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Modern warfare
Modern warfare
is warfare using the concepts, methods, and military technology that have come into use during and after World Wars I and II. The concepts and methods have assumed more complex forms of the 19th- and early-20th-century antecedents, largely due to the widespread use of highly advanced information technology, and combatants must modernize constantly to preserve their battle worthiness.[1] Although total war was thought to be the form of international conflicts from the experience of the French Revolutionary Wars to World War
War
II, the term no longer describes warfare in which a belligerent use all of its resources to destroy the enemy's organized ability to engage in war. The practice of total war which had been in use for over a century, as a form of war policy, has been changed dramatically with greater awareness of tactical, operational, and strategic battle information. War
War
in modern times has been the inclusion of civilians and civilian infrastructure as targets in destroying the enemy's ability to engage in war.[disputed – discuss] The targeting of civilians developed from two distinct theories.[citation needed] The first theory was that if enough civilians were killed, factories could not function. The second theory was that if civilians were killed, the enemy would be so demoralized that it would have no ability to wage further war.[citation needed] However, UNICEF
UNICEF
reports that civilian fatalities are down from 20 percent prior to 1900 AD to less than 5 percent of fatalities in the wars beginning in the 1990s. With the invention of nuclear weapons, the concept of full-scale war carries the prospect of global annihilation, and as such conflicts since WWII have by definition been "low intensity" conflicts,[2] typically in the form of proxy wars fought within local regional confines, using what are now referred to as "conventional weapons," typically combined with the use of asymmetric warfare tactics and applied use of intelligence. More recently, the US Department of Defense introduced a concept of battlespace as the integrated information management of all significant factors that impact on combat operations by armed forces for the military theatre of operations, including information, air, land, sea, and space. It includes the environment, factors, and conditions that must be understood to successfully apply combat power, protect the force, or complete the mission. This includes enemy and friendly forces; facilities, weather and terrain within the operational areas and areas of interest.[3]

Contents

1 Types

1.1 Aerial 1.2 Asymmetric 1.3 Biological 1.4 Chemical 1.5 Electronic 1.6 Fourth generation 1.7 Ground 1.8 Guerrilla 1.9 Intelligence 1.10 Naval 1.11 Network-centric 1.12 Nuclear 1.13 Space

2 Modern wars

2.1 Lists 2.2 Major modern wars

3 References

Types[edit] Some argue that the changing forms of third generation warfare represents nothing more than an evolution of earlier technology.[4] Aerial[edit] Main article: Aerial warfare Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare. Aerial warfare includes bombers attacking enemy concentrations or strategic targets; fighter aircraft battling for control of airspace; attack aircraft engaging in close air support against ground targets; naval aviation flying against sea and nearby land targets; gliders, helicopters and other aircraft to carry airborne forces such as paratroopers; aerial refueling tankers to extend operation time or range; and military transport aircraft to move cargo and personnel. Asymmetric[edit] Main article: Asymmetric warfare A military situation in which two belligerents of unequal strength interact and take advantage of their respective strengths and weaknesses. This interaction often involves strategies and tactics outside the bounds of conventional warfare, often referred to as terrorism. Biological[edit] Main article: Biological warfare Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. It is meant to incapacitate or kill enemy combatants. It may also be defined as the employment of biological agents to produce casualties in man or animals and damage to plants or material; or defense against such employment. Chemical[edit] Main article: Chemical warfare Chemical warfare
Chemical warfare
is warfare (associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to incapacitate or kill enemy combatants. Electronic[edit] Main article: Electronic warfare Electronic warfare
Electronic warfare
refers to mainly non-violent practices used chiefly to support other areas of warfare. The term was originally coined to encompass the interception and decoding of enemy radio communications, and the communications technologies and cryptography methods used to counter such interception, as well as jamming, radio stealth, and other related areas. Over the later years of the 20th century and early years of the 21st century, this has expanded to cover a wide range of areas: the use of, detection of and avoidance of detection by radar and sonar systems, computer hacking, etc. Fourth generation[edit] Main article: Fourth generation warfare Fourth generation warfare
Fourth generation warfare
(4GW) is a concept defined by William S. Lind and expanded by Thomas X. Hammes, used to describe the decentralized nature of modern warfare. The simplest definition includes any war in which one of the major participants is not a state but rather a violent ideological network. Fourth Generation wars are characterized by a blurring of the lines between war and politics, combatants and civilians, conflicts and peace, battlefields and safety. While this term is similar to terrorism and asymmetric warfare, it is much narrower. Classical insurgencies and the Indian Wars
Indian Wars
are examples of pre-modern wars, not 4GW. Fourth generation warfare
Fourth generation warfare
usually has the insurgency group or non-state side trying to implement their own government or reestablish an old government over the one currently running the territory. The blurring of lines between state and non-state is further complicated in a democracy by the power of the media. Ground[edit] Main article: Land warfare Ground warfare involves three types of combat units: Infantry, Armor, and Artillery. Infantry
Infantry
in modern times would consist of Mechanized infantry
Mechanized infantry
and Airborne forces. Usually having a type of rifle or sub-machine gun, an infantryman is the basic unit of an army. Armored warfare in modern times involves a variety of Armored fighting vehicles for the purpose of battle and support. Tanks or other armored vehicles (such as armored personnel carriers or tank destroyers) are slower, yet stronger hunks of metal. They are invulnerable to enemy machine gun fire but prone to rocket infantry, mines, and aircraft so are usually accompanied by infantry. In urban areas, because of smaller space, an armored vehicle is exposed to hidden enemy infantry but as the so-called "Thunder Run" at Baghdad in 2003 showed, armored vehicles can play a critical role in urban combat. In rural areas, an armored vehicle does not have to worry about hidden units though muddy and damp terrain have always been a factor of weakness for Armored tanks and vehicles. Artillery
Artillery
in contemporary times, is distinguished by its large calibre, firing an explosive shell or rocket, and being of such a size and weight as to require a specialized mount for firing and transport. Weapons covered by this term include "tube" artillery such as the howitzer, cannon, mortar, field gun, and rocket artillery. The term "artillery" has traditionally not been used for projectiles with internal guidance systems, even though some artillery units employ surface-to-surface missiles. Recent advances in terminal guidance systems for small munitions has allowed large calibre shells to be fitted with precision guidance fuses, blurring this distinction. Guerrilla[edit] Main article: Guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare
is defined as fighting by groups of irregular troops (guerrillas) within areas occupied by the enemy. When guerrillas obey the laws and customs of war, they are entitled, if captured, to be treated as ordinary prisoners of war; however, they are often treated by their captors as unlawful combatants and executed. The tactics of guerrilla warfare stress deception and ambush, as opposed to mass confrontation, and succeed best in an irregular, rugged, terrain and with a sympathetic populace, whom guerrillas often seek to win over or dominate by propaganda, reform, and terrorism. Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare
has played a significant role in modern history, especially when waged by Communist liberation movements in Southeast Asia (most notably in the Vietnam War) and elsewhere. Guerrilla fighters gravitate toward weapons which are easily accessible, low in technology, and low in cost. A typical arsenal of the modern guerrilla would include the AK-47, RPGs and Improvised explosive devices. The guerrilla doctrines' main disadvantage is the inability to access more advanced equipment due to economic, influence, and accessibility issues. They must rely on small unit tactics involving hit and run. This situation leads to low intensity warfare, asymmetrical warfare, and war amongst the people. The rules of Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare
are to fight a little and then to retreat. Intelligence[edit] Propaganda Main article: Propaganda Propaganda
Propaganda
is an ancient form of disinformation concerted with sending a set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of large numbers of people. Instead of impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. The most effective propaganda is often completely truthful, but usually most modern propaganda presents facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the cognitive narrative of the subject in the target audience. Psychological Main article: Psychological
Psychological
warfare Psychological warfare
Psychological warfare
had its beginnings during the campaigns of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
through the allowance of certain civilians of the nations, cities, and villages to flee said place, spreading terror and fear to neighboring principalities. Psychological
Psychological
actions have the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. Information Main article: Information
Information
warfare Made possible by the widespread use of the electronic media during World War
War
II, Information warfare is a kind of warfare where information and attacks on information and its system are used as a tool of warfare. Some examples of this type of warfare are electronic "sniffers" which disrupt international fund-transfer networks as well as the signals of television and radio stations. Jamming such signals can allow participants in the war to use the stations for a misinformation campaign. Naval[edit] Main articles: Naval warfare
Naval warfare
and Modern naval tactics Naval warfare
Naval warfare
takes place on the high seas (blue water navy). Usually, only large, powerful nations have competent blue water or deep water navies. Modern navies primarily use aircraft carriers, submarines, frigates, cruisers, and destroyers for combat. This provides a versatile array of attacks, capable of hitting ground targets, air targets, or other seafaring vessels. Most modern navies also have a large air support contingent, deployed from aircraft carriers. In World War
War
II, small craft (motor torpedo boats variously called PT boats, MTBs, MGBs, Schnellbooten, or MAS-boats) fought near shore. This developed in the Vietnam War
War
into riverine warfare (brown water navy), in intertidal and river areas. Irregular warfare makes this sort of combat more likely in the future. Network-centric[edit] Main article: Network-centric warfare Network-centric warfare
Network-centric warfare
is essentially a new military doctrine made possible by the Information
Information
Age. Weapons platforms, sensors, and command and control centers are being connected through high-speed communication networks. The doctrine is related to the Revolution in Military
Military
Affairs debate. The overall network which enables this strategy in the United States military is called the Global Information
Information
Grid. Nuclear[edit] Main article: Nuclear warfare Nuclear war is a type of warfare which relies on nuclear weapons. There are two types of warfare in this category. In a limited nuclear war, a small number of weapons are used in a tactical exchange aimed primarily at enemy combatants. In a full-scale nuclear war, large numbers of weapons are used in an attack aimed at entire countries. This type of warfare would target both combatants and non-combatants. Space[edit] Main article: Space warfare Space warfare
Space warfare
is the hypothetical warfare that occurs outside the Earth's atmosphere. No wars have been fought here yet. The weapons would include orbital weaponry and space weapons. High value outer space targets would include satellites and weapon platforms. Notably no real weapons exist in space yet, though ground-to-space missiles have been successfully tested against target satellites. As of now, this is purely science fiction. Modern wars[edit]

Ongoing conflicts   Major wars - 1000+ deaths per year   Other conflicts

Lists[edit] Main article: List of wars

List of wars
List of wars
1945–1989 List of wars
List of wars
1990–2002 List of wars
List of wars
2003–2010 List of wars
List of wars
2011–current List of ongoing conflicts
List of ongoing conflicts
in the modern-day world List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

Major modern wars[edit]

1914 - World War
War
I 1939 - World War
War
II 1947 - Indo-Pakistani War 1950 - Korean War 1955 - Vietnam War 1961 - Portuguese Colonial Wars 1962 - Sino-Indian War 1965 - Indo-Pakistani War
War
of 1965 1966 - South African Border War 1967 - Six-Day War 1970 - War
War
of Attrition 1971 - Indo-Pakistani War 1973 - 6th October War
War
- Yom Kippur War 1974 - Turkish invasion of Cyprus 1979 - Soviet war in Afghanistan 1980 - Iran–Iraq War 1982 - First Lebanon War 1982 - Falklands War 1987 - Palestinian Intifada 1988 - Nagorno-Karabakh War 1988 - Somali Civil War 1989 - First Liberian Civil War 1990 - Gulf War 1991 - 1991–1992 South Ossetia War 1991 - Yugoslav Wars 1992 - War
War
in Abkhazia 1994 - Rwandan Civil War 1994 - First Chechen War 1995 - Cenepa War 1996 - First Congo War 1998 - Kosovo War 1998 - Second Congo War 1999 - Second Liberian Civil War 1999 - Kargil War 1999 - Second Chechen War 2000 - Al-Aqsa Intifada 2001 - War
War
in Afghanistan (2001–2014) 2003 - Invasion of Iraq
Invasion of Iraq
leading to the Iraq War 2006 - Second Lebanon War 2006 - Mexican Drug War 2008 - 2008 South Ossetia War 2008 - 2008 Turkish incursion into northern Iraq 2008 - Gaza War 2011 - Libyan Civil War 2011 - Syrian Civil War 2012 - Northern Mali Conflict 2014 - Iraqi Civil War 2014 - War
War
in Donbass

References[edit]

^ Creveld, Martin Van (2000). "Technology and War
War
I:To 1945". In Charles Townshend. The Oxford History of Modern War. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-19-285373-2. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Creveld, Martin Van. "Technology and War
War
II:Postmodern War?". In Charles Townshend. The Oxford History of Modern War. p. 349. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ US DOD dictionary - battlespace ^ MacGregor, Knox; Williamson, Murray, eds. (2001). The Dynamics of Military
Military
Revolution, 1300-2050. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-

.