The Austroasiatic languages,[note 1] in recent classifications
synonymous with Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of
Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh,
1 Typology 2 Proto-language 3 Internal classification
3.1 Diffloth (1974) 3.2 Peiros (2004) 3.3 Diffloth (2005) 3.4 Previously existent branches 3.5 Sidwell (2009, 2011)
4 Writing systems 5 Austroasiatic migrations 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2010)
Regarding word structure,
*p *t *c *k *ʔ
*b *d *ɟ *ɡ
*ɓ *ɗ *ʄ
*m *n *ɲ *ŋ
*w *l, *r *j
This is identical to earlier reconstructions except for *ʄ. *ʄ is
better preserved in the Katuic languages, which Sidwell has
specialized in. Sidwell (2011) suggests that the likely homeland of
Austroasiatic is the middle Mekong, in the area of the Bahnaric and
Katuic languages (approximately where modern Laos, Thailand, and
Kharia–Juang Koraput Munda
Khmer (Cambodian) Pearic Bahnaric Katuic Vietic (includes Vietnamese)
Khasi (Meghalaya, India) Palaungic Khmuic
Mon Aslian (Malaya) Nicobarese (Nicobar Islands)
Peiros (2004) Peiros is a lexicostatistic classification, based on percentages of shared vocabulary. This means that languages can appear to be more distantly related than they actually are due to language contact. Indeed, when Sidwell (2009a) replicated Peiros's study with languages known well enough to account for loans, he did not find the internal (branching) structure below.
Khasi Nuclear Mon–Khmer
Mangic (Mang + Palyu) (perhaps in Northern MK) Vietic (perhaps in Northern MK) Northern Mon–Khmer
Khmer dialects Pearic Asli-Bahnaric
Diffloth (2005) Diffloth compares reconstructions of various clades, and attempts to classify them based on shared innovations, though like other classifications the evidence has not been published. As a schematic, we have:
Austro - Asiatic
Khasi – Khmuic
Or in more detail,
Koraput: 7 languages Core Munda languages
Kharian–Juang: 2 languages North Munda languages
Korku Kherwarian: 12 languages
Khasian: 3 languages of north eastern
Khmuic: 13 languages of Laos and Thailand
Pakanic or Palyu: 4 or 5 languages of southern
Nuclear Mon–Khmer languages
Khmero- Vietic languages (Eastern Mon–Khmer)
Vieto-Katuic languages ?
Vietic: 10 languages of
Bahnaric: 40 languages of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Khmeric languages
The Khmer dialects of Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Pearic: 6 languages of Cambodia.
Nico- Monic languages (Southern Mon–Khmer)
Nicobarese: 6 languages of the Nicobar Islands, a territory of India.
Aslian: 19 languages of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand. Monic: 2 languages, the Mon language of Burma and the Nyahkur language of Thailand.
This family tree is consistent with recent studies of migration of Y-Chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95. However, the dates obtained from by Zhivotovsky method DNA studies are several times older than that given by linguists. The route map of the people with haplogroup O2a1-M95, speaking this language can be seen in this link. Other geneticists criticise the Zhivotovsky method. Previously existent branches Roger Blench (2009) also proposes that there might have been other primary branches of Austroasiatic that are now extinct, based on substrate evidence in modern-day languages.
Chamic languages (the languages of coastal
Other languages with proposed Austroasiatic substrata are:
Jiamao, based on evidence from the register system of Jiamao, a Hlai language (Thurgood 1992). Jiamao is known for its highly aberrant vocabulary. Kerinci: Van Reijn (1974) notes that Kerinci, a Malayic language of central Sumatra, shares many phonological similarities with Austroasiatic languages, such as sesquisyllabic word structure and vowel inventory.
John Peterson (2017) suggests that "pre-Munda" languages may have
once dominated the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain, and were then absorbed
Paul Sidwell (2009a), in a lexicostatistical comparison of 36
languages which are well-known enough to exclude loan words, finds
little evidence for internal branching, though he did find an area of
increased contact between the Bahnaric and Katuic languages, such that
languages of all branches apart from the geographically distant Munda
and Nicobarese show greater similarity to Bahnaric and Katuic the
closer they are to those branches, without any noticeable innovations
common to Bahnaric and Katuic. He therefore takes the conservative
view that the thirteen branches of Austroasiatic should be treated as
equidistant on current evidence. Sidwell & Blench (2011) discuss
this proposal in more detail, and note that there is good evidence for
a Khasi–Palaungic node, which could also possibly be closely related
to Khmuic. If this would the case, Sidwell & Blench suggest
that Khasic may have been an early offshoot of Palaungic that had
spread westward. Sidwell & Blench (2011) suggest Shompen as an
additional branch, and believe that a Vieto-Katuic connection is worth
investigating. In general, however, the family is thought to have
diversified too quickly for a deeply nested structure to have
developed, since Proto-Austroasiatic speakers are believed by Sidwell
to have radiated out from the central
Integrating computational phylogenetic linguistics with recent
Paul Sidwell (2015) further expanded his
Warang Citi (Ho alphabet)
Ol Chiki alphabet
According to Chaubey et al., "Austro-Asiatic speakers in
Munda languages Austric languages
^ Sometimes also as Austro-Asiatic or Austroasian ^ See also: * Dienekes Anthropology Blog, Origin of Indian Austroasiatic speakers * Razib Khan (2010), Sons of the conquerors: the story of India? * Razib Khan (2013), Phylogenetics implies Austro-Asiatic are intrusive to India
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
Adams, K. L. (1989). Systems of numeral classification in the Mon–Khmer, Nicobarese and Aslian subfamilies of Austroasiatic. Canberra, A.C.T., Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-373-5 Alves, Mark J. (2014). Mon-Khmer. In Rochelle Lieber and Pavel Stekauer (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology, 520–544. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Alves, Mark J. (2015). Morphological functions among Mon-Khmer languages: beyond the basics. In N. J. Enfield & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia: the state of the art. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton, 531–557. Bradley, David (2012). "Languages and Language Families in China", in Rint Sybesma (ed.), Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics. Chakrabarti, Byomkes. (1994). A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali. Chaubey, G.; et al. (2010), "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic Speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-Specific Admixture", Mol Biol Evol, 28 (2): 1013–1024, doi:10.1093/molbev/msq288 , PMC 3355372 , PMID 20978040 Diffloth, Gérard (2005). "The contribution of linguistic palaeontology and Austro-Asiatic". in Laurent Sagart, Roger Blench and Alicia Sanchez-Mazas, eds. The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. 77–80. London: Routledge Curzon. ISBN 0-415-32242-1 Filbeck, D. (1978). T'in: a historical study. Pacific linguistics, no. 49. Canberra: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-172-4 Hemeling, K. (1907). Die Nanking Kuanhua. (German language) Jenny, Mathias and Paul Sidwell, eds (2015). The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill. Peck, B. M., Comp. (1988). An Enumerative Bibliography of South Asian Language Dictionaries. Peiros, Ilia. 1998. Comparative Linguistics in Southeast Asia. Pacific Linguistics Series C, No. 142. Canberra: Australian National University. Shorto, Harry L. edited by Sidwell, Paul, Cooper, Doug and Bauer, Christian (2006). A Mon–Khmer comparative dictionary. Canberra: Australian National University. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN 0-85883-570-3 Shorto, H. L. Bibliographies of Mon–Khmer and Tai Linguistics. London oriental bibliographies, v. 2. London: Oxford University Press, 1963. Sidwell, Paul (2005). "Proto-Katuic Phonology and the Sub-grouping of Mon–Khmer Languages". In Sidwell, ed., SEALSXV: papers from the 15th meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistic Society. Sidwell, Paul (2009a). The Austroasiatic Central Riverine Hypothesis. Keynote address, SEALS, XIX. Sidwell, Paul (2009b). Classifying the Austroasiatic languages: history and state of the art. LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics, 76. Munich: Lincom Europa. Zide, Norman H., and Milton E. Barker. (1966) Studies in Comparative Austroasiatic Linguistics, The Hague: Mouton (Indo-Iranian monographs, v. 5.). Zhang; et al. (2015), "Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent", Nature Scientific Reports, 5: 1548, Bibcode:2015NatSR...515486Z, doi:10.1038/srep15486, PMC 4611482 , PMID 26482917
Mann, Noel, Wendy Smith and Eva Ujlakyova. 2009. Linguistic clusters of Mainland Southeast Asia: an overview of the language families. Chiang Mai: Payap University.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Austroasiatic languages.
Swadesh lists for Austro-Asiatic languages (from Wiktionary's wikt:Appendix:Swadesh lists Swadesh-list appendix) Austro-Asiatic at the Linguist List MultiTree Project (not functional as of 2014): Genealogical trees attributed to Sebeok 1942, Pinnow 1959, Diffloth 2005, and Matisoff 2006 Mon–Khmer.com: Lectures by Paul Sidwell Mon–Khmer Languages Project at SEAlang http://projekt.ht.lu.se/rwaai RWAAI (Repository and Workspace for Austroasiatic Intangible Heritage) http://hdl.handle.net/10050/00-0000-0000-0003-66A4-2@view RWAAI Digital Archive
v t e
Jeh Halang Kayong Kaco’ Takua Monom Todrah Sedang Rengao Hrê Duan Katua
Lavi Jru' Laven Su' Juk Nyaheun Sapuan Oi Brao
Alak Tariang Tampuan Bahnar Chrau Koho Stieng Ra’ong Mnong Mel? Khaonh? Thmon?
Katu Phuong Bru Kuy Pacoh Ta’Oi
Vietnamese Mường Nguồn Cuoi Thavưng Chứt Arem Maleng Kri
Khmu Mlabri Phai Mal Ksingmul O’du Phray Phong Khao
Danau Palaung Riang Lamet Kiorr Kuan
Hu U Man Met Mok Muak Sa-aak Va Tai Loi
Blang Lawa Wa Meung Yum Savaiq
Bit Quang Lam Kháng Bumang
Khasi Pnar War Lyngngam
Mang Bolyu Bugan
Khmer Northern Khmer Western Khmer Khmer Khe
Pear Suoi Saoch Chong Samre Somray Kasong
Mon Nyah Kur
Cheq Wong Batek Jahai Jedek Minriq Mintil Kintaq Kensiu Ten'edn Wila'
Semai Temiar Lanoh Sabüm Semnam
Temoq Semelai Semaq Beri Mah Meri
Car Chaura Teressa Central Nicobarese Nancowry Camorta Katchal Southern Nicobarese
Korku Korwa Santali Turi Birhor Mundari Ho Koda Kol Asur Birjia Agariya
Kharia Juang Gta’ Remo Gutob Gorum Sora Juray Lodhi
v t e
List of primary language families
Afro-Asiatic Austronesian Khoe Kx'a Niger–Congo Nilo-Saharan? Tuu Mande? Songhay? Ijaw? Ubangian? Kadu?
Bangime Hadza Jalaa Sandawe Kwadi? Laal? Shabo?
Arab BANZSL French Lasima Tanzanian Others
Europe and Asia
Afro-Asiatic Ainu Austroasiatic Austronesian Chukotko-Kamchatkan Dravidian Eskimo–Aleut Great Andamanese Hmong–Mien Hurro-Urartian Indo-European Japonic Kartvelian Koreanic Mongolic Northeast Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Ongan Sino-Tibetan Tai–Kadai Tungusic Turkic Tyrsenian Uralic Yeniseian Yukaghir Dené–Yeniseian? Altaic? Austronesian–Ongan? Austro-Tai? Sino-Austronesian? Digaro? Kho-Bwa? Siangic? Miji? Vasconic?
Basque Burushaski Elamite Hattic Kusunda Nihali Nivkh Sumerian Hruso? Miju? Puroik?
BANZSL French German Japanese Swedish Chinese Indo-Pakistani Arab Chiangmai–Bangkok Others
New Guinea and the Pacific
Arai–Samaia Arafundi Austronesian Baining Binanderean–Goilalan Border Bulaka River Central Solomons Chimbu–Wahgi Doso–Turumsa East Geelvink Bay East Strickland Eleman Engan Fas Kaure–Kosare Kiwaian Kutubuan Kwomtari Lakes Plain Lower Mamberamo Lower Sepik Madang Mairasi North Bougainville Pauwasi Piawi Ramu Senagi Sentani Sepik Skou South Bougainville Teberan Tor–Kwerba–Nimboran Torricelli Trans-Fly Trans–New Guinea Turama–Kikorian West Papuan Yam Yawa Yuat North Papuan? Northeast New Guinea? Papuan Gulf?
Abinomn Anêm? Ata? Kol Kuot Porome Taiap? Pawaia Porome Sulka? Tambora Wiru
Hawai'i Sign Language Others
Arnhem/Macro-Gunwinyguan Bunuban Darwin River Eastern Daly Eastern Tasmanian Garawan Iwaidjan Jarrakan Mirndi Northern Tasmanian Northeastern Tasmanian Nyulnyulan Pama–Nyungan Southern Daly Tangkic Wagaydyic Western Daly Western Tasmanian Worrorran Yangmanic (Wardaman)
Giimbiyu Malak-Malak Marrgu Tiwi Wagiman
Algic Alsea Caddoan Chimakuan Chinookan Chumashan Comecrudan Coosan Eskimo–Aleut Iroquoian Kalapuyan Keresan Maiduan Muskogean Na-Dene Palaihnihan Plateau Penutian Pomoan Salishan Shastan Siouan Tanoan Tsimshianic Utian Uto-Aztecan Wakashan Wintuan Yokutsan Yukian Yuman–Cochimí Dené–Yeniseian? Hokan? Penutian?
Chimariko Haida Karuk Kutenai Seri Siuslaw Takelma Timucua Waikuri Washo Yana Yuchi Zuni
Inuit (Inuiuuk) Plains Sign Talk Others
Chibchan Jicaquean Lencan Mayan Misumalpan Mixe–Zoque Oto-Manguean Tequistlatecan Totonacan Uto-Aztecan Xincan Totozoquean?
Cuitlatec Huave Tarascan/Purépecha
Plains Sign Talk Mayan Others
Arawakan Arauan Araucanian Arutani–Sape Aymaran Barbacoan Boran Borôroan Cahuapanan Cariban Catacaoan Chapacuran Charruan Chibchan Choco Chonan Guaicuruan Guajiboan Jê/Gê Harákmbut–Katukinan Jirajaran Jivaroan Kariri Katembri–Taruma Mascoian Matacoan Maxakalian Nadahup Nambikwaran Otomákoan Pano-Tacanan Peba–Yaguan Purian Quechuan Piaroa–Saliban Ticuna–Yuri Timotean Tiniguan Tucanoan Tupian Uru–Chipaya Witotoan Yabutian Yanomaman Zamucoan Zaparoan Chimuan? Esmeralda–Yaruro? Hibito–Cholón? Lule–Vilela? Macro-Jê? Tequiraca–Canichana?
Isolates (extant in 2000)
Aikanã? Alacalufan Andoque? Camsá Candoshi Chimane Chiquitano Cofán? Fulniô Guató Hodï/Joti Irantxe? Itonama Karajá Krenak Kunza Leco Maku-Auari of Roraima Movima Mura-Pirahã Nukak? Ofayé Puinave Huaorani/Waorani Trumai Urarina Warao Yamana Yuracaré
Language isolates Unclassified languages Creoles Pidgins Mixed languages Artificial languages List of sign languages
Families with more than 30 languages are in bold. Families in italics have no living members.