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Mohamed Morsi[note 1] (Arabic: محمد محمد مرسي عيسى العياط‎, ALA-LC: Muḥammad Muḥammad Mursī ‘Īsá al-‘Ayyāṭ, IPA: [mæˈħæmmæd mæˈħæmmæd ˈmoɾsi ˈʕiːsæ (ʔe)l.ʕɑjˈjɑːtˤ]; born 8 August 1951) is an Egyptian politician who served as the fifth[1] President of Egypt, from 30 June 2012 to 3 July 2013, when General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
removed Morsi from office in the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état
2013 Egyptian coup d'état
after the June 2013 Egyptian protests.[2] As president, Morsi issued a temporary constitutional declaration in late November that in effect granted him unlimited powers and the power to legislate without judicial oversight or review of his acts. The new constitution that was then hastily drawn up by the Islamist-dominated constitutional assembly, presented to the president, and scheduled for a referendum, before the Supreme Constitutional Court could rule on the constitutionality of the assembly, was described by independent press agencies not aligned with the regime as an "Islamist coup".[3] These issues,[4] along with complaints of prosecutions of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators,[5] led to the 2012 Egyptian protests.[6][7] As part of a compromise, Morsi rescinded the decrees.[8] In the referendum he held on the new constitution it was approved by approximately two thirds of voters.[9] On 30 June 2013, protests erupted across Egypt, which saw protesters calling for the president's resignation.[10][11][12] In response to the events, Morsi was given a 48-hour ultimatum by the military to meet their demands and to resolve political differences, or else they would intervene by "implementing their own road map" for the country.[13] He was unseated on 3 July by a military coup council consisting of Defense Minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei, the Grand Imam of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, and Coptic Pope
Coptic Pope
Tawadros II.[14][15] The military suspended the constitution and established a new administration now led by General Abdel Fatah al-Sisi.[16] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
protested against the military coup, but the pro-Morsi protests were crushed in the August 2013 Rabaa massacre in which at least 817 civilians were killed.[17] Opposition leader Elbaradei quit in protest of the massacre.[18] Since his overthrow, Egyptian prosecutors have charged Morsi with various crimes and sought the death penalty, a move denounced by Amnesty International
Amnesty International
as "a charade based on null and void procedures."[19] His death sentence was overturned, so he will receive a retrial.[20] However, Morsi is still currently imprisoned.[21]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Academic and engineering career 3 Political career

3.1 2011 detention 3.2 2012 Egyptian presidential campaign

4 Beliefs

4.1 On changing the government 4.2 On Islamic society and non-Muslims in Egypt

5 President of Egypt

5.1 Domestic policy

5.1.1 November 2012 declaration

5.2 Foreign policy

5.2.1 Personnel 5.2.2 Arab world 5.2.3 Syria 5.2.4 Iran 5.2.5 Israel and Palestine

5.2.5.1 Statements on Israel and Israelis

5.2.6 International summits

5.2.6.1 African Union 5.2.6.2 Non-Aligned Movement 5.2.6.3 Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) summit

6 Overthrow and criminal trial

6.1 Trial 6.2 Jail

7 Personal life 8 See also 9 Citations 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Early life and education[edit] Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
was born in the Sharqia Governorate, in northern Egypt, of modest provincial origin, in the village of El Adwah, north of Cairo, on 8 August 1951.[22] His father was a farmer and his mother a housewife.[22] He is the eldest of five brothers, and told journalists that he remembers being taken to school on the back of a donkey.[23] In the late 1960s, he moved to Cairo
Cairo
to study at Cairo
Cairo
University, and earned a BA in engineering with high honors in 1975. He fulfilled his military service in the Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
from 1975 to 1976, serving in the chemical warfare unit. He then resumed his studies at Cairo University and earned an MS in metallurgical engineering in 1978.[24][25] After completing his master's degree, Morsi earned a government scholarship that enabled him to study in the United States. He received a PhD in materials science from the University of Southern California
California
in 1982 with his dissertation "High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity and Defect Structure of Donor-Doped Al2O3". [26][27] Academic and engineering career[edit] While living in the United States, Morsi became an Asst.Prof. at the California State University, Northridge
California State University, Northridge
from 1982 to 1985. Morsi, an expert on precision metal surfaces, also worked with NASA
NASA
in the early 1980s, helping to develop Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
engines.[28][29] In 1985, Morsi quit his job at CSUN and returned to Egypt, becoming a professor at Zagazig University, where he was appointed head of the engineering department. Morsi was a lecturer at Zagazig University's engineering department until 2010.[29] Political career[edit] Morsi was first elected to parliament in 2000.[30] He served as a Member of Parliament from 2000 to 2005, officially as an independent candidate because the Brotherhood was technically barred from running candidates for office under Mubarak.[31] He was a member of the Guidance Office of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
until the founding of the Freedom and Justice Party in 2011, at which point he was elected by the MB's Guidance Office to be the first president of the new party.[citation needed] While serving in this capacity in 2010, Morsi stated that "the two-state solution is nothing but a delusion concocted by the brutal usurper of the Palestinian lands."[32] Morsi condemned the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
as "horrific crime against innocent civilians". However, he accused the United States
United States
of using the 9/11 attacks as a pretext for invading Afghanistan and Iraq, and claimed that the US had not provided "evidence" that the attackers were Muslims.[33] He also stated that the aircraft collision alone did not bring down the World Trade Center, suggesting something "happened from the inside." Such views are held by most Egyptians, including Egyptian liberals.[34] His comments drew criticism in the United States.[35] 2011 detention[edit] Morsi was arrested along with 24 other Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
leaders on 28 January 2011.[36] He escaped from prison in Cairo
Cairo
two days later. The break of Wadi el-Natroun Prison received widespread news coverage within hours of its occurrence,[37] with some reports indicating the political prisoners were sprung from detention by "armed gangs" taking advantage of the chaos of the Egyptian Revolution.[38][39] Four years later, Morsi faced trial for his role in the prison break. He and 105 others were sentenced to death on 16 May 2015.[40] The court of cassation overturned the death sentence on Morsi and five others and then ordered retrials.[20] 2012 Egyptian presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Egyptian presidential election, 2012 After Khairat El-Shater
Khairat El-Shater
was disqualified from the 2012 presidential election, Morsi, who was initially nominated as a backup candidate, emerged as the new Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
candidate.[41] His campaign was supported by well-known Egyptian cleric Safwat Hegazi at a rally in El-Mahalla El-Kubra,[42] the epicentre of Egyptian worker protests.[43] Following the first round of Egypt's first post-Mubarak presidential elections where exit polls suggested a 25.5 percent share of the vote for Morsi, he was officially announced as the president on 24 June 2012, following a subsequent run-off vote. Morsi supporters in Cairo's Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
celebrated, and angry outbursts occurred at the Egypt Election Authorities press conference when the result was announced. He came in slightly ahead of former Mubarak-era prime minister Ahmed Shafik and has been noted for the Islamist character of his campaign events.[44] Since the initial round of voting on 23 May and 24 May 2012, Morsi had attempted to appeal to political liberals and minorities while portraying his rival Ahmed Shafik
Ahmed Shafik
as a holdover from the Mubarak-era of secular moderation.[45] On 30 May 2012, Morsi filed a lawsuit against Egyptian television presenter Tawfiq Okasha, accusing him of "intentional falsehoods and accusations that amount to defamation and slander." According to online newspaper Egypt
Egypt
Independent, an English-language subsidiary of Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm, Okasha spent three hours on 27 May 2012, criticizing the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and Morsi on air.[46] After Okasha aired a video allegedly depicting Tunisian Islamist extremists executing a Christian while asking "how will such people govern?", some analysts suggested that this was in reference to Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood party.[47] The Tunisian government characterized the video as a farce in a harshly worded statement.[48] On 24 June 2012, Morsi was announced as the winner of the election with 51.73 percent of the vote.[49] Almost immediately afterward, he resigned from the presidency of the Freedom and Justice Party.[50] Beliefs[edit] On changing the government[edit]

I hope the people will choose me, an Islamist candidate from the Freedom & Justice party and Muslim Brotherhood, and God willing the system will move towards stability and development. — Mohamed Morsi, during the 2012 presidential election campaign[51]

Morsi said "no entity will be above the constitution" but did not spell out his vision for the army's status. He said the army's budget should be overseen by parliament but there would be a need for secrecy in specific areas.[51] He promised to respect the Constitution of Egypt
Egypt
and said the Freedom & Justice Party would not "impose what we believe on people." He said Egyptians sought to live in a society in which all had equal rights.[52] He also linked the 2011 revolution to an "Islamic awakening" in the Middle East.[53] On Islamic society and non-Muslims in Egypt[edit] Morsi said Coptic Christians
Coptic Christians
"are certainly just as Egyptian as I am, and have as much a right to this homeland as I do." He said freedom of religion is a right granted by Allah[54] and sharia commands Muslims to respect the rights of non-Muslim compatriots.[55] Morsi also compared free markets to the Islamic system, but said Islam requires there to be an ethical component to ensure that the poor share in society's wealth.[56] President of Egypt[edit] See also: Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Mohamed Morsi (July–October 2012) Morsi was sworn in on 30 June 2012, as Egypt's first democratically elected president.[57] He succeeded Hosni Mubarak, who left the office of the President of Egypt
President of Egypt
vacant after being forced to resign on 11 February 2011.[58][59] Domestic policy[edit] [60] Morsi reconvened Parliament in its original form on 10 July 2012; this was expected to cause friction between him and the military officials who dissolved the legislature. Morsi sought to influence the drafting of a new constitution of Egypt, favoring a constitution that protects civil rights and enshrines Islamic law.[61] In a speech to supporters in Cairo's Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
on 30 June 2012, Morsi briefly mentioned that he would work to free Omar Abdel-Rahman, convicted of the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City, along with the many Egyptians who were arrested during the revolution.[62] A Brotherhood spokesperson later said that the extradition was for humanitarian reasons and that Morsi did not intend to overturn Abdel-Rahman's criminal convictions.[63] On 10 July 2012, Morsi reinstated the Islamist-dominated parliament that was disbanded by the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt
Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt
on 14 June 2012. According to Egypt's official news agency, Morsi ordered the immediate return of legislators elected in 2011, a majority of whom are members of Morsi's Freedom and Justice Party and other Islamist groups.[64][65] A Morsi spokesman announced that the president-elect would appoint a Christian and a woman as vice-presidents,[66] but eventually appointed Mahmoud Mekki, a Muslim man. On 22 December 2012, Mekki resigned.[67] After Kamal Ganzouri's resignation, Morsi tasked Hesham Qandil
Hesham Qandil
with forming the new government.[68] On 2 August 2012, Qandil was sworn in as prime minister.[69] Morsi also objected to a constitutional provision limiting presidential power.[70]

Then President Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
(right) and General al-Sisi (left) listen to visiting U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel
Chuck Hagel
(center), during a meeting with U.S. officials on April 24, 2013. Al-Sisi, chosen by Morsi to be the first post-Mubarak era Defense Minister,[71] would later sanction the removal of Morsi.

On 12 August 2012, Morsi asked Mohamad Hussein Tantawi, head of the country's armed forces, and Sami Hafez Anan, the Army chief of staff, to resign.[72] He also announced that the constitutional amendments passed by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
(SCAF) restricting the president's powers would be annulled.[73] Morsi's spokesman, Yasser Ali, announced that both Tantawi and Anan would remain advisers to the president. Morsi named Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who was then serving as chief of military intelligence, as Egypt's new defense minister.[74] The New York Times
The New York Times
described the move as an "upheaval" and a "stunning purge", given the power that SCAF had taken after the fall of Mubarak.[74] Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
described it as "escalating the power struggle" between the president and military.[73] On 14 August 2012, Mohamed Salem, an Egyptian lawyer, filed a legal challenge over Morsi's removal of Tantawi and Anan, arguing that Morsi planned to bring back the totalitarian regime.[75] Morsi fired two more high-rank security officials on 16 August 2012: intelligence chief Murad Muwafi
Murad Muwafi
the Director of the Intelligence Directorate and the commander of his presidential guards.[76] On 27 August 2012, Morsi named 21 advisers and aides that included three women and two Christians and a large number of Islamist-leaning figures.[77] He also appointed new governors to the 27 regions of the country.[78] In October 2012, Morsi's government unveiled plans for the development of a major economic and industrial hub adjoining the Suez Canal. Funding commitments had been received including $8 billion from Qatar.[79] The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development committed €1 billion. On 19 March 2013 on a visit to India, Morsi sought support from India's Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.[80] Although the project did not proceed under Morsi, his successor Abdel Fattah el-Sisi revived and launched a streamlined version of the corridor in conjunction with an expansion of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
in August 2014.[81] On 19 October 2012, Morsi traveled to Egypt's northwestern Matrouh in his first official visit to deliver a speech on Egyptian unity at el-Tenaim Mosque. Immediately prior to his speech he participated in prayers there where he openly mouthed "Amen" as cleric Futouh Abd Al-Nabi Mansour, the local head of religious endowment, declared, "Deal with the Jews and their supporters. Oh Allah, disperse them, rend them asunder. Oh Allah, demonstrate Your might and greatness upon them. Show us Your omnipotence, oh Lord." The prayers were broadcast on Egyptian state television and translated by MEMRI. Originally MEMRI translated the broadcast as "Destroy the Jews and their supporters. Oh Allah, disperse them, rend them asunder," but later revised their translation.[82][83] Morsi did not attend the enthronement of Coptic Pope
Coptic Pope
Tawadros II on 18 November 2012 at Abbasiya Cathedral, though Prime Minister Hesham Qandil did attend.[84] November 2012 declaration[edit] Main article: 2012–13 Egyptian protests On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a declaration purporting to protect the work of the Constituent Assembly drafting the new constitution from judicial interference. In effect, this declaration immunised his actions from any legal challenge. The decree states that it only applies until a new constitution is ratified.[85] The declaration also requires a retrial of those accused in the Mubarak-era killings of protesters, who had been acquitted, and extends the mandate of the Constituent Assembly by two months. Additionally, the declaration authorizes Morsi to take any measures necessary to protect the revolution. Liberal and secular groups walked out of the constitutional Constituent Assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while members of the Muslim Brotherhood supported Morsi.[86] The move was criticized by Mohamed ElBaradei
Mohamed ElBaradei
who said Morsi had "usurped all state powers and appointed himself Egypt's new pharaoh".[87][88] The move led to massive protests and violent action throughout Egypt,[89] with protesters erecting tents in Tahrir Square, the site of the protests that preceded the resignation of Hosni Mubarak. The protesters demanded a reversal of the declaration and the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly. Those gathered in the square called for a "huge protest" on 27 November.[90] Clashes were reported between protesters and police.[91] The declaration was also condemned by human rights groups such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and Freedom House.[92][93][94][95] Egypt's highest body of judges decried the ruling as an "unprecedented assault on the independence of the judiciary and its rulings".[96] Abdel Meguid Mahmoud, a prosecutor appointed by Hosni Mubarak, declared the decree "null and void."[85] Morsi further emphasized his argument that the decree is temporary, and said he wanted dialog with the opposition.[97] Morsi's statement failed to appease either the judges or citizenry dissatisfied with his decision and sparked days of protests in Tahrir Square.[98] Though the declarations's language had not been altered, Morsi agreed to limit the scope of the decree to "sovereign matters" following four days of opposition protests and the resignation of several senior advisers. Morsi's spokesman said an agreement, reached with top judicial authorities, would leave most of the president's actions subject to review by the courts, but preserve his power to protect the Constituent Assembly from being dissolved by the courts before it had finished its work. President Morsi also agreed there would be no further retrials of former officials under Hosni Mubarak, unless new evidence was presented.[99] On 1 December 2012, the Constituent Assembly handed the draft constitution to Morsi, who announced that a constitutional referendum would be held on 15 December 2012.[100][101] On 4 December 2012, Morsi left his presidential palace after a number of protesters broke through police cordons around the palace, with some climbing atop an armored police vehicle and waving flags.[102] On 8 December 2012, Morsi annulled his decree that had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the effects of that declaration would stand.[4][101][103][104][105][106] A constitutional referendum was still planned for 15 December. George Isaac of the Constitution Party said that Morsi's declaration did not offer anything new, the National Salvation Front rejected it as an attempt save face, and the 6 April Movement
6 April Movement
and Gamal Fahmi of the Egyptian Journalists Syndicate said the new declaration failed to address the "fundamental" problem of the nature of the Assembly that was tasked with drafting the constitution.[4] Foreign policy[edit]

Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
meets with U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
in Cairo, Egypt, July 2012

Morsi and Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff
Dilma Rousseff
in Brasília, Brazil, May 2013

Morsi meets with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 25 May 2013

Personnel[edit] Khaled al-Qazzaz was the secretary on foreign relations from 2012 to 2013 in the Morsi government.[107] Arab world[edit] Morsi's first official foreign visit was to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
on 11 July 2012.[108] During this visit, Morsi stated that he intends to strengthen ties with the oil-rich monarchy, which also maintained close ties with the Mubarak government.[109] Morsi has seen strong support from Qatar, which has maintained long-held ties with the Muslim Brotherhood,[110] of which Morsi was a member until his election. Qatar
Qatar
has declared that it would provide Egypt
Egypt
with US$2 billion just as Morsi announced the reshuffle in the cabinet on 12 August 2012.[111] Meanwhile, investors from Qatar
Qatar
have pledged to invest 10 billion in Egyptian infrastructure.[110] Syria[edit] As a staunch supporter of the opposition forces in the Syrian Civil War, Morsi attended an Islamist rally on 15 June 2013, where Salafi clerics called for jihad in Syria and denounced supporters of Bashar al-Assad as "infidels."[112] Morsi, who announced at the rally that his government had expelled Syria's ambassador and closed the Syrian embassy in Cairo, called for international intervention on behalf of the opposition forces in the effect of an establishment of a no-fly zone.[113] Although he did not explicitly call for Egyptians to join the opposition armed forces in the Syrian conflict, Morsi's attendance at the 15 June rally was seen by many to be an implicit nod-of-approval for the Islamist clerics' calls for jihad in Syria.[112][114] Morsi was criticized by Egyptian analysts for attending and speaking at the rally, while the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
(SCAF) released a statement the day after the rally saying that its only role is to protect Egypt's borders, in an apparent ruling out of support for intervention in Syria.[112] Morsi's attendance at the rally was later revealed to be a major factor in the largely secular SCAF's decision to side with anti-Morsi protesters over the Morsi government during the widespread June 2013 anti-Morsi protests.[112] Up to 100,000 Syrian refugees have arrived in Egypt
Egypt
following Morsi's inaugration as president. The government under Morsi has also supported Syrian refugees living in Egypt
Egypt
by offering residency permits, assistance on finding employment, allowing Syrian refugee children to register in state schools and access to other public services. Iran[edit] During his tenure, Morsi strengthened ties with Iran
Iran
following pre-revolutionary years of animosity between the two countries. However, his actions were met with Sunni Muslim opposition both inside and outside Egypt.[115] Israel and Palestine[edit] In October 2012, Morsi wrote a friendly letter to then Israeli president Shimon Peres. The letter largely followed standard diplomatic language. Morsi called Peres "a great and good friend" and went on to call for "maintaining and strengthening the cordial relations which so happily exist between our two countries." Morsi closed the letter by expressing "highest esteem and consideration." Gamal Muhammad Heshmat asserted that the letter was "fabricated" saying that "Zionist media have leaked baseless statements by Morsi in the past." However, Morsi spokesman Yasser Ali told Egyptian state-run newspaper Ahram that the letter was "100 percent correct".[116] Previously, in July 2012, Morsi had refuted a fabricated letter.[117] Morsi said in his victory speech that he would honor all of Egypt's international treaties, which was thought to be a reference to Egypt's treaty with Israel.[118] Morsi's government condemned the Operation Pillar of Defense
Operation Pillar of Defense
and called for a ceasefire.[119] Morsi sent Prime Minister Hesham Qandil to Gaza to express solidarity with Gaza and Hamas,[120][121] a stark contrast to Hosni Mubarak's treatment of Hamas
Hamas
as an enemy in the 2008–09 Gaza War.[122] Egypt, along with the United States
United States
mediated the ceasefire with Hamas
Hamas
and Israel.[123] Statements on Israel and Israelis[edit] In January 2013, statements made by Morsi in 2010, gained wide attention in the Western media, following a report in Forbes
Forbes
magazine on 11 January that criticized big media outlets for having ignored it.[124] In videos posted by MEMRI, Morsi had declared "The Zionists have no right to the land of Palestine. There is no place for them on the land of Palestine. What they took before 1947–48 constitutes plunder, and what they are doing now is a continuation of this plundering. By no means do we recognize their Green Line. The land of Palestine belongs to the Palestinians, not to the Zionists."[125] In September 2010, calling the Israelis "blood-suckers", "warmongers" and "descendants of apes and pigs", Morsi said "These futile [Israeli-Palestinian] negotiations are a waste of time and opportunities. The Zionists buy time and gain more opportunities, as the Palestinians, the Arabs, and the Muslims lose time and opportunities, and they get nothing out of it. We can see how this dream has dissipated. This dream has always been an illusion... This [Palestinian] Authority was created by the Zionist and American enemies for the sole purpose of opposing the will of the Palestinian people and its interests."[126][127][128][129][130][131][132] White House spokesman Jay Carney
Jay Carney
tried to downplay Morsi's remarks, saying that U.S. policy is focused on actions, not words. Morsi later contended that his remarks were "taken out of context", and his exchange with a delegation headed by John McCain
John McCain
was made public:

Morsi told the delegation he was committed to freedom of religion and belief, his spokesman said, adding: "his Excellency [Morsi] pointed out the need to distinguish between the Jewish religion, and those who belong to it, and violent actions against defenseless Palestinians."[131][132]

During a visit to Germany in January 2013, Morsi again stated that his remarks were taken out of context, insisting that they were intended as a criticism of Israel's policies toward the Palestinians. Addressing reporters, Morsi stated that "[I am] not against the Jewish faith or the Jewish people. My comments were about conduct that sheds blood and kills innocent people – things neither I... nor anyone condones... My comments were about the conduct and manners, the killings and the aggression by tanks and warplanes and cluster bombs and internationally banned weapons against innocent people." Morsi also stated that, "[I] cannot be against the Jewish faith or Jews or Christianity and Christians," pointing out that the Quran
Quran
requires Muslims "to believe in all religions."".[133] International summits[edit] African Union[edit] Morsi attended the African Union
African Union
Summit in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
from 15 to 16 July 2012; this was the first visit to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
by Egypt's president in 17 years since the attempted assassination of Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
in June 1995.[134] Later, in June 2013, politicians called by Morsi were overheard suggesting attacking Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to stop it from building a dam on a Nile tributary.[135]

Pro-Morsi protest staged in Marine Drive in Cochin, India
Cochin, India
by the Jamaat-e-Islami

Non-Aligned Movement[edit] Morsi attended the 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
in Tehran at the end of August 2012, in a visit that could resume normal relations for the countries. Their diplomatic relationship has been strained since Egypt
Egypt
signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1979.[136] Morsi made a speech against the Syrian government and called on the Syrian opposition
Syrian opposition
to unite during the Syrian Civil War. His comments about Syria, however, were not covered by Iranian media clearly.[137] He sparked controversy saying that it is an "ethical duty" to support the Syrian people against the "oppressive regime" in Damascus.[138] Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) summit[edit] Morsi hosted the Islamic summit in Cairo
Cairo
with the presence of 57 leaders of Muslim nations. The summit called for a "serious dialogue" between Syria's government and an opposition coalition on a political transition to put an end to the devastating civil war.[139][140] Morsi awarded Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu
Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu
the Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC), Order of the Nile, which is Egypt's highest state honor.[141] Overthrow and criminal trial[edit] Main articles: June 2013 Egyptian protests
June 2013 Egyptian protests
and 2013 Egyptian coup d'état

Anti-Morsi demonstrators marching in Cairo, 28 June 2013

Rabaa al-Adawiya during the violent dispersal of pro-Morsi sit-ins, 14 August 2013

On 30 June 2013, millions of people rallied across Egypt
Egypt
calling for President Morsi's resignation from office.[142] Concurrently with these anti-Morsi demonstrations, his supporters held a sit-in in Rabaa Al-Adawiya square.[143] On 1 July, the Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
issued a 48-hour ultimatum that gave the country's political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian people. The Egyptian military also threatened to intervene if the dispute was not resolved by then.[144] Four Ministers also resigned on the same day, including tourism minister Hisham Zazou, communication and IT minister Atef Helmi, state minister for legal and parliamentary affairs Hatem Bagato and state minister for environmental affairs Khaled Abdel Aal,[145] leaving the government with members of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
only. On 2 July, President Morsi publicly rejected the Egyptian Army's 48-hour ultimatum and vowed to pursue his own plans for national reconciliation and resolving the political crisis.[146] On 3 July, Abdul Fatah al-Sisi
Abdul Fatah al-Sisi
announced a road map for the future, removing Morsi from office and appointed Adly Mansour, the head of the Constitutional Court, the Interim President of Egypt.[147] On 8 July, Prime Minister Qandil, after initially deciding to remain in his position until the formation of a new government, submitted his resignation effective immediately in protest of the subsequent bloodshed to the recent coup d'état when 51 protesters were killed by the military at the Republican Guard headquarters.[148] In mid-November, Morsi claimed that he was kidnapped and held in a Republican Guard house on 2 July. He said that he had been kept there until 5 July and forcibly moved again to a naval base where he spent the next four months.[149][150][151] The spokesperson of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Colonel
Colonel
Ahmed Ali, later denied the rumors that Morsi was badly treated, saying that they had nothing to hide.[152] The Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
later gave Catherine Ashton
Catherine Ashton
the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy for the European Union the permission to meet Morsi. Ashton later stated that Morsi is doing well, saying "Morsi was keeping up with the latest developments in the country through television and newspapers. So we were able to talk about the situation, and we were able to talk about the need to move forward. The people around him do care for him. I looked at the facilities."[153][154][155] Morsi could later meet an African Union delegation too.[152] Trial[edit] After his overthrow, Morsi faced several charges including inciting the killing of opponents protesting outside his palace, espionage for foreign militant groups including Hamas, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and Iran's Revolutionary Guards, for escaping Wadi el-Natroun Prison during the 2011 revolution prior to his election as president, leaking classified documents to Qatar, in addition to "insulting the judiciary", a charge still under investigation.[156][157][158] On 1 September 2013, prosecutors referred Morsi to trial on charges of inciting deadly violence.[159] The date was set for 4 November 2013.[160] Morsi will be tried in a criminal court for inciting his supporters to kill at least 10 opponents, use violence and torture protesters. The prosecutors' investigation revealed that Morsi had asked the Republican Guard and the minister of interior to break up his opponents' sit-in, but they refused fearing a bloody result before Morsi's aides asked his supporters to break up the sit-in with force.[159] On 18 December 2013, Prosecutor General Hisham Barakat
Hisham Barakat
ordered the referral of Morsi to criminal court for charges of espionage in a statement under the title "The Biggest Case of Espionage in the History of Egypt". According to the prosecutor general's investigations, the international organisation of the Muslim Brotherhood, aided by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and Hamas, is the reason behind violence inside Egypt; members intend to create a state of ultimate chaos after receiving media and military training in the Gaza and aim to implement jihadists in Sinai.[161] On 29 January 2014, Morsi faced trial for the second time for the charge of breaking out of jail during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 after conspiring with foreign militant groups, including Hamas, to spread violent chaos throughout Egypt. The trial was postponed for a month.[162] On 1 February 2014, Morsi's trial resumed on charges of inciting deadly violence. The trial was adjourned to the next day to hear witnesses for the prosecution,[163] but it was then repeatedly postponed.[164][165][166] In April 2015, the court convicted Morsi, along with 12 other defendants, including former MP Mohamed Beltagy, for the arrest and torture of protesters and incitement to violence. All defendants were acquitted of murder charges. The judge handed down a 20-year sentence for Morsi and the others who were convicted.[167] Morsi still faced separate trials for espionage, terrorism, and prison break charges[168] and was sentenced to death on 16 May along with other defendants.[169] The death penalty was handed down to Morsi and 105 others for their role in the Wadi el-Natrun prison break of January 2011. As per Egypt's penal code, the opinion was referred to the Grand Mufti, whose assent or dissent is legally nonbinding.[40] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
has denounced the death penalty as "a charade based on null and void procedures." Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan criticized Egypt
Egypt
and accused Western countries of hypocrisy, "While the West is abolishing the death penalty, they are just watching the continuation of death sentences in Egypt."[19] In June 2016, Morsi was sentenced to a life sentence for passing state secrets to Qatar. He is one of the defendants in the case along with two other journalists who had been sentenced to death in absentia.[170][171] In November 2016, the court of cassation overturned death penalty on Morsi for spying charges[172] as well five other Muslim Brotherhood members. The same court will review two other charges on Morsi for his role on the January 2011 prison break as well as for allegedly providing classified information to the government of Qatar.[20] Jail[edit] A Detention Review Panel, consisting of UK MPs and senior lawyers, including MP Crispin Blunt, Lord Edward Faulks
Edward Faulks
and MP Paul Williams, have reviewed Morsi's detention conditions.[173] Based on the testimonies of Morsi's family and others informed of his condition, the panel has called his treatment "cruel, inhuman and degrading" and said it could "meet the threshold for torture in accordance Egyptian and international law".[174]Sick former president Mohamed Morsi ‘faces death in prison’, Bel Trew, March 28 2018 The Times Personal life[edit] Morsi married his cousin, Naglaa Ali Mahmoud, in 1979.[175] She reportedly stated that she did not want to be referred to as "First Lady" but rather as "First Servant [of the Egyptian public]".[176] Morsi has five children:[177] Ahmed Mohammed Morsi, who is a physician in Saudi Arabia; Shaima, a graduate of Zagazig University; Osama, an attorney; Omar who has a bachelor in commerce from Zagazig University; and Abdullah, a high-school student.[178] Two of Morsi's five children were born in California
California
and are U.S. citizens by birth.[179] Morsi has three grandchildren.[178] His third son, Omar, was appointed to the Holding Company for Airports, a state-owned company, six months after his graduation.[180] However, he declined the job offer due to many rumors and attacks in the media and press.[181][182] On his first state visit to Pakistan, Morsi was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Philosophy (PhD) by National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) in Islamabad, Pakistan
Pakistan
on 18 March 2013 in recognition of his achievements and significant contributions towards the promotion of peace and harmony in the world and strengthening of relations with the Muslim countries, especially Pakistan.[183][184] See also[edit]

Egypt
Egypt
portal Biography portal Politics portal

Elections in Egypt List of political parties in Egypt Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Mohamed Morsi (July–October 2012)

Citations[edit]

"Mohammed Morsi, Egypt's new president, has many firsts – and 2 American children". Mcclatchydc.  Levs, Josh (25 June 2012). "Egypt's new president: U.S.-educated Islamist". CNN. Retrieved 24 June 2012.  el-Natroun, Wadi. " Wadi el-Natroun Prison located at the kilometer 97, on Alexandria- Cairo
Cairo
Highway, 100 kilometers North West of Cairo, Egypt. It is the state prison that hosted political prisoners among them were the 34 Muslim Brothers who escaped on 30 January 2011".  "How Morsi escaped... from the prison". All voices. 

Notes[edit]

^ The spellings of his first and last names vary. A survey of 14 news organizations plus in July 2012 (archive at Wayback Machine) found that 11 used "Mohamed" and four used "Mohammed"; nine used "Morsi", five used "Mursi", and one used "Morsy". The official Egypt State Information Service uses both "Morsi" and "Morsy".

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Find more aboutMohamed Morsiat's sister projects

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Preceded by Numan Gumaa Member of the People's Assembly 2000–2005 Succeeded by Mahmoud Abaza

Party political offices

New office Leader of the Freedom and Justice Party 2011–2012 Succeeded by Saad El-Katatni

Political offices

Preceded by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Acting President of Egypt 2012–2013 Succeeded by Adly Mansour Acting

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Acting Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement 2012 Succeeded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

v t e

Egyptian presidential election, 2012

Candidates advancing to the second round

Winner

Mohamed Morsi

Runner-up

Ahmed Shafik

Candidates losing in the first round

Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh Khaled Ali Mohammad Salim Al-Awa Hisham Bastawisy Amr Moussa Hamdeen Sabahi Abdulla Alashaal Mahmoud Houssam Houssam Khairallah

Disqualified candidates

Hazem Salah Abu Ismail Ayman Nour Khairat El-Shater Omar Suleiman

Events

Presidential debate

v t e

Presidents of Egypt
Egypt
(List)

Mohamed Naguib Gamal Abdel Nasser Anwar Sadat Sufi Abu Taleb Hosni Mubarak Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Mohamed Morsi Adly Mansour Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Italic: acting or interim president

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Secretaries-General of the Non-Aligned Movement

Tito Nasser Kaunda Boumédienne Gopallawa Jayewardene F. Castro Reddy Singh Mugabe Drnovšek Jović Mesić Kostić Ćosić Suharto Samper Pastrana Mandela Mbeki Mahathir Abdullah F. Castro R. Castro Mubarak Tantawi Morsi Ahmadinejad Rouhani Maduro

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Arab Spring

"Ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam"

Events by country

Algeria Bahrain Djibouti Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Palestine Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria Tunisia Western Sahara Yemen

Groups

Bahrain: Al Wefaq February 14 Youth Coalition

Egypt: April 6 Youth Movement Kefaya Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
(FJP) National Association for Change National Democratic Party National Salvation Front Revolutionary Socialists Shayfeencom The Third Square Ultras Ahlawy

Libya: National Liberation Army National Transitional Council

Mauritania: February 25th Movement

Saudi Arabia: Women to drive movement CDHRAP Society for Development and Change

Syria: Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party

Regional Command National Command

National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces Free Syrian Army Syrian Revolution General Commission Syrian National Council National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change Hizb ut-Tahrir Foreign fighters

Tunisia: Constitutional Democratic Rally Ennahda Movement Popular Front Tunisian General Labour Union Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet

Yemen: Alliance of Yemeni Tribes Al-Islah Hashid Houthis General People's Congress Hiraak

Notable people

Women in the Arab Spring

Algeria: Abdelaziz Bouteflika Ahmed Ouyahia

Bahrain: Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Hasan Mushaima Ali Salman Ali Jawad al-Sheikh

Egypt: Hosni Mubarak Omar Suleiman Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Ahmed Nazif Ahmed Shafik Wael Ghonim Kamal Ganzouri Khaled Mohamed Saeed Gihan Ibrahim Essam Sharaf Mohamed ElBaradei Mohamed Morsi Hesham Qandil Bassem Youssef

Jordan: King Abdullah II Marouf al-Bakhit Samir Rifai

Libya: Muammar Gaddafi Saif al-Islam Gaddafi Mustafa Abdul Jalil Mahmoud Jibril Mohammed Nabbous

Mauritania: Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf

Morocco: Mohammed VI Abbas El Fassi

Saudi Arabia: Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Khaled al-Johani Manal al-Sharif Nimr al-Nimr

Sudan: Omar al-Bashir Hassan al-Turabi

Syria: Bashar al-Assad Muhammad Naji al-Otari Adel Safar Riyad Farid Hijab Wael Nader al-Halqi Maher al-Assad Burhan Ghalioun Moaz al-Khatib Hamza Ali Al-Khateeb

Tunisia: Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Mohamed Ghannouchi Moncef Marzouki Rashid al-Ghannushi Fouad Mebazaa Beji Caid Essebsi Hamadi Jebali Mohamed Bouazizi Chokri Belaid

United Arab Emirates: UAE Five

Yemen: Ali Abdullah Saleh Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi Tawakkol Karman Abdul Majeed al-Zindani Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar Sadiq al-Ahmar Abdul-Malik al-Houthi Mohammed Ali al-Houthi

Impact

Occupy movement Albania Armenia Azerbaijan

2011 2013

Belarus Burkina Faso China Greece India

2011 2012

Iran Iraqi Kurdistan Israel Maldives Mali Mexico

2011 2012

Portugal Russia Spain Turkey

2011–12 2013

United Kingdom United States Libyan Civil War (2011–present) Egyptian crisis (2011–14)

UN Resolutions

65/265 1970 1973 2009 2014 2016

International reactions

Bahrain Egypt Libya

civil war military intervention death of Muammar Gaddafi

Syria Tunisia Yemen

Domestic reactions

Egypt Libya

domestic responses state's response

Syria

Timelines by country

Bahrain Egypt Libya Saudi Arabia Syria Yemen

Category Commons Wikiquotes

v t e

Egyptian crisis (2011–14)

Part of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
and Arab Winter

Timeline

Mubarak government

Revolution of 2011

Timeline Resignation of Hosni Mubarak Domestic responses International reactions

Tantawi government

Timeline Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
(post-Mubarak) Trials and judicial hearings Human rights in Egypt
Egypt
under the SCAF Reform process

Constitutional review committee 2011 constitutional referendum 2011 Constitutional Declaration

2011 attack on the Israeli Embassy in Egypt Maspero demonstrations November 2011 Tahrir clashes Port Said Stadium riot Elections

2011–12 parliamentary election 2012 Shura Council election 2012 presidential election

Morsi government

Timeline Reform process

Constituent Assembly 2012 constitutional referendum 2012 Constitution

2012–13 protests June 2013 protests 2013 coup d'état

Mansour government

2013–14 post-coup unrest

Republican Guard HQ clashes August 2013 Rabaa massacre Kerdasa massacre Battle of Kerdasa

Bombings

December 2013 Mansoura January 2014 Cairo

Reform process

2014 constitutional referendum 2014 Constitution

2014 presidential election

Sinai
Sinai
insurgency

Operation Eagle August 2011 attacks August 2012 attack Operation Sinai 2014 Taba bus bombing October 2014 attacks

Places

Cairo

Tahrir Square Qasr al-Nil Bridge Rabaa Al-Adawiya Mosque 6th October Bridge

Alexandria

Sidi Bishr

Mubarak government

Presidency

Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
(President) Omar Suleiman
Omar Suleiman
(Vice President)

Cabinet

Ahmed Nazif
Ahmed Nazif
(Prime Minister, Cabinet) Ahmed Shafik
Ahmed Shafik
(Prime Minister, Cabinet) Ahmed Aboul Gheit
Ahmed Aboul Gheit
(Foreign Minister) Habib el-Adly (Interior Minister)

NDP figures

Gamal Mubarak Ahmed Ezz Zakaria Azmi Ahmad Fathi Sorour Safwat El-Sherif Hussein Salem

Tantawi government

Armed Forces

Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
(Chairman) Sami Hafez Anan Mohab Mamish Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeen

Cabinet

Kamal Ganzouri
Kamal Ganzouri
(Prime Minister) Mohamed Kamel Amr
Mohamed Kamel Amr
(Foreign Minister)

Morsi government

Presidency

Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
(President) Mahmoud Mekki (Vice President)

Cabinet

Hesham Qandil
Hesham Qandil
(Prime Minister, Cabinet) Mohamed Kamel Amr
Mohamed Kamel Amr
(Foreign Minister) Ahmed Gamal el-Din
Ahmed Gamal el-Din
(Interior Minister)

FJP figures

Khairat El-Shater Mohammed Badie Essam el-Erian Saad El-Katatni Mohamed Beltagy Safwat Hegazi

Opposition groups

Coalition of the Youth of the Revolution We are all Khaled Said April 6 Youth Movement Kefaya Revolutionary Socialists Strong Egypt
Egypt
Party Costa Salafis Al-Ahly Ultras Zamalek’s Ultras White Knights Mosireen National Association for Change Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
Youth Tamarod The Third Square Masmou3 Road of the Revolution Front

Opposition figures

Mohamed ElBaradei Hamdeen Sabahi Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh Bothaina Kamel George Ishak Mohamed Soliman Khaled Ali Kamal Khalil Kamal Abbas Ayman Nour Kamal el-Fayoumi Sameh Naguib Hisham Bastawisy

Activists

Wael Ghonim Mahmoud Badr Ahmed Maher Hossam el-Hamalawy Gihan Ibrahim Wael Khalil Wael Abbas Nawara Negm Alaa Abd El-Fattah Mona Seif Asmaa Mahfouz Israa Abdel Fattah Maikel Nabil Sanad Ahmed Douma Mohammed Adel

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 292625617 LCCN: no20121606

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