According to the Sacred Jain Text, Tattvartha sutra :
Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and with the functioning of the dissociation of karmas the annihilation of all karmas is liberation. — Tattvārthsūtra (10-2)
* 1 Bhavyata * 2 The Path to Liberation * 3 Nirvāna * 4 Liberated soul * 5 See also * 6 Citations * 7 References
From the point of view of potentiality of mokṣa, Jain texts bifurcates the souls in two categories–bhavya and abhavya. Bhavya souls are those souls who have faith in mokṣa and hence will make some efforts to achieve liberation. This potentiality or quality is called bhavyata. However, bhavyata itself does not guarantee mokṣa, as the soul needs to expend necessary efforts to attain it. On the other hand, abhavya souls are those souls who cannot attain liberation as they do not have faith in mokṣa and hence never make any efforts to attain it.
THE PATH TO LIBERATION
According to Jainism, the
Belief in the nine substances as they are is right faith (samyagdarśana). Knowledge of these substances without doubt, delusion or misapprehension, is right knowledge (samyagjñāna). Being free from attachment etc. is right conduct (samyakcāritra). These three, together, constitute the path to liberation.
Samyak Darsana or rational perception is the rational faith in the true nature of every substance of the universe.
Samyak Caritra or rational conduct is the natural conduct of a (soul) living being. It consists in following austerities, engaging in right activities and observance of vows, carefulness and controls. Once a soul secures samyaktva, mokṣa is assured within a few lifetimes. The fourteen stages on the path to liberation are called Gunasthāna . These are:
GUNASTHāNA (STAGES ON THE PATH) MEANING
1. Mithyātva The stage of wrong believer (Gross ignorance)
2. Sasādana Downfall from right faith
3. Misradrsti Mixed right and wrong belief
4. Avirata samyagdrsti Vowless right belief
5. Deśavirata The stage of partial self-control
6. Pramattasamyata Slightly imperfect vows
7. Apramatta samyata Perfect vows (Mahavratas )
8. Apūrvakaraņa New thought-activity
9. Anivāttibādara-sāmparāya Advanced thought-activity (Passions are still occurring)
10.Sukshma samparaya Slightest delusion
11.Upaśānta-kasāya Subsided delusion
12.Ksīna kasāya Destroyed delusion
13.Sayoga kevali Omniscience with vibration (destruction of all inimical karmas)
14.Ayoga kevali The stage of omniscience without any activity
Those who pass the last stage are called siddha and become fully established in Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct.
Nirvāna means final release from the karmic bondage. When an
enlightened human, such as an Arhat or a
In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, died, freed from all pains, the eighteen confederate kings of Kasi and Kosala, the nine Mallakis and nine Licchavis, on the day of new moon, instituted an illuminations on the Poshadha, which was a fasting day; for they said: 'Since the light of intelligence is gone, let us make an illumination of material matter!'(128)
A liberated soul dwell in
Having achieved the ultimate goal, knowing everything that needs to be known, and enjoying eternal and supreme bliss, the Omniscient, Effulgent Soul, rests permanently in the Highest State (of liberation). — Puruşārthasiddhyupāya (224)
* ^ Jain 2011 , p. 146.
* ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). "Chapter 5. Bhavyata and Abhavyata : A
Jaina Doctrine of 'Predestination'". Collected Papers on Jaina
Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1691-9 .
* ^ Kuhn, Hermann (2001). Karma, The Mechanism : Create Your Own
Fate. Wunstorf, Germany: Crosswind Publishing. ISBN 3-9806211-4-6 .
* ^ Amritchandra 2012 , p. 165.
* ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (1998). The Jaina Path of Purification. New
Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1578-5 .
* ^ *Varni, Jinendra (1993). Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Translated
Justice T.K. Tukol and Dr. K.K. Dixit, ed. Samaṇ Suttaṁ. New
Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. Verse 262 - 4
* ^ Jain, Vijay K (2014-03-26). Acarya Pujyapada\'s Istopadesa –
the Golden Discourse. p. 14. ISBN 9788190363969 .
Champat Rai Jain
* Jain, Vijay K. (2011), Acharya Umasvami\'s Tattvārthsūtra, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-2-1 , Non-Copyright * Amritchandra, Acharya (2012), Acharya Amritchandra\'s Purushartha Siddhyupaya, ISBN 9788190363945
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