MOHAMMED DAUD DAUD (Persian : محمد داود داود) (January
1969 – 28 May 2011), also known as GENERAL DAUD DAUD, an ethnic
Tajik , was the police chief in northern
Afghanistan and the
commander of the 303 Pamir Corps. He was an opponent of the Afghan
Daud studied engineering in college. After graduating from college
in the 1980s he joined the forces of
Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud against the
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. After the retreat of Soviet troops
and the defeat of the Afghan communist regime, Daud remained in Takhar
province of Afghanistan.
Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud had ordered him to guard
northern areas and to keep his forces out of the capital Kabul. When
Taliban took power in Kabul, Daud served as a leading military
commander of the anti-
Taliban United Front under the command of Ahmad
Shah Massoud, which later spearheaded the defeat of the
Taliban . In
October 2001, Daud was directly responsible for retaking the city of
Kunduz from an
Al Qaeda -
After the fall of the
Taliban regime, he was appointed a Deputy
Interior Minister for Counter
Narcotics in Afghanistan. His campaign
against poppy cultivation was successful in several provinces,
including Ogar, Ghazni, Wardak, Paktia, Paktika and Panjshir.
In 2010 he was appointed police chief of Afghanistan's northern
provinces, overseeing Interior Ministry forces and directly commanding
his own police elite force called Pamir 303. An opponent of the
Taliban, Daud was assassinated on May 28, 2011 in a
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) bomb attack in Taloqan,
* 1 Daud and the Battle of
* 2 Daud\'s political career
* 3 Fight against
* 3.1 Acid attack on Afghan schoolgirls
* 3.2 Military operations
* 4 Counter-narcotics campaign
* 4.1 Opium in
Taliban and opium
* 4.3 Mobile opium processing labs
* 5 Death
* 6 Corruption and link with
* 7 References
DAUD AND THE BATTLE OF KUNDUZ
Daud was responsible for overseeing the November 2001 siege of Kunduz
, the last major battle in the assault to topple the
the siege of
Kunduz all sides of the city were surrounded by Northern
Alliance forces. Inside the city there were estimated to be
Taliban fighters, many of whom had vowed to fight to the
death, rather than surrender. In
Kunduz during the November 2001
siege were the so-called "Afghan Arabs", foreign volunteers believed
to be led by
Osama bin Laden . According to
General Mohammed Daud a
Taliban leader named "Omar al-Khatab" was leading a force of 1,000
foreign fighters belonging to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaida network.
Little was known about the foreign Taliban. According to Afghan
Taliban soldiers taken prisoner by the Northern Alliance; the
foreigners did not fight side by side with the Taliban, but in
separate units, under their own commanders. During the siege the
Kunduz travelled through the surrounding mountains to meet
General Mohammed Daud of the Northern Alliance, supposedly in a garden
Taloqan . Following the meeting, the mayor was ready to
surrender, but needed time to negotiate with the foreign volunteers,
who opposed surrender. In an effort to end the siege, Daud promised
Taliban fighters fair treatment if they surrendered:
"We will allow the low-ranking foreigners to appear before a court."
On November 27, 2001 street-to-street fighting began at 7 am in
Northern Alliance troops led by
General Mohammed Daud
advanced into town. The remaining
Taliban were defeated and Kunduz
Northern Alliance control. After victory at the siege of
Kunduz and the subsequent establishment of the Interim
Afghanistan, Daud was appointed as Military commander of Corps No 6 in
DAUD\'S POLITICAL CAREER
Daud speaking with Canadian Ambassador to
Crosbie in January 2010.
Daud was the former governor of the
Takhar province in Afghanistan.
Gen. Mohammad Daud was the top counter-narcotics official in the
Afghan government. Counternarcotics enforcement activities have been
directed from within the
Ministry of Interior since 2002. General
Mohammed Daud was named Deputy
Ministry of Interior for
Counternarcotics by Afghan President
Hamid Karzai in October 2004. He
was also the head of the Counter
Police of Afghanistan
(CNPA). Daud and his staff worked with U.S. and British officials in
implementing the Afghan government's expanded counternarcotics
enforcement plan. Soon following his appointment, Daud led an Afghan
delegation that participated in a thirty night session of the
sub-commission on illicit
Drug Traffic and related matters in the Near
and Middle East (HONLEA) in Beirut, Lebanon. Delegates from twenty-one
countries participated in the meeting.
General Mohammad Daud delivered
a presentation on the counter narcotics activities of the government
of Afghanistan, achievements and problems still being faced.
E. Anthony Wayne , William Crosbie and others.
Hamid Karzai took steps to establish landlocked Afghanistan
as a trade hub connecting the Middle East,
Central Asia and Europe.
Daud was involved in Karzai's plan to rehabilitate the war-torn Afghan
economy . In late December 2002 Daud led an economic trade delegation
Kabul has been particularly interested in
swiftly opening trading routes in
Central Asia , where there is a vast
market for Afghan goods.
Daud expressed optimism about Afghanistan's effort to halt the opium
trade: "We witnessed a remarkable reduction in the level of poppy
cultivation all over
Afghanistan last year. We worked very hard in the
provinces where poppy cultivation was higher last year. The poppy
eradication campaign is extensively under way in 11 provinces. Some
45,000 jeribs of poppy cultivated land have so far been cleared. The
campaign will start in 11 other provinces soon."
Daud was also involved in Afghanistan's Disbandment of Illegal Armed
(DIAG). DIAG is a program within the Afghan
Ministry of Interior .
DAIG supports the Afghan government's objectives to bring stability to
Afghanistan through the continuing process of demilitarization. The
program also focuses on removing from office those government
officials with proven links to illegal armed groups. Daud said that
DIAG is not a program to take only weapons from individuals but that
it is a program to disband the armed groups in order to ensure a
sustainable safe and secure country.
FIGHT AGAINST TALIBAN TERRORISM
ACID ATTACK ON AFGHAN SCHOOLGIRLS
On November 12, 2008 attackers in
Afghanistan sprayed acid in the
faces of at least 15 girls near a school in
Kandahar . One of the
girls who was attacked was quoted as saying, "We were going to school
on foot when two unknown people on a motorcycle came close to us and
threw acid in our faces", 16-year-old Atifa told the BBC." At least
two of the girls were blinded by the attack.
General Mohammad Daud
was tasked to deal with the incident. The attack on the girls, who had
been wearing all-covering burqas , drew wide condemnation including
Hamid Karzai and U.S. First Lady
Laura Bush .
Daud said authorities had arrested ten men for it a few days after
the attack. He said at a press conference that "The attack was the
work of the
Taliban and we have not finalised our investigation", and
BBC that "the attack was the work of the Taliban" and that
the attackers "were taking orders from the other side of the border
from those who are leading terrorist attacks in
Kandahar ." Daud told
reporters that the ten Afghans arrested had been promised 100,000
Pakistani rupees (US$1,300) each by
Taliban in Pakistan. Many of them
confessed to the attacks. Daud said his ministry had opened a bank
account to collect money for the girls' medical treatment and
In March 2011 a
BBC crew was embedded with Daud's forces during a
battle against the
Baghlan . The journalist described:
"The man in charge of the offensive was a soft-spoken and charismatic
general named Mohammed Daoud Daoud. ... Everywhere he went, Daoud
stressed the need to respect the local population. He was saying all
the right things from the international community's point of view. It
made me wonder whether he had political ambitions. But this was also
the right way to fight an insurgency. It made military sense. In one
meeting of his commanders, he said: "If the arbakis do anything
wrong, disarm them, handcuff them, and bring them to me. No
exceptions." He went on: "Some of these guys are mad; some of them are
on drugs. They are an embarrassment. But this time, they are part of
the operation." So why let them join the assault at all? He explained
that they knew the terrain and the people. He needed them "only as
guides." A few days before the offensive was due to start, he called
about 20 arbaki commanders into his office. They sat on rows of
folding chairs as he delivered a speech about the need to respect
human rights. As they stood up to leave, he added, "If any of your men
rape the local women, I will hang them." " — Paul Wood (
OPIUM IN AFGHANISTAN
Afghanistan provides more than 90 percent of the world's
total supply, funding international drug syndicates with billions of
US dollars in profits every year. Daud said that more than 110,000
people were actively involved in drug business across the country.
This number had been estimated by the United Nations Office on Drugs
and Crimes (UNODC). In June 2007 Daud estimated there were over 1,000
smugglers, including some government officials arrested over the
previous three years. Daud stated in an interview: "Our job as a law
enforcement agency is to make sure eradication is done and farmers are
not cultivating opium poppy.We want to put some 4–5 traffickers in
jail from each poppy producing province to make an example ... The
other side is the poverty of the farmers. We, the Afghan state, will
do our part; there will be no more poppy cultivation. But it is the
responsibility of the big donors to provide alternative livelihoods,
alternative crops and development to the farmers, both short term and
long term." The head of the UN 's drugs agency said in 2010 that the
Taliban had made $100 million the previous year by levying a 10% tax
on opium-growing farmers. In response to the illicit opium trade,
Daud reported that counter-narcotics activities had been "boosted
considerably" since 2007. During the first eight months of 2007, over
300 tonnes of cannabis , over 25 tonnes of opium and over 10 tonnes of
heroin , as well as several tonnes of heroin-producing chemicals, were
impounded. Twenty-five heroin -producing laboratories were also
destroyed, according to the Interior Ministry.
In December 2008 Daud spoke at a U.N. conference in Kabul,
Afghanistan, and said that Afghan law enforcement agencies needed
international assistance in training and equipment. He talked about
lack of security and linkage between drug-trafficking and terrorism as
well as profound corruption in the police and the army. His
presentation highlighted the Ministry of the Interior's strategy in
the field of counternarcotics. These included dismantling
drug-trafficking networks/organizations, poppy eradication and crop
substitution. Daud informed the participants that the "poppy
eradication force" would complete its training soon and would be
deployed to the southern provinces of Afghanistan. He noted that the
force would be responsible for manually eradicating poppy plantations.
He called for international support to continue with the poppy
eradication programme and to expand the crop substitution programme to
other provinces. The
General suggested posting liaison officers to
Pakistan, Iran and
Tajikistan in order to foster international
Afghanistan had signed agreements with a number of
countries and was in the process of signing memorandums of
understanding with neighboring countries aimed at improving
cooperation, information-sharing, and controlled delivery operations,
according to the General. His ministry's activities in strengthening
security at the borders and airports and establishing border control
liaison officers were also emphasized.
In February 2009 Daud said that he was hopeful that the poppy crop
Afghanistan would probably drop by 50 percent that year.
He said that
Taliban and smugglers had joined, and posed a bigger
threat to the Afghan government. Counter-narcotics police came under
enemy attack during the counter-narcotics drive in several occasions,
inflicting casualties on the law-enforcers, he said. The campaign
against poppy was successful in Logar, Ghazni, Wardag, Paktia, Paktika
and Panjshir provinces.
TALIBAN AND OPIUM
Daud speaking with members of
ISAF in April 2011
The opium trade has been a continuing source of financing for the
Taliban insurgents force farmers to grow opium poppies to
fund their operations. Daud was recently quoted as saying, ""The
Taliban have forged an alliance with drug smugglers , providing
protection for drug convoys and mounting attacks to keep the
government away and the poppy flourishing."
General Mohammad Daud
was further quoted in
The New Yorker
The New Yorker about this alliance, saying,
"There has been a coalition between the
Taliban and the opium
smugglers. This year, they have set up a commission to tax the
harvest." In return, he said, the
Taliban had offered opium farmers
protection from the government 's eradication efforts. The switch in
strategy has an obvious logic: it provides opium money for the Taliban
to sustain itself and helps it to win over the farming communities.
In a continued effort to curb the opium trade in
Duad reported in June 2008 that police in
Kabul set fire to 7.5 tonnes
of narcotics . In April 2009, the Afghan anti-drug officers burned
more than six-and-a-half tons of seized heroin, opium, hashish and
drug-manufacturing chemicals worth up to £70 million on the UK
market. "If we do not burn the drugs, thousands of others will become
drug addicts", said Daud, deputy minister for counter narcotics at the
Interior Ministry. By burning this amount of opium and narcotics we
show the people we are committed to the fight against drugs."
MOBILE OPIUM PROCESSING LABS
Reports seem to suggest Afghan drug traffickers are turning to new
concealment methods. Mobile processing labs started to be seen at the
end of 2003 and beginning of 2004. These processing labs can be
difficult to locate. According to Daud "reports and tip-offs" have to
be relied on in order to find them. Daud added: "Previously, they
were using wood in their big laboratories. They could not move and we
started to find their laboratories, so they decided to make all their
laboratories into mobile labs so they can carry them to different
places. They started using gas and diesel ." Afghan counter-narcotics
police point to key smugglers having strong links with processing
laboratories and say that laboratories are sometimes heavily guarded.
"After Mawlana Saidkhaili , I accepted to be killed while serving
my people. I say this every morning when I leave my home and I am
ready to be killed."
"They have a lot of weapons, and in some areas they are supported by
government officials," said Daud, although he would not reveal in
which areas guarded laboratories had been a particular problem. A
Kandahar resident who has had close contact with the drugs trade said
that laboratories, often just comprising metal drums and a large
press, are mainly located in the border areas. The location of
laboratories in these areas points to the involvement of Pakistani
Daud was assassinated in a
Taliban bomb attack in
Afghanistan, after a meeting held in the headquarters of the
provincial governor of
Takhar Province . Six people, including two
German soldiers, were killed. The commander of
ISAF troops in North
General Markus Kneip, was wounded. The
responsibility for the attack, with the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
also believed to have played a role.
CORRUPTION AND LINK WITH NARCOTICS TRADE
Daud was involved in the narcotics trade and used his post as head of
counternarcotics police to provide safe passage to smugglers. One drug
courier from Helmand was caught with a letter of safe passage signed
by the head of Afghanistan's counternarcotics police, Lt. Gen.
Mohammad Daud Daud. A convicted heroin trafficker, Izzatullah Wasifi,
was appointed by Karzai as the head of an anti-corruption agency.
"Karzai was playing us like a fiddle," wrote Schweich, the U.S.
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