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Mohammad Husni Thamrin
Mohammad Husni Thamrin
(16 February 1894 – 11 January 1941) was an Indonesian political thinker and National Hero. Biography[edit] Thamrin was born in Weltevreden, Batavia (modern day Jakarta), Dutch East Indies, on 16 February 1894.[1] His father, Thamrin Mohd. Tabri, was the son of an English businessman who owned hotel Ort in Batavia, but had been raised by his Javanese uncle and had adopted his name. Thamrin was therefore born into a neo-priyayi class and in 1906, his father became district head (wedana) under Governor General Johan Cornelis van der Wijck.[2] After graduating from Koning Willem III Gymnasium,[1] Thamrin took several government jobs before working for the shipping company Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij.[3] In 1919, Thamrin was elected a member of the Jakarta
Jakarta
City Council. He later became deputy mayor. In 1927 he was elected to the Volksraad; he soon formed the National Fraction (Fraksi Nasional) to unite ten groups of Indonesian nationalists under one flag[3] and counteract the reactionary Fatherlands Club (Vaderlandsche Club). Along with Dr. Soetomo, Parindra's chair, Thamrin believed that independence could be achieved through cooperation with the Dutch colonial government.[4] As a Volksraad member, Thamrin and Kusumom Utoyo went to eastern Sumatra
Sumatra
to look into working conditions at plantations there. Disgusted by what they found, upon his return Thamrin gave a speech condemning the plantation owners.[3] He criticised the legalised gambling and corporal punishments given for minor offences.[5] In 1935 he was a founding member of the Grand Indonesia Party (Partai Indonesia Raya, or Parindra).[3] After the death of Dr. Soetomo
Soetomo
in 1938, Thamrin became deputy chair of Parindra. In at a meeting of the Volksraad in 1939, Thamrin proposed that the Dutch terms Nederlands Indie, Nederlands Indisch and Inlander (Dutch Indies, Dutch Indian, and Dutch Indians) be replaced with the nationalist terms Indonesia, Indonesisch, and Indonesier (Indonesia, Indonesian, and Indonesians). Although this received majority support in the Volksraad, the Dutch government vetoed the motion. After his request, the colonial government kept him under surveillance.[3] By 1940, his proposal for the use of the term Indonesian had begun to receive consideration, much to Thamrin's perplexity.[6] In May 1939, Thamrin spearheaded an effort to unite eight nationalist organisations, including Parindra, in the Indonesian Political Federation (Gaboengan Politiek Indonesia, or GAPI). The group had four main goals: Indonesian self-determination, national unity, a democratically elected party answering to the Indonesian people, and solidarity between Indonesians and the Dutch to combat fascism.[7] On 6 January 1941, Thamrin was put under house arrest under suspicion of aiding the advancing Japanese forces;[3] he had previously maintained warm relations with Japanese residents of the Indies.[8] Already ill, he died five days after his arrest.[3] He was buried in Karet Bivak Cemetery, Central Jakarta.[9] Legacy[edit]

Jalan M.H. Thamrin
Jalan M.H. Thamrin
in 1993

Thamrin has several objects named after him, including Jalan M.H. Thamrin, a thoroughfare in Central Jakarta,[3] and Mohammad Husni Thamrin School for the Gifted, a school in East Jakarta
Jakarta
for students with an IQ of more than 120.[10] His old home on Kenari street in Senen, Central Jakarta, is now a museum dedicated to his life.[11] Two statues of Thamrin have been erected in Jakarta: a bust near the National Monument and a full-body statue in front of the Thamrin Museum.[12] He was declared a National Hero of Indonesia
National Hero of Indonesia
in 1964.[13] References[edit]

Footnotes

^ a b Soedarmanto 2007, p. 14. ^ B.O.B. Hering, M.H. Thamrin and his Quest for Indonesian Nationhood, 1917-1941, Stein (Limburg), 1996 ^ a b c d e f g h JCG, Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin. ^ Elson 2008, p. 60. ^ Soedarmanto 2007, p. 13. ^ Elson 2008, p. 92. ^ Kahin 1952, pp. 96–97. ^ Elson 2008, p. 63. ^ The Jakarta
Jakarta
Post 2009, Even after you. ^ Sabarini 2009, Prestigious high school. ^ JCG, Gedung Muhammad Husni. ^ JCG, Husni Thamrin, Patung. ^ Ajisaka & Damayanti 2010, p. 132.

Bibliography

Ajisaka, Arya; Damayanti, Dewi (2010). Mengenal Pahlawan Indonesia [Knowing Indonesian Heroes] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Kawan Pustaka. ISBN 978-979-757-430-7.  Elson, Robert Edward (2008). The Idea of Indonesia : a History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87648-3.  "Even after you die you have to follow rules". The Jakarta
Jakarta
Post. 5 September 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2011.  "Gedung Muhammad Husni Thamrin / Gedung Kenari" [Muhammad Husni Thamrin Building / Kenari Building] (in Indonesian). Jakarta
Jakarta
City Government. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.  "Husni Thamrin, Patung" [Husni Thamrin, Statue]. Encyclopedia of Jakarta
Jakarta
(in Indonesian). Jakarta
Jakarta
City Government. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.  Kahin, George McTurnan (1952). Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. OCLC 406170.  "Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin". Encyclopedia of Jakarta
Jakarta
(in Indonesian). Jakarta
Jakarta
City Government. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.  Sabarini, Prodita (14 March 2009). "Prestigious high school for gifted kids to open". The Jakarta
Jakarta
Post. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.  Soedarmanto, J. B. (2007). Jejak-Jejak Pahlawan: Perekat Kesatuan Bangsa Indonesia. Jakarta: Grasindo. ISBN 978-979-759-716-0. 

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 57964036 LCCN: n82098854 SUDOC: 086278509

v t e

National Heroes of Indonesia

Political

Abdul Halim Achmad Soebardjo Adam Malik Adnan Kapau Gani Andi Djemma Andi Sultan Daeng Radja Arie Frederik Lasut Bagindo Azizchan B.W. Lapian Tjilik Riwut Djoeanda Kartawidjaja Ernest Douwes Dekker Ferdinand Lumbantobing Gatot Mangkoepradja Hamengkubuwono IX Hazairin Idham Chalid Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung Ignatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono I Gusti Ketut Pudja Iwa Koesoemasoemantri Izaak Huru Doko Johannes Leimena Kusumah Atmaja Lambertus Nicodemus Palar Maskoen Soemadiredja Mohammad Hatta Mohammad Husni Thamrin Mohammad Natsir Moewardi Nani Wartabone Oto Iskandar di Nata Rajiman Wediodiningrat Rasuna Said Sahardjo Sam Ratulangi Samanhudi Soekarni Sukarno Sukarjo Wiryopranoto Supeno Soepomo Soeroso Ario Soerjo Soerjopranoto Sutan Sjahrir Sjafruddin Prawiranegara Tan Malaka Teuku Muhammad Hasan Teuku Nyak Arif Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto Wahid Hasyim Zainul Arifin

Military

Abdul Haris Nasution Abdul Rahman Saleh Adisucipto Andi Abdullah Bau Massepe Basuki Rahmat Djamin Ginting Djatikoesoemo Gatot Soebroto Halim Perdanakusuma Harun Thohir Hasan Basry Iswahyudi I Gusti Ngurah Rai John Lie R. E. Martadinata Mas Isman Moestopo Muhammad Mangundiprojo Muhammad Yasin Noer Alie Oerip Soemohardjo Slamet Rijadi Sudirman Supriyadi Sutomo
Sutomo
(Bung Tomo) T. B. Simatupang Usman Janatin Robert Wolter Mongisidi Yos Sudarso

Independence

Fatmawati

Revolutionaries

Ahmad Yani Karel Satsuit Tubun Mas Tirtodarmo Haryono Katamso Darmokusumo Donald Izacus Pandjaitan Pierre Tendean Siswondo Parman Sugiyono Mangunwiyoto Suprapto Sutoyo Siswomiharjo

Resistance

Alimin Dr. Soetomo Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo Wahidin Soedirohoesodo

Literary

Abdoel Moeis Agus Salim Amir Hamzah Mohammad Yamin Raja Ali Haji

Art

Ismail Marzuki Wage Rudolf Supratman

Education

Dewi Sartika Herman Johannes Kartini Ki Hajar Dewantara Ki Sarmidi Mangunsarkoro Maria Walanda Maramis

Integration

Frans Kaisiepo Johannes Abraham Dimara Marthen Indey Pajonga Daeng Ngalie Silas Papare Syarif Kasim II

Press

Ilyas Yakoub Tirto Adhi Soerjo

Development

Suharso Siti Hartinah Wilhelmus Zakaria Johannes

Religion

Abdul Wahab Hasbullah Ahmad Dahlan As'ad Syamsul Arifin Albertus Soegijapranata Bagoes Hadikoesoemo Fakhruddin Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah Hasyim Asy'ari Lafran Pane Mas Mansoer Nyai Ahmad Dahlan

Struggle

Abdul Kadir Achmad Rifa'i Ageng Tirtayasa Andi Mappanyukki Prince Antasari Sultan Agung Teungku Chik di Tiro Cut Nyak Dhien Cut Nyak Meutia Diponegoro Raja Haji Fisabilillah Hamengkubuwono I Hasanuddin Tuanku Imam Bonjol Iskandar Muda I Gusti Ketut Jelantik I Gusti Ngurah Made Agung Kiras Bangun La Maddukelleng Mahmud Badaruddin II Mangkunegara I Martha Christina Tiahahu Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin Nyi Ageng Serang Pakubuwono VI Pakubuwono X Pattimura Pong Tiku Radin Inten II Ranggong Daeng Romo Sisingamangaraja XII Syech Yusuf Tajul Khalwati Tuanku Tambusai Teuku Umar Thaha Syaifuddin Untung Surapati Zainal M

.