HOME
The Info List - Moesia


--- Advertisement ---



Moesia
Moesia
(/ˈmiːʃə, -siə, -ʒə/;[1][2] Latin: Moesia; Greek: Μοισία, Moisía)[3] was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River. It included most of the territory of modern-day Central Serbia, Kosovo
Kosovo
and the northern parts of the modern Republic of Macedonia ( Moesia
Moesia
Superior), as well as Northern Bulgaria
Northern Bulgaria
and Romanian Dobrudja ( Moesia
Moesia
Inferior).

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] In ancient geographical sources, Moesia
Moesia
was bounded to the south by the Haemus (Balkans) and Scardus
Scardus
(Šar) mountains, to the west by the Drinus
Drinus
(Drina) river, on the north by the Donaris
Donaris
(Danube) and on the east by the Euxine
Euxine
(Black Sea). The region was inhabited chiefly by Thracians, Dacians (Thraco-Dacians), Illyrian and Thraco-Illyrian peoples. The name of the region comes from Moesi, Thraco-Dacian peoples who lived there before the Roman conquest. Parts of Moesia
Moesia
belonged to the polity of Burebista, a Getae
Getae
king who established his rule over a large part of the Northern Balkans
Balkans
between 82 BC and 44 BC. He led plunder and conquest raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, subjugating most of the neighbouring tribes. After his assassination in an inside plot, the empire was divided into several smaller states. In 75 BC, C. Scribonius Curio, proconsul of Macedonia, took an army as far as the Danube
Danube
and gained a victory over the inhabitants, who were finally subdued by M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the triumvir and later also proconsul of Macedonia during the reign of Augustus
Augustus
c. 29 BC.[4] The region, however, was not organized as a province until the last years of Augustus' reign; in 6 AD, mention is made of its governor, Caecina Severus ( Cassius Dio lv. 29).[4] As a province, Moesia
Moesia
was under an imperial consular legate (who probably also had control of Achaea and Macedonia).[4] In 86 AD the Dacian king Duras ordered his troops to attack Roman Moesia. After this attack, the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Domitian
Domitian
personally arrived in Moesia
Moesia
and reorganized it in 87 AD into two provinces, divided by the river Cebrus (Ciabrus):[4] to the west Moesia
Moesia
Superior - Upper Moesia, (meaning up river) and to the east Moesia
Moesia
Inferior - Lower Moesia
Moesia
(also called Ripa Thracia), (from the Danube
Danube
river's mouth and then upstream). Each was governed by an imperial consular legate and a procurator.[4] From Moesia, Domitian
Domitian
began planning future campaigns into Dacia
Dacia
and by 87 he started a strong offensive against Dacia, ordering General Cornelius Fuscus to attack. Therefore, in the summer of 87, Fuscus led five or six legions across the Danube. The campaign against the Dacians
Dacians
ended without a decisive outcome, and Decebalus, the Dacian King, had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on at the war's end. Emperor Trajan
Trajan
later arrived in Moesia, and he launched his first military campaign into the Dacian Kingdom[5] c. March–May 101, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube
Danube
River and defeating the Dacian army near Tapae, a mountain pass in the Carpathians
Carpathians
(see Second Battle of Tapae). Trajan's troops were mauled in the encounter, however, and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup.[6] During the following winter, King Decebalus
Decebalus
launched a counter-attack across the Danube
Danube
further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan's army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus
Decebalus
to submit to him a year later. Trajan
Trajan
returned to Rome in triumph and was granted the title Dacicus. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. However, Decebalus in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against the empire.[7] Trajan
Trajan
took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus
Apollodorus of Damascus
his massive bridge over the Danube, he conquered part of Dacia
Dacia
in 106 (see also Second Dacian War). Sometime around 272, at the Moesian city of Naissus
Naissus
or Nissa (modern Niš
Niš
in Serbia), future emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
was born. After the abandonment of Roman Dacia
Dacia
to the Goths
Goths
by Aurelian (270–275) and the transfer of the Roman citizens from the former province to the south of the Danube, the central portion of Moesia took the name of Dacia
Dacia
Aureliana (later divided into Dacia
Dacia
Ripensis[4] and Dacia
Dacia
Mediterranea). During administrative reforms of Emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
(284-305), both of the Moesian provinces were reorganized. Moesia
Moesia
Superior was divided in two, northern part forming the province of Moesia Prima
Moesia Prima
including cities Viminacium
Viminacium
and Singidunum, while the southern part was organised as the new province of Dardania with cities Scupi
Scupi
and Ulpiana. At the same time, Moesia
Moesia
Inferior was divided into Moesia Secunda and Scythia Minor. Moesia
Moesia
Secunda's main cities included Marcianopolis
Marcianopolis
(Devnya), Odessus (Varna), Nicopolis (Nikopol), Abrittus (Razgrad), Durostorum (Silistra), Transmarisca (Tutrakan), Sexaginta Prista (Ruse) and Novae
Novae
(Svishtov), all in Bulgaria today. As a frontier province, Moesia
Moesia
was strengthened by stations and fortresses erected along the southern bank of the Danube, and a wall was built from Axiopolis
Axiopolis
to Tomi as a protection against the Scythians and Sarmatians.[4] The garrison of Moesia Secunda
Moesia Secunda
included Legio I Italica and Legio XI Claudia, as well as independent infantry units, cavalry units, and river flotillas. The Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
lists its units and their bases as of the 390s CE. Units in Scythia Minor included Legio I Iovia and Legio II Herculia. After 238 AD, Moesia
Moesia
was frequently invaded or raided by the Dacian Carpi, and the East Germanic tribe of the Goths, who invaded Moesia
Moesia
in 250. Hard-pressed by the Huns, the Goths
Goths
again crossed the Danube during the reign of Valens
Valens
(376) and with his permission settled in Moesia.[4] After they settled, quarrels soon took place, and the Goths under Fritigern defeated Valens
Valens
in a great battle near Adrianople. These Goths
Goths
are known as Moeso-Goths, for whom Ulfilas
Ulfilas
made the Gothic translation of the Bible.[4] The Slavs
Slavs
invaded much of Moesia
Moesia
during the 6th century. Upper Moesia was settled by Slavic Serbs
Serbs
by the beginning of the 7th century. Bulgars, arriving from Central Asia, conquered Lower Moesia
Moesia
by the end of the 7th century. The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
lost much of its former Moesian and Thracian territory to the Bulgars, who founded the First Bulgarian Empire. Geography[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The chief towns of Upper Moesia
Moesia
in the Principate were: Singidunum (Belgrade), Viminacium
Viminacium
(sometimes called municipium Aelium; modern Kostolac), Remesiana
Remesiana
(Bela Palanka), Bononia (Vidin), Ratiaria (Archar) and Skupi
Skupi
(modern Skopje); of Lower Moesia: Oescus
Oescus
(colonia Ulpia, Gigen), Novae
Novae
(near Svishtov, the chief seat of Theodoric the Great), Nicopolis ad Istrum
Nicopolis ad Istrum
(Nikup; really near the river Yantra), Marcianopolis
Marcianopolis
(Devnya), Odessus (Varna) and Tomis (Constanţa; to which the poet Ovid
Ovid
was banished). The last two were Greek towns which formed a pentapolis with Istros, Mesembria
Mesembria
(Nessebar) and Apollonia (Sozopol). See also[edit]

Diocese of Moesia Dacia
Dacia
Aureliana List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia List of Roman governors of Lower Moesia List of Roman governors of Upper Moesia Inscriptions of Upper Moesia Moesogoths Margus (city)

References[edit]

^ Lena Olausson; Catherine Sangster, eds. (2006). Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation. Oxford University Press.  ^ Daniel Jones (2006). Peter Roach; James Hartman; Jane Setter, eds. Cambridge Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge University Press.  ^ "C. Suetonius Tranquillus, Vitellius Maximilian Ihm, Ed". perseus.tufts.eud.  ^ a b c d e f g h i  Freese, John Henry (1911). "Moesia". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 643–644.  ^ "Assorted Imperial Battle Descriptions: Battle of Sarmizegetusa (Sarmizegetuza), A.D. 105". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Because the Dacians
Dacians
represented an obstacle against Roman expansion in the east, in the year 101 the emperor Trajan
Trajan
decided to begin a new campaign against them. The first war began on 25 March 101 and the Roman troops, consisting of four principal legions (X Gemina, XI Claudia, II Traiana Fortis, and XXX Ulpia Victrix), defeated the Dacians.  ^ "Assorted Imperial Battle Descriptions: Battle of Sarmizegetusa (Sarmizegetuza), A.D. 105". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Although the Dacians
Dacians
had been defeated, the emperor postponed the final siege for the conquering of Sarmizegetuza because his armies needed reorganization. Trajan
Trajan
imposed on the Dacians
Dacians
very hard peace conditions: Decebalus
Decebalus
had to renounce claim to some regions of his kingdom, including Banat, Tara Hategului, Oltenia, and Muntenia in the area southwest of Transylvania. He had also to surrender all the Roman deserters and all his war machines. At Rome, Trajan
Trajan
was received as a winner and he took the name of Dacicus, a title that appears on his coinage of this period. At the beginning of the year 103 A.D., there were minted coins with the inscription: IMP NERVA TRAIANVS AVG GER DACICVS.  ^ "Assorted Imperial Battle Descriptions: Battle of Sarmizegetusa (Sarmizegetuza), A.D. 105". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. However, during the years 103–105, Decebalus
Decebalus
did not respect the peace conditions imposed by Trajan
Trajan
and the emperor then decided to destroy completely the Dacian kingdom and to conquer Sarmizegetuza. 

External links[edit]

(in French) Inscriptions of Moesia
Moesia
Superior, University of Belgrade CITIES IN THE PROVINCES MOESIA SUPERIOR AND MOESIA INFERIOR Timacum Maius

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania Inferior Germania Superior Hispania Baetica Hispania Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia
Dacia
Mediterranea Dacia
Dacia
Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya Superior Libya Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganiz

.