Khalkhas, Khovd Oirats, Buryats, Dzungarian Oirats, Upper Mongols, Barga Mongols, most Inner Mongolian and some Tuvan leaders sent statements to support Bogd Khan's call of Mongolian reunification. In reality however, most of them were too prudent or irresolute to attempt joining the Bogd Khan regime.[42] Russia encouraged Mongolia
Mongolia
to become an autonomous region of China
China
in 1914. Mongolia
Mongolia
lost Barga, Dzungaria, Tuva, Upper Mongolia
Mongolia
and Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
in the 1915 Treaty of Kyakhta. In October 1919, the Republic of China
China
occupied Mongolia
Mongolia
after the suspicious deaths of Mongolian patriotic nobles. On 3 February 1921 the White Russian army—led by Baron Ungern
Baron Ungern
and mainly consisting of Mongolian volunteer cavalries, and Buryat and Tatar cossacks—liberated the Mongolian capital. Baron Ungern's purpose was to find allies to defeat the Soviet Union. The Statement of Reunification of Mongolia
Mongolia
was adopted by Mongolian revolutionist leaders in 1921. The Soviet, however, considered Mongolia
Mongolia
to be Chinese territory in 1924 during secret meeting with the Republic of China. However, the Soviets
Soviets
officially recognized Mongolian independence in 1945 but carried out various policies (political, economic and cultural) against Mongolia
Mongolia
until its fall in 1991 to prevent Pan-Mongolism
Pan-Mongolism
and other irredentist movements. On 10 April 1932 Mongolians revolted against the government's new policy and Soviets. The government and Soviet soldiers defeated the rebels in October. The Buryats
Buryats
started to migrate to Mongolia
Mongolia
in the 1900s due to Russian oppression. Joseph Stalin's regime stopped the migration in 1930 and started a campaign of ethnic cleansing against newcomers and Mongolians. During the Stalinist repressions in Mongolia
Mongolia
almost all adult Buryat men and 22–33,000 Mongols
Mongols
(3–5% of the total population; common citizens, monks, Pan-Mongolists, nationalists, patriots, hundreds military officers, nobles, intellectuals and elite people) were shot dead under Soviet orders.[43][44] Some authors also offer much higher estimates, up to 100,000 victims.[44] Around the late 1930s the Mongolian People's Republic
Mongolian People's Republic
had an overall population of about 700,000 to 900,000 people.By 1939, Soviet said "We repressed too many people, the population of Mongolia
Mongolia
is only hundred thousands". Proportion of victims in relation to the population of the country is much higher than the corresponding figures of the Great Purge in the Soviet Union. The Manchukuo
Manchukuo
(1932–1945), puppet state of the Empire of Japan (1868–1947) invaded Barga and some part of Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
with Japanese help. The Mongolian army advanced to the Great Wall of China during the Soviet–Japanese War of 1945 (Mongolian name: Liberation War of 1945). Japan
Japan
forced Inner Mongolian and Barga people to fight against Mongolians but they surrendered to Mongolians and started to fight against their Japanese and Manchu allies. Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan called Inner Mongolians and Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Oirats
Oirats
to migrate to Mongolia
Mongolia
during the war but the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
blocked Inner Mongolian migrants way. It was a part of Pan-Mongolian plan and few Oirats
Oirats
and Inner Mongols
Inner Mongols
(Huuchids, Bargas, Tümeds, about 800 Uzemchins) arrived. Inner Mongolian leaders carried out active policy to merge Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
with Mongolia
Mongolia
since 1911. They founded the Inner Mongolian Army in 1929 but the Inner Mongolian Army
Inner Mongolian Army
disbanded after ending World War II. The Japanese Empire supported Pan-Mongolism
Pan-Mongolism
since the 1910s but there have never been active relations between Mongolia and Imperial Japan
Japan
due to Russian resistance. Inner Mongolian nominally independent Mengjiang
Mengjiang
state (1936–1945) was established with support of Japan
Japan
in 1936 also some Buryat and Inner Mongol nobles founded Pan-Mongolist government with support of Japan
Japan
in 1919.

World War II
World War II
Zaisan Memorial, Ulaan Baatar, from the People's Republic of Mongolia
Mongolia
era.

The Inner Mongols
Inner Mongols
established the short-lived Republic of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
in 1945. Another part of Choibalsan's plan was to merge Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and Dzungaria with Mongolia. By 1945, Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong requested the Soviets
Soviets
to stop Pan-Mongolism
Pan-Mongolism
because China
China
lost its control over Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and without Inner Mongolian support the Communists were unable to defeat Japan
Japan
and Kuomintang. Mongolia
Mongolia
and Soviet-supported Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghurs
Uyghurs
and Kazakhs' separatist movement in the 1930–1940s. By 1945, Soviet refused to support them after its alliance with the Communist
Communist
Party of China
China
and Mongolia interrupted its relations with the separatists under pressure. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Oirat's militant groups operated together the Turkic peoples but the Oirats
Oirats
did not have the leading role due to their small population. Basmachis or Turkic and Tajik militants fought to liberate Central Asia
Central Asia
(Soviet Central Asia) until 1942. On February 2, 1913 the Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tibet
Tibet
was signed. Mongolian agents and Bogd Khan disrupted Soviet secret operations in Tibet
Tibet
to change its regime in the 1920s. On 27 October 1961 UN recognized Mongolian independence after ending Western boycotts. The Tsardom of Russia, Russian Empire, Soviet Union, capitalist and communist China
China
performed many genocide actions against the Mongols (assimilate, reduce the population, extinguish the language, culture, tradition, history, religion and ethnic identity). Peter the Great said: "The headwaters of the Yenisei River
Yenisei River
must be Russian land".[45] Russian Empire
Russian Empire
sent the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
and Buryats
Buryats
to war to reduce the populations ( World War I
World War I
and other wars).Soviet scientists attempted to convince the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
and Buryats
Buryats
that they're not the Mongols during the 20th century (demongolization policy). 35,000 Buryats
Buryats
were killed during the rebellion of 1927 and around one-third of Buryat population in Russia
Russia
died in the 1900s–1950s.[46][47] 10,000 Buryats of the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic were massacred by Stalin's order in the 1930s.[48] In 1919 the Buryats established a small theocratic Balagad state in Kizhinginsky District of Russia
Russia
and the Buryat's state fell in 1926. In 1958, the name "Mongol" was removed from the name of the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On 22 January 1922 Mongolia
Mongolia
proposed to migrate the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
during the Kalmykian Famine but bolshevik Russia
Russia
refused.71–72,000 (93,000?; around half of the population) Kalmyks
Kalmyks
died during the Russian famine of 1921–22.[49] The Kalmyks
Kalmyks
revolted against Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1926, 1930 and 1942–1943 (see Kalmykian Cavalry Corps). In 1913, Nicholas II, tsar of Russia, said: "We need to prevent from Volga Tatars. But the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
are more dangerous than them because they are the Mongols so send them to war to reduce the population".[50] On 23 April 1923 Joseph Stalin, communist leader of Russia, said: "We are carrying out wrong policy on the Kalmyks
Kalmyks
who related to the Mongols.Our policy is too peaceful".[50] In March 1927, Soviet deported 20,000 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
to Siberia, tundra and Karelia.The Kalmyks
Kalmyks
founded sovereign Republic of Oirat-Kalmyk on 22 March 1930.[50] The Oirat's state had a small army and 200 Kalmyk soldiers defeated 1,700 Soviet soldiers in Durvud province of Kalmykia
Kalmykia
but the Oirat's state destroyed by the Soviet Army in 1930. Kalmykian nationalists and Pan-Mongolists attempted to migrate Kalmyks
Kalmyks
to Mongolia
Mongolia
in the 1920s. Mongolia
Mongolia
suggested to migrate the Soviet Union's Mongols
Mongols
to Mongolia
Mongolia
in the 1920s but Russia refused the suggest. Stalin deported all Kalmyks
Kalmyks
to Siberia
Siberia
in 1943 and around half of (97–98,000) Kalmyk people
Kalmyk people
deported to Siberia
Siberia
died before being allowed to return home in 1957.[51] The government of the Soviet Union forbade teaching Kalmyk language
Kalmyk language
during the deportation.The Kalmyks' main purpose was to migrate to Mongolia
Mongolia
and many Kalmyks
Kalmyks
joined the German Army.Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan
Khorloogiin Choibalsan
attempted to migrate the deportees to Mongolia
Mongolia
and he met with them in Siberia
Siberia
during his visit to Russia. Under the Law of the Russian Federation of April 26, 1991 "On Rehabilitation of Exiled Peoples" repressions against Kalmyks
Kalmyks
and other peoples were qualified as an act of genocide.

Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
(right)

After the end of World War II, the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
resumed between the Chinese Nationalists
Chinese Nationalists
(Kuomintang), led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Chinese Communist
Communist
Party, led by Mao Zedong. In December 1949, Chiang evacuated his government to Taiwan. Hundred thousands Inner Mongols were massacred during the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in the 1960s and China forbade Mongol traditions, celebrations and the teaching of Mongolic languages during the revolution.In Inner Mongolia, some 790,000 people were persecuted. Approximately 1,000,000 Inner Mongols
Inner Mongols
were killed during the 20th century.[52][citation needed] In 1960 Chinese newspaper wrote that " Han Chinese
Han Chinese
ethnic identity must be Chinese minorities ethnic identity".[citation needed] China- Mongolia
Mongolia
relations were tense from the 1960s to the 1980s as a result of Sino-Soviet split, and there were several border conflicts during the period.[53] Cross-border movement of Mongols
Mongols
was therefore hindered. On 3 October 2002 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that Taiwan
Taiwan
recognizes Mongolia
Mongolia
as an independent country,[54] although no legislative actions were taken to address concerns over its constitutional claims to Mongolia.[55] Offices established to support Taipei's claims over Outer Mongolia, such as the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission,[56] lie dormant. Agin-Buryat Okrug
Agin-Buryat Okrug
and Ust-Orda Buryat Okrugs merged with Irkutsk Oblast and Chita Oblast
Chita Oblast
in 2008 despite Buryats' resistance. Small scale protests occurred in Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
in 2011. The Inner Mongolian People's Party is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization[57] and its leaders are attempting to establish sovereign state or merge Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
with Mongolia.

A Mongolic Ger

Language Main article: Mongolic languages Mongolian is the official national language of Mongolia, where it is spoken by nearly 2.8 million people (2010 estimate),[58] and the official provincial language of China's Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region, where there are at least 4.1 million ethnic Mongols.[59] Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by roughly half of the country's 5.8 million ethnic Mongols
Mongols
(2005 estimate)[58] However, the exact number of Mongolian speakers in China
China
is unknown, as there is no data available on the language proficiency of that country's citizens. The use of Mongolian in China, specifically in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years. The language experienced a decline during the late Qing period, a revival between 1947 and 1965, a second decline between 1966 and 1976, a second revival between 1977 and 1992, and a third decline between 1995 and 2012.[60] However, in spite of the decline of the Mongolian language
Mongolian language
in some of Inner Mongolia's urban areas and educational spheres, the ethnic identity of the urbanized Chinese-speaking Mongols
Mongols
is most likely going to survive due to the presence of urban ethnic communities.[61] The multilingual situation in Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
does not appear to obstruct efforts by ethnic Mongols
Mongols
to preserve their language.[62][63] Although an unknown number of Mongols
Mongols
in China, such as the Tumets, may have completely or partially lost the ability to speak their language, they are still registered as ethnic Mongols
Mongols
and continue to identify themselves as ethnic Mongols.[58][64] The children of inter-ethnic Mongol-Chinese marriages also claim to be and are registered as ethnic Mongols.[65] The specific origin of the Mongolic languages
Mongolic languages
and associated tribes is unclear. Linguists have traditionally proposed a link to the Tungusic and Turkic language families, included alongside Mongolic in the broader group of Altaic languages, though this remains controversial. Today the Mongolian peoples speak at least one of several Mongolic languages including Mongolian, Buryat, Oirat, Dongxiang, Tu, Bonan, Hazaragi, and Aimaq. Additionally, many Mongols
Mongols
speak either Russian or Mandarin Chinese as languages of inter-ethnic communication. Religion Main articles: Buddhism
Buddhism
in Mongolia
Mongolia
and Mongolian Shamanism The original religion of the Mongolic peoples was Shamanism. The Xianbei
Xianbei
came in contact with Confucianism
Confucianism
and Daoism
Daoism
but eventually adopted Buddhism. However, the Xianbeis in Mongolia
Mongolia
and Rourans followed a form of Shamanism. In the 5th century the Buddhist monk Dharmapriya was proclaimed State Teacher of the Rouran
Rouran
Khaganate and given 3000 families and some Rouran
Rouran
nobles became Buddhists. In 511 the Rouran
Rouran
Douluofubadoufa Khan sent Hong Xuan to the Tuoba
Tuoba
court with a pearl-encrusted statue of the Buddha as a gift. The Tuoba
Tuoba
Xianbei and Khitans were mostly Buddhists, although they still retained their original Shamanism. The Tuoba
Tuoba
had a "sacrificial castle" to the west of their capital where ceremonies to spirits took place. Wooden statues of the spirits were erected on top of this sacrificial castle. One ritual involved seven princes with milk offerings who ascended the stairs with 20 female shamans and offered prayers, sprinkling the statues with the sacred milk. The Khitan had their holiest shrine on Mount Muye where portraits of their earliest ancestor Qishou Khagan, his wife Kedun and eight sons were kept in two temples. Mongolic peoples were also exposed to Zoroastrianism, Manicheism, Nestorianism, Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam
Islam
from the west. The Mongolic peoples, in particular the Borjigin, had their holiest shrine on Mount Burkhan Khaldun where their ancestor Börte Chono (Blue Wolf) and Goo Maral (Beautiful Doe) had given birth to them. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
usually fasted, prayed and meditated on this mountain before his campaigns. As a young man he had thanked the mountain for saving his life and prayed at the foot of the mountain sprinkling offerings and bowing nine times to the east with his belt around his neck and his hat held at his chest. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
kept a close watch on the Mongolic supreme shaman Kokochu Teb who sometimes conflicted with his authority. Later the imperial cult of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
(centered on the eight white gers and nine white banners in Ordos) grew into a highly organized indigenous religion with scriptures in the Mongolian script. Indigenous moral precepts of the Mongolic peoples were enshrined in oral wisdom sayings (now collected in several volumes), the anda (blood-brother) system and ancient texts such as the Chinggis-un Bilig (Wisdom of Genghis) and Oyun Tulkhuur (Key of Intelligence). These moral precepts were expressed in poetic form and mainly involved truthfulness, fidelity, help in hardship, unity, self-control, fortitude, veneration of nature, veneration of the state and veneration of parents.

Timur
Timur
of Mongolic origin himself had converted almost all the Borjigin leaders to Islam.

In 1254 Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
organized a formal religious debate (in which William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck
took part) between Christians, Muslims and Buddhists in Karakorum, a cosmopolitan city of many religions. The Mongolic Empire was known for its religious tolerance, but had a special leaning towards Buddhism
Buddhism
and was sympathetic towards Christianity while still worshipping Tengri. The Mongolic leader Abaqa Khan sent a delegation of 13–16 to the Second Council of Lyon (1274), which created a great stir, particularly when their leader 'Zaganus' underwent a public baptism. Yahballaha III
Yahballaha III
(1245–1317) and Rabban Bar Sauma
Rabban Bar Sauma
(c. 1220–1294) were famous Mongolic Nestorian Christians. The Keraites
Keraites
in central Mongolia
Mongolia
were Christian. The western Khanates, however, eventually adopted Islam
Islam
(under Berke
Berke
and Ghazan) and the Turkic languages
Turkic languages
(because of its commercial importance), although allegiance to the Great Khan
Great Khan
and limited use of the Mongolic languages
Mongolic languages
can be seen even in the 1330s. The Mongolic nobility during the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
studied Confucianism, built Confucian temples (including Beijing Confucius Temple) and translated Confucian works into Mongolic but mainly followed the Sakya
Sakya
school of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
under Phags-pa Lama. The general populace still practised Shamanism. Dongxiang and Bonan Mongols
Mongols
adopted Islam, as did Moghol-speaking peoples in Afghanistan. In the 1576 the Gelug
Gelug
school of Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
became the state religion of the Mongolia. The Red Hat sect of Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
coexisted with the Gelug
Gelug
Yellow Hat sect. Shamanism
Shamanism
was absorbed into the state religion while being marginalized in its purer forms, later only surviving in far northern Mongolia. Monks were some of the leading intellectuals in Mongolia, responsible for much of the literature and art of the pre-modern period. Many Buddhist philosophical works lost in Tibet
Tibet
and elsewhere are preserved in older and purer form in Mongolian ancient texts (e.g. the Mongol Kanjur). Zanabazar
Zanabazar
(1635–1723), Zaya Pandita (1599–1662) and Danzanravjaa (1803–1856) are among the most famous Mongol holy men. The 4th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Yonten Gyatso
Yonten Gyatso
(1589–1617), a Mongol himself, was the only non-Tibetan Dalai Lama.The name is a combination of the Mongolian word dalai meaning "ocean" and the Tibetan word (bla-ma) meaning "guru, teacher, mentor".[1] Many Buryats became Orthodox Christians due to the Russian expansion. During the socialist period religion was officially banned, although it was practiced in clandestine circles. Today, a sizable proportion of Mongolic peoples are atheist or agnostic. In the most recent census in Mongolia, almost forty percent of the population reported as being atheist, while the majority religion was Tibetan Buddhism, with 53%.[66] Having survived suppression by the Communists, Buddhism
Buddhism
among the Eastern, Northern, Southern and Western Mongols
Mongols
is today primarily of the Gelugpa
Gelugpa
(Yellow Hat sect) school of Tibetan Buddhism. There is a strong shamanistic influence in the Gelugpa
Gelugpa
sect among the Mongols.

The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Babur
Babur
and his heir Humayun, The word Mughal, is derived from the Persian word for Mongol.

Military Main article: Mongol military tactics and organization They battled against the most powerful armies and warriors in Eurasia.[citation needed] The beating of the kettle and smoke signals were signs for the start of battle. One battle formation that they used consisted of five squadrons or units. The typical squadrons were divided by ranks. The first two ranks were in the front. These warriors had the heaviest armor and weapons. The back three ranks broke out between the front ranks and attacked first with their arrows.[67] The forces simply kept their space from the enemy and killed them with arrow fire, during which time "archers did not aim at a specific target, but shot their arrows at a high path into a set 'killing zone' or target area."[68] Mongolics also took hold of engineers from the defeated armies. They made engineers a permanent part of their army, so that their weapons and machinery were complex and efficient.[69] Kinship and family life See also: Society of the Mongol Empire The traditional Mongol family was patriarchal, patrilineal and patrilocal. Wives were brought for each of the sons, while daughters were married off to other clans. Wife-taking clans stood in a relation of inferiority to wife-giving clans. Thus wife-giving clans were considered "elder" or "bigger" in relation to wife-taking clans, who were considered "younger" or "smaller".[70][71] This distinction, symbolized in terms of "elder" and "younger" or "bigger" and "smaller", was carried into the clan and family as well, and all members of a lineage were terminologically distinguished by generation and age, with senior superior to junior. In the traditional Mongolian family, each son received a part of the family herd as he married, with the elder son receiving more than the younger son. The youngest son would remain in the parental tent caring for his parents, and after their death he would inherit the parental tent in addition to his own part of the herd. This inheritance system was mandated by law codes such as the Yassa, created by Genghis Khan.[72] Likewise, each son inherited a part of the family's camping lands and pastures, with the elder son receiving more than the younger son. The eldest son inherited the farthest camping lands and pastures, and each son in turn inherited camping lands and pastures closer to the family tent until the youngest son inherited the camping lands and pastures immediately surrounding the family tent. Family units would often remain near each other and in close cooperation, though extended families would inevitably break up after a few generations. It is probable that the Yasa simply put into written law the principles of customary law.

It is apparent that in many cases, for example in family instructions, the yasa tacitly accepted the principles of customary law and avoided any interference with them. For example, Riasanovsky said that killing the man or the woman in case of adultery is a good illustration. Yasa permitted the institutions of polygamy and concubinage so characteristic of southerly nomadic peoples. Children born of concubines were legitimate. Seniority of children derived their status from their mother. Eldest son received more than the youngest after the death of father. But the latter inherited the household of the father. Children of concubines also received a share in the inheritance, in accordance with the instructions of their father (or with custom.) — Nilgün Dalkesen, Gender roles and women's status in Central Asia and Anatolia
Anatolia
between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries[73]

After the family, the next largest social units were the subclan and clan. These units were derived from groups claiming patrilineal descent from a common ancestor, ranked in order of seniority (the "conical clan"). By the Chingissid era this ranking was symbolically expressed at formal feasts, in which tribal chieftains were seated and received particular portions of the slaughtered animal according to their status.[74] The lineage structure of Central Asia
Central Asia
had three different modes. It was organized on the basis of genealogical distance, or the proximity of individuals to one another on a graph of kinship; generational distance, or the rank of generation in relation to a common ancestor, and birth order, the rank of brothers in relation to each another.[75] The paternal descent lines were collaterally ranked according to the birth of their founders, and were thus considered senior and junior to each other. Of the various collateral patrilines, the senior in order of descent from the founding ancestor, the line of eldest sons, was the most noble. In the steppe, no one had his exact equal; everyone found his place in a system of collaterally ranked lines of descent from a common ancestor.[76] It was according to this idiom of superiority and inferiority of lineages derived from birth order that legal claims to superior rank were couched.[77] The Mongol kinship is one of a particular patrilineal type classed as Omaha, in which relatives are grouped together under separate terms that crosscut generations, age, and even sexual difference. Thus, a man's father's sister's children, his sister's children, and his daughter's children are all called by another term. A further attribute is strict terminological differentiation of siblings according to seniority. The division of Mongolian society into senior elite lineages and subordinate junior lineages was waning by the twentieth century. During the 1920s the Communist
Communist
regime was established. The remnants of the Mongolian aristocracy fought alongside the Japanese and against Chinese, Soviets
Soviets
and Communist
Communist
Mongols
Mongols
during World War II, but were defeated. The anthropologist Herbert Harold Vreeland visited three Mongol communities in 1920 and published a highly detailed book with the results of his fieldwork, Mongol community and kinship structure.[78] Historical population

Year Population Notes

1 AD 1–2,000,000?

1000 2,500,000? 750,000 Khitans

1200 2,600,000? 1,5–2,000,000 Mongols

1600 2,300,000? 77,000[79][80] Buryats; 600,000 Khalkhas

1700 2,600,000? 600,000 Khalkhas; 1,100,000? Oirats: 600,000 Zunghars, 200–250,000? Kalmyks, 200,000 Upper Mongols[30]

1800 2,000,000? 600,000 Khalkhas; 440,000? Oirats: 120,000 Zunghars, 120,000? Upper Mongols

1900 2,300,000? 283,383[81] Buryats
Buryats
(1897); 500,000? Khalkhas (1911); 380,000 Oirats: 70,000? Mongolian Oirats
Oirats
(1911), 190,648 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
(1897), 70,000? Dzungarian and Inner Mongolian Oirats, 50,000 Upper Mongols;[30] 1,500,000? Southern Mongols
Southern Mongols
(1911)

1927 2,100,000? 600,000 Mongolians[82] — 230,000? Buryats: 15,000? Mongolian Buryats, 214,957 Buryats
Buryats
in Russia
Russia
(1926); 500,000? Khalkhas (1927); 330,000? Oirats: 70,000 Mongolian Oirats, 128,809 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
(1926)

1956 2,500,000? 228,647 Buryats: 24,625 Mongolian Buryats
Buryats
(1956), 135,798 Buryats
Buryats
of the (Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; 1959), 23,374 Agin- Buryats
Buryats
(1959), 44,850 Ust-Orda Buryats
Buryats
(1959); 639,141 Khalkhas (1956); 240,000? Oirats: 77,996 Mongolian Oirats
Oirats
(1956), 100,603 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
(1959), 1,462,956 Mongols
Mongols
in China
China
(1953)

1980 4,300,000? 317,966? Buryats: 29,802 Mongolian Buryats
Buryats
(1979), 206,860 Buryatian Buryats
Buryats
(1979), 45,436 Usta-Orda Buryats
Buryats
(1979), 35,868 Agin-Buryats (1979); 1,271,086 Khalkhas; 398,339 Oirats: 127,328 Mongolian Oirats (1979), 140,103 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
(1979), 2,153,000 Southern Mongols (1981)[83][84]

1990 4,700,000? 376,629 Buryats: 35,444 Mongolian Buryats
Buryats
(1989), 249,525 Buryatian Buryats
Buryats
(1989), 49,298 Usta-Orda Buryats
Buryats
(1989), 42,362 Agin-Buryats (1989); 1,654,221 Khalkhas; 470,000? Oirats: 161,803 Mongolian Oirats (1989), 165,103 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
(1989), 33,000 Upper Mongols
Upper Mongols
(1987);[85]

2010 5–9,200,000?[86] 500,000? Buryats
Buryats
(45–75,000 Mongolian Buryats, 10,000 Hulunbuir Buryats); 2,300,000 Khalkhas (including Dariganga, Darkhad, Eljigin and Sartuul); 638,372 Oirats: 183,372 Kalmyks, 205,000 Mongolian Oirats, 90–100, 000 Upper Mongols, 2010 — 140,000 Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Oirats; 2013 — 190,000? Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Oirats: 100,000? Torghuts (Kalmyks), 40–50,000? Olots, 40,000? other Oirats: mainly Khoshuts; 1,5–4,000,000? 5,700,000? Southern Mongols[83]

This map shows the boundary of 13th century Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and location of today's Mongols
Mongols
in modern Mongolia, Russia
Russia
and China.

Geographic distribution Today, the majority of Mongols
Mongols
live in the modern state of Mongolia, China
China
(mainly Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and Xinjiang), Russia, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Afghanistan. The differentiation between tribes and peoples (ethnic groups) is handled differently depending on the country. The Tumed, Chahar, Ordos, Barga, Altai Uriankhai, Buryats, Dörböd (Dörvöd, Dörbed), Torguud, Dariganga, Üzemchin (or Üzümchin), Bayads, Khoton, Myangad (Mingad), Eljigin, Zakhchin, Darkhad, and Olots
Olots
(or Öölds or Ölöts) are all considered as tribes of the Mongols. Subgroups The Eastern Mongols
Mongols
are mainly concentrated in Mongolia, including the Khalkha, Eljigin Khalkha, Darkhad, Sartuul Khalkha, and Dariganga (Khalkha). The Buryats
Buryats
are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia. They are the major northern subgroup of the Mongols.[87] The Barga Mongols
Barga Mongols
are mainly concentrated in Inner Mongolia, China, along with the Buryats
Buryats
and Hamnigan. The Southern or Inner Mongols
Inner Mongols
mainly are concentrated in Inner Mongolia, China. They comprise the Abaga Mongols, Abaganar, Aohan, Asud, Baarins, Chahar, Durved, Gorlos, Kharchin, Hishigten, Khorchin, Huuchid, Jalaid, Jaruud, Muumyangan, Naiman (Southern Mongols), Onnigud, Ordos, Sunud, Tümed, Urad, and Uzemchin. The Western Mongols
Mongols
or Oirats
Oirats
are mainly concentrated in Western Mongolia:

184,000 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
(2010) — Kalmykia, Russia 205,000 Mongolian Oirats
Oirats
(2010) 140,000 Oirats
Oirats
(2010) — Xinjiang
Xinjiang
region, China 90,000 Upper Mongols
Upper Mongols
(2010) — Qinghai
Qinghai
region, China. The Khoshuts are the major subgroup of the Upper Mongols, along with the Choros, Khalkha
Khalkha
and Torghuts. 12,000 Sart Kalmyks
Kalmyks
(Zungharian descents) (2012) — Kyrgyzstan. Religion: Sunni Islam.

Altai Uriankhai, Baatud, Bayad, Chantuu, Choros, Durvud, Khoshut, Khoid, Khoton, Myangad, Olots, Sart Kalmyks
Kalmyks
(mainly Olots), Torghut, Zakhchin.

Kalmyks
Kalmyks
— Baatud, Buzava, Choros, Durvud, Khoid, Olots, Torghut. Upper Mongolian Oirats
Oirats
— Choros, Khoshut, Torghut.

Mongolia See also: Demographics of Mongolia In modern-day Mongolia, Mongols
Mongols
make up approximately 95% of the population, with the largest ethnic group being Khalkha
Khalkha
Mongols, followed by Buryats, both belonging to the Eastern Mongolic peoples. They are followed by Oirats, who belong to the Western Mongolic peoples. Mongolian ethnic groups: Baarin, Baatud, Barga, Bayad, Buryat, Selenge Chahar, Chantuu, Darkhad, Dariganga Dörbet Oirat, Eljigin, Khalkha, Hamnigan, Kharchin, Khoid, Khorchin, Hotogoid, Khoton, Huuchid, Myangad, Olots, Sartuul, Torgut, Tümed, Üzemchin, Zakhchin. China Main article: Mongols
Mongols
in China The 2010 census of the People's Republic of China
China
counted more than 7 million people of various Mongolic groups. It should be noted that the 1992 census of China
China
counted only 3.6 million ethnic Mongols.[citation needed] The 2010 census counted roughly 5.8 million ethnic Mongols, 621,500 Dongxiangs, 289,565 Mongours, 132,000 Daurs, 20,074 Baoans, and 14,370 Yugurs.[citation needed] Most of them live in the Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Autonomous Region, followed by Liaoning. Small numbers can also be found in provinces near those two. There were 669,972 Mongols
Mongols
in Liaoning
Liaoning
in 2011, making up 11.52% of Mongols
Mongols
in China.[88] The closest Mongol area to the sea is the Dabao Mongol Ethnic Township (大堡蒙古族镇) in Fengcheng, Liaoning. With 8,460 Mongols
Mongols
(37.4% of the township population)[89] it is located 40 km from the North Korean border and 65 km from Korea
Korea
Bay of the Yellow Sea. Another contender for closest Mongol area to the sea would be Erdaowanzi Mongol Ethnic Township (二道湾子蒙古族乡) in Jianchang, Liaoning. With 5,011 Mongols (20.7% of the township population)[90] it is located around 65 km from the Bohai Sea. Other peoples speaking Mongolic languages
Mongolic languages
are the Daur, Sogwo Arig, Monguor people, Dongxiangs, Bonans, Sichuan Mongols and eastern part of the Yugur
Yugur
people. Those do not officially count as part of the Mongol ethnicity, but are recognized as ethnic groups of their own. The Mongols
Mongols
lost their contact with the Mongours, Bonan, Dongxiangs, Yunnan Mongols
Mongols
since the fall of the Yuan dynasty. Mongolian scientists and journalists met with the Dongxiangs
Dongxiangs
and Yunnan Mongols in the 2000s.[citation needed] Inner Mongolia: Southern Mongols, Barga, Buryat, Dörbet Oirat, Khalkha, Dzungar people, Eznee Torgut. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
province: Altai Uriankhai, Chahar, Khoshut, Olots, Torghut, Zakhchin. Qinghai
Qinghai
province: Upper Mongols: Choros, Khalkha
Khalkha
Mongols, Khoshut, Torghut. Russia Main articles: Buryats, Kalmyk people, Demographics of Russia, and Demographics of Siberia Two Mongolic ethnic groups are present in Russia; the 2010 census found 461,410 Buryats
Buryats
and 183,400 Kalmyks.[91] Elsewhere Smaller numbers of Mongolic peoples exist in Western Europe and North America. Some of the more notable communities exist in South Korea, the United States, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and the United Kingdom. Gallery

Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan
Kulug Khan
(1281–1311)

Genghis' son Tolui
Tolui
with Queen Sorgaqtani

Hulegu
Hulegu
Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate

13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archer

Mongol soldiers by Rashid al-Din in 1305

Kalmyk Mongol girl Annushka (painted in 1767)

A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren

The 4th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Yonten Gyatso

Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj became the first Mongol to reach sumo's highest rank.

Mongol women archers during Naadam
Naadam
festival

A Mongol musician

A Mongol Wrangler

Buryat Mongol shaman

Kalmyks, 19th century

Mongol girl performing Bayad
Bayad
dance

Buryat Mongols
Mongols
(painted in 1840)

Daur Mongol Empress Wanrong
Empress Wanrong
(1906–1946), also had Borjigin
Borjigin
blood on maternal side.

Buryat Mongol boy during shamanic rite

Concubine Wenxiu was Puyi's consort

Data tables

Mongolian Reference Population

2%     8% 25% 59% 6%

     Eastern Europe      Finland
Finland
& Northern Siberia

     Eastern Asia      Central Asia

     Asia Minor

"This reference population is based on native populations of Mongolia. In addition to the predominant Central and Siberian Asian components typical of Mongolian populations, there is also an East Asian component reflective of the growth and spread of populations from the east, and an Asia Minor contribution that reflects the connection to steppe nomads of western Eurasian origin. There are also possible migrations from the Middle East
Middle East
with the spread of agriculture over the past 10,000 years."

Source: Geno 2.0 Next Generation (2018)[92]

See also

Altan Telgey American Center for Mongolian Studies Horse culture in Mongolia Mongolian name Qaraunas

List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans List of modern Mongolian clans List of Mongolians List of Mongol states

References

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Mongols
proper, 461,389 Buryats, 183,372 Kalmyks
Kalmyks
(Russian Census (2010)) ^ "'Korean Dream' fills Korean classrooms in Mongolia", The Chosun Ilbo, 2008-04-24, archived from the original on September 23, 2008, retrieved 2009-02-06  ^ Bahrampour, Tara (2006-07-03). "Mongolians Meld Old, New In Making Arlington Home". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-09-05.  ^ President of Mongoli Received the Kalmyk Citizens of the Kyrgyz. 2012 ^ https://www.czso.cz/documents/11292/27914491/1612_c01t14.pdf/4bbedd77-c239-48cd-bf5a-7a43f6dbf71b?version=1.0 ^ a b c d e f g " Mongolia
Mongolia
National Census" (PDF) (in Mongolian). National Statistical Office of Mongolia. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2017.  ^ NHS Profile, Canada, 2011 ^ "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland" [Population by citizenship and country of birth] (in German). Statistik Austria. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014.  ^ National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (April 2012). Tabulation of the 2010 Population Census of the People's Republic of China. China
China
Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-6507-0. Retrieved 2013-02-19.  ^ China.org.cn – The Mongolian ethnic minority ^ China.org.cn – The Mongolian Ethnic Group ^ "Mongolia: Ethnography of Mongolia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-07-22.  ^ Geng 2005 ^ Étienne de la Vaissière, Xiongnu. Encyclopædia Iranica online, 2006 ^ Dr. Obrusánszky, Borbála : The History and Civilization of the Huns. Paper of the University of Amsterdam, 8 October 2007. Page 60. [1] ^ Frances Wood, The Silk Road: two thousand years in the heart of Asia, p. 48 ^ Xin Tangshu 219. 6173. ^ University of California, Berkeley. Project on Linguistic Analysis, Journal of Chinese linguistics, p. 154 ^ Thomas Hoppe, Die ethnischen Gruppen Xinjiangs: Kulturunterschiede und interethnische, p. 66 ^ San, Tan Koon (2014-08-15). Dynastic China: An Elementary History. The Other Press. ISBN 978-983-9541-88-5.  ^ a b Jerry Bentley, "Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchange in Pre-Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 136. ^ MOLNÁR, ÁDÁM. "THE PLOUGH AND PLOUGHING AMONG THE ALTAIC PEOPLES." Central Asiatic Journal 26, no. 3/4 (1982): 215-24. ^ Sechin Jagchid, Van Jay Symons – Peace, war, and trade along the Great Wall: Nomadic-Chinese interaction through two millennia, p.49 ^ Janhunen, Juha The Mongolic languages, p.177 ^ Elizabeth E. Bacon Obok: A Study of Social Structure in Eurasia, p.82 ^ Michael Khodarkovsky – Where Two Worlds Met: The Russian State and the Kalmyk Nomads, 1600–1771, p.211 ^ "Country Briefings: Kazakhstan". The Economist. Retrieved 1 June 2010.  ^ a b c БУЦАЖ ИРЭЭГҮЙ МОНГОЛ АЙМГУУД Archived 2013-11-15 at the Wayback Machine. (Mongolian) ^ Michael Edmund Clarke, In the Eye of Power (doctoral thesis), Brisbane 2004, p37 Archived February 12, 2011, at WebCite ^ Dr. Mark Levene, Southampton University, see "Areas where I can offer Postgraduate Supervision". Retrieved 2009-02-09. ^ A. Dirk Moses (2008). "Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History". Berghahn Books. p.188. ISBN 1845454529 ^ a b c ТИВ ДАМНАСАН НҮҮДЭЛ Archived 2013-06-28 at Archive.is
Archive.is
(Mongolian) ^ Ижил мөрөн хүртэлх их нүүдэл Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine. (Mongolian) ^ Тал нутгийн Нүүдэлчин Халимагууд Эх нутаг Монгол руугаа тэмүүлсэн түүх (Mongolian) ^ Баруун Монголын нүүдэл суудал Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine. (Mongolian) ^ К вопросу о бегстве волжских калмыков в Джунгарию в 1771 году (Russian) ^ Michael Khodarkovsky (2002)."Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500–1800". Indiana University Press. p.142. ISBN 0253217709 ^ Владимир Андреевич Хамутаев, Присоединение Бурятии к России: история, право, политика (Russian) ^ Известный бурятский ученый Владимир Хамутаев собирается получить политическое убежище в США Archived 2013-12-14 at the Wayback Machine. (Russian) ^ Proceedings of the Fifth East Asian Altaistic Conference, December 26, 1979 – January 2, 1980, Taipei, China, p144 ^ Богд хааны жолооч хилс хэрэгт хэлмэгдсэн нь Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine. (Mongolian) ^ a b Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls ^ L.Jamsran, Mongol states in Russia, 1995 ^ Войны ХХ века и их жертвы /тысяч человек/ (Russian) ^ Буриад-Монголын үндэстний хөдөлгөөн, тулгамдсан асуудлууд (Mongolian) ^ История (до и начало XX века) Archived 2014-12-27 at the Wayback Machine. (Russian) ^ XX зууны 20, 30-аад онд халимагуудын 98 хувь аймшигт өлсгөлөнд автсан (Mongolian) ^ a b c Халимагийн эмгэнэлт түүхээс (Mongolian) ^ Regions and territories: Kalmykia ^ Inner Mongolian People's Party ^ "Mongolia- China
China
relations". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2008-06-15.  ^ "Mongolian office to ride into Taipei by end of the year". Taipei Times. 2002-10-11. Retrieved 2009-05-28. In October 1945, the people of Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
voted for independence, gaining the recognition of many countries, including the Republic of China. (...) Due to a souring of relations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the early 1950s, however, the ROC revoked recognition of Outer Mongolia, reclaiming it as ROC territory.  ^ " Taiwan
Taiwan
'embassy' changes anger China". BBC News. 2002-02-26. Retrieved 2009-05-28.  ^ "The History of MTAC". Mongolian & Tibetan Affairs Commission. Retrieved 2009-05-07.  ^ unpo.org ^ a b c Janhunen, Juha (November 29, 2012). "1". Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 11.  ^ Tsung, Linda (October 27, 2014). "3". Language Power and Hierarchy: Multilingual Education in China. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 59.  ^ Tsung, Linda (October 27, 2014). "3". Language Power and Hierarchy: Multilingual Education in China. Bloomsbury Academic.  ^ Iredale, Robyn; Bilik, Naran; Fei, Guo (August 2, 2003). "4". China's Minorities on the Move: Selected Case Studies. p. 84.  ^ Janhunen, Juha (November 29, 2012). "1". Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 16.  ^ Otsuka, Hitomi (30 Nov 2012). "6". More Morphologies: Contributions to the Festival of Languages, Bremen, 17 Sep to 7 Oct, 2009. p. 99.  ^ Iredale, Robyn (August 2, 2003). "3". China's Minorities on the Move: Selected Case Studies. Routledge. pp. 56, 64–67.  ^ Janhunen, Juha (November 29, 2012). "1". Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 11. Iredale, Robyn; Bilik, Naran; Fei, Guo (August 2, 2003). "3". China's Minorities on the Move: Selected Case Studies. p. 61.  ^ National Census 2010 Preliminary results (Mongolian) ^ Per Inge Oestmoen. "The Mongo Military Might." Cold Siberia. N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Retrieved on 12 November 2012 ^ Matthew Barnes. "The Mongol War Machine: How Were the Mongols
Mongols
Able to Forge the Largest Contiguous Land Empire in History? ." The Pica A Global Research Organization. Pica, n.d. 14 November 2012 ^ Jack Weatherford , Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and the Making of the Modern World. (New York: Crown, 2004.), 94. ^ Vreeland 1962:160 ^ Aberle 1953:23–24 ^ THE INFLUENCE OF THE GREAT CODE “YASA” ON THE MONGOLIAN EMPIRE Archived 2013-06-15 at Archive.is ^ http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12608663/index.pdf ^ Agricultural and pastoral societies in ancient and classical history edited by Adas ^ Cuisenier (1975:67) ^ Krader (1963:322, 269) ^ Kinship Structure and Political Authority: The Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia
Central Asia
Charles Lindholm Comparative Studies in Society and History Vol. 28, No. 2 (Apr., 1986), pp. 334–355 Published by: Cambridge University Press Article Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/178975, Charles Lindholm ^ Mongol community and kinship structure. Vreeland, Herbert Harold, 1920 ^ http://www.bur-culture.ru/index.php?id=news-detail&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=42&cHash=effe903f9ae6737362277ed761d6c2ca Традиционная материальная культура бурятского этноса Предбайкалья. Этногенез и расселение. Средовая культура бурят (Russian) ^ П.Б. Абзаев. Буряты на рубеже XX-XXI вв. Численность, состав, занятия (Russian) ^ Б.З. Нанзатов,ПЛЕМЕННОЙ СОСТАВ БУРЯТ В XIX ВЕКЕ Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine. (Russian) ^ ИРГЭНИЙ БҮРТГЭЛИЙН ТҮҮХЭН ТОЙМ (Mongolian) ^ a b Түмэдхүү, ӨМӨЗО-НЫ ХҮН АМЫН ХУВИРАЛТЫН ЗУРГИЙГ ҮЗЭЭД (Southern) Mongolian Liberal Union Party (Mongolian) Millions of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
registered as "Mongol" and "Manchu" according to Chinese policy since the 1980s.There is no enough information about Chinese ethnic minorities due to the government policy. ^ Өвөр Монголын хүн ам (Mongolian) ^ ethnologue.com information ^ 768,000 families in Mongolia
Mongolia
(2013). ^ Shimamura, Ippei (2014). The Roots Seekers: Shamanism
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and Ethnicity Among the Mongol Buryats. Kanagawa, Japan: Shumpusha. ISBN 978-4-86110-397-1.  ^ "Tianya" network: General situation of Mongols
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in Liaoning
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(in Chinese) ^ "Baidu" network: Dabao Mongol Ethnic Township (in Chinese) ^ "Baidu" network: Erdaowanzi Mongol Ethnic Township (in Chinese) ^ "Kalmyks". World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. 2005. Retrieved 2008-05-18.  ^ The Genographic Project. (2018). Reference Populations – Geno 2.0 Next Generation. March 11, 2018, archived web page at the Wayback Machine.

External links

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