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MODERN HEBREW or ISRAELI HEBREW (Hebrew : עברית חדשה‎, ʿivrít ḥadašá, – "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as HEBREW (עברית‎ Ivrit), is the standard form of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew , a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic
Aramaic
beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is one of the two official languages of Israel, along with Arabic
Arabic
.

Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is spoken by about nine million people, counting native, fluent, and non-fluent speakers. Most speakers are citizens of Israel
Israel
: about five million are Israelis
Israelis
who speak Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
as their native language, 1.5 million are immigrants to Israel, 1.5 million are Arab citizens of Israel
Israel
, whose first language is usually Arabic, and half a million are expatriate Israelis
Israelis
or diaspora Jews living outside Israel.

The organization that officially directs the development of the Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
language, under the law of the State of Israel, is the Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Background * 3 Revival * 4 Classification * 5 Phonology
Phonology
* 6 Morphology * 7 Loanwords

* 8 Syntax

* 8.1 Word order

* 9 Bibliography * 10 References * 11 External links

NAME

The most common scholarly term for the language is "Modern Hebrew" (עברית חדשה‎ ʿivrít ħadašá). Most people refer to it simply as Hebrew (עברית‎ Ivrit).

The term "Modern Hebrew" has been described as "somewhat problematic" as it implies unambiguous periodization from Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
. Haiim B. Rosén supported the now widely used term "Israeli Hebrew" on the basis that it "represented the non-chronological nature of Hebrew". In 2006, Israeli linguist Ghil\'ad Zuckermann proposed the term "Israeli" to represent the multiple origins of the language.

BACKGROUND

Main article: Hebrew language
Hebrew language

One can divide the history of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
into four major periods:

* Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
, until about the 3rd century BCE; the language of most of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
* Mishnaic Hebrew
Mishnaic Hebrew
, the language of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
* Medieval Hebrew
Medieval Hebrew
, from about the 6th to the 13th century CE * Modern Hebrew, the language of the modern State of Israel.

Jewish contemporary sources describe Hebrew flourishing as a spoken language in the kingdoms of Israel
Israel
and Judah , during about 1200 to 586 BCE. Scholars debate the degree to which Hebrew remained a spoken vernacular following the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
, when Old Aramaic became the predominant international language in the region.

Hebrew died out as a vernacular language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining after the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 CE, which devastated the population of Judea . After the exile Hebrew became restricted to liturgical use.

REVIVAL

Main article: Revival of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language

The revival of the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
was led by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
used Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
morphemes , Mishnaic spelling, and Sephardic pronunciation. Idioms and calques were made from Yiddish
Yiddish
. Its acceptance by the early Jewish immigrants to Ottoman Palestine was primarily due to support from the organisations of Edmond James de Rothschild in the 1880s and the official status it received in the 1922 constitution of the British Mandate for Palestine . Ben-Yehuda used a stock of 8,000 words from the Bible and 20,000 words from rabbinical commentaries and codified and planned the new language, Modern Hebrew. Some words he invented, such as ḥatzilīm for eggplants (aubergines) and ḥashmal for electricity. Sometimes, old Hebrew words took on different meanings altogether. For example, the Hebrew word kǝvīš (Hebrew : כביש‎), which now denotes a "street" or a "road," is actually an Aramaic
Aramaic
adjective meaning "trodden down; blazoned", rather than a common noun. It was originally used to describe "a blazoned trail." For a simple comparison between the Sephardic version of Mishnaic Hebrew
Mishnaic Hebrew
and the Yemenite version of the same, see Yemenite Hebrew
Yemenite Hebrew
.

CLASSIFICATION

Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is classified as an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic family and the Canaanite branch of the North-West semitic subgroup. Although it has been influenced by non-Semitic languages, Modern Hebrew retains its Semitic character in its morphology and in much of its syntax. A minority of scholars argue that the revived language had been so influenced by various substrate languages that it is genealogically a hybrid with Indo-European. These theories have not been met with general acceptance, and Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
continues to be considered a Semitic language by most experts. Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is based on Mishnaic and Biblical Hebrew, and is commonly seen as a direct continuation of one or both.

PHONOLOGY

Main article: Modern Hebrew phonology

Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew, having fewer phonemes, but is phonologically more complex. It has 25 to 27 consonants and 8 to 10 vowels, depending on the speaker and the analysis.

The following table lists the consonant phonemes of Israeli Hebrew in IPA
IPA
transcription:

LABIAL ALVEOLAR PALATO-ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR UVULAR GLOTTAL

Obstru- ents STOP p b t d

k ɡ

ʔ 2

AFFRICATE

ts

(tʃ )4 (dʒ )4

FRICATIVE f v s z ʃ (ʒ )4

x ~χ 1 ɣ ~ʁ 3 h 2

NASAL

m

n

APPROXIMANT

l

j

(w )4

1 In modern Hebrew /ħ/ for ח has been absorbed by /x~χ/ that was traditionally only for fricative כ, though some older Mizrahi speakers still separate these. 2 The glottal consonants are mostly elided in unstressed syllables, and sometimes also in stressed syllables as well, but are pronounced in careful or formal speech. In modern Hebrew /ʕ/ for ע has been absorbed by /ʔ/ that was traditionally only for א, though some older Mizrahi
Mizrahi
speakers still separate these. 3 Commonly transcribed /r/. This is usually pronounced as a velar fricative , sometimes as a uvular fricative or approximant , and sometimes as a uvular or alveolar trill, depending on the background of the speaker. 4 The phonemes /w, tʃ, dʒ, ʒ/ were introduced through borrowings.

Obstruents assimilate in voicing: voiceless obstruents (/p t ts tʃ k, f s ʃ x/) become voiced () when they appear immediately before voiced obstruents, and vice versa.

Hebrew has nine vowel phonemes, five short and four long:

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

HIGH i iː

u

MID e̞ e̞ː

o̞ o̞ː

LOW

ä äː

Long vowels occur unpredictably where two identical vowels were historically separated by a pharyngeal or glottal consonant, and the first was stressed. Any of the five short vowels may be realized as a schwa when far from lexical stress. There are two diphthongs, /aj/ and /ej/.

Most lexical words have lexical stress on one of the last two syllables, of which the last syllable is the more frequent in formal speech. Loanwords may have stress on the antepenultimate syllable or even further back.

MORPHOLOGY

Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
morphology (formation, structure, and interrelationship of words in a language) is essentially Biblical. Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
has also maintained much of the inflectional morphology of its classical forebears. In the formation of new words, all verbs and the majority of nouns and adjectives are formed by the classically Semitic devices of triconsonantal roots (shoresh) with affixed patterns (mishkal). Mishnaic attributive patterns are often used to create nouns, and Classical patterns are often used to create adjectives. Blended words are created by merging two bound stems or parts of words. Modern Hebrew has thus been able to expand its vocabulary effectively to meet the needs of casual vernacular, of science and technology, of journalism and belles-lettres , while retaining the flavor of its ancient Semitic origins.

LOANWORDS

Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
has loanwords from Arabic
Arabic
(both from the local Levantine dialect and from the dialects of Jewish immigrants from Arab countries ), Aramaic
Aramaic
, Yiddish, Judaeo-Spanish
Judaeo-Spanish
, German , Polish , Russian , English and other languages. Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
has preserved many ancient Hebrew words that were originally loanwords from the languages of surrounding nations: Classical Hebrew literature borrowed from other Canaanite languages as well as Akkadian. Mishnaic Hebrew borrowed many nouns from Aramaic, as well as some from Greek. In the Middle Ages Hebrew borrowed heavily from Spanish, Greek, and Arabic. Some typical examples of Hebrew loanwords are:

LOANWORD DERIVATIVES ORIGIN

HEBREW IPA
IPA
MEANING HEBREW IPA
IPA
MEANING LANGUAGE SPELLING MEANING

ביי‎ /baj/ goodbye

English bye

אגזוז‎ /eɡˈzoz/ exhaust system exhaust system

דיג׳יי‎ /ˈdidʒej/ DJ לדג׳ה‎ /ledaˈdʒe/ to DJ to DJ

ואללה‎ /ˈwala/ really!?

Arabic
Arabic
والله really!?

כיף‎ /kef/ fun לכייף‎ /lekaˈjef/ to have fun كيف pleasure

חפיף‎ /χaˈfif/ lightly להתחפף‎ /lehitχaˈfef/ to scram خَفِيف lightly

אבא‎ /ˈaba/ daddy

Aramaic
Aramaic
אבא the father/my father

חלטורה‎ /χalˈtura/ shoddy job לחלטר‎ /leχalˈteɣ/ to moonlight Russian халтура shoddy work

בלגן‎ /balaˈɡan/ mess לבלגן‎ /levalˈɡen/ to make a mess балаган chaos

תכל׳ס‎ /ˈtaχles/ directly

Yiddish
Yiddish
תּכלית goal

חרופ‎ /χʁop/ deep sleep לחרופ‎ /laχˈʁop/ to sleep deeply כראָפּ snore

שפכטל‎ /ˈʃpaχtel/ putty knife

German Spachtel putty knife

גומי‎ /ˈɡumi/ rubber גומיה‎ /ɡumiˈja/ rubber band Gummi rubber

גזוז‎ /ɡaˈzoz/ carbonated beverage Turkish from French gazoz from eau gazeuse carbonated beverage

פוסטמה‎ /pusˈtema/ stupid woman

Ladino

inflamed wound

אדריכל‎ /adʁiˈχal/ architect אדריכלות‎ /adʁiχaˈlut/ architecture Akkadian arad-ekalli temple servant

* ^ bitFormation. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Arabic". Safa-ivrit.org. Retrieved 2014-08-26. * ^ "morfix dictionary". Morfix.mako.co.il. Retrieved 2014-08-26. * ^ A B bitFormation. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Russian". Safa-ivrit.org. Retrieved 2014-08-26. * ^ bitFormation. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Turkish". Safa-ivrit.org. Retrieved 2014-08-26. * ^ bitFormation. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Ladino". Safa-ivrit.org. Retrieved 2014-08-26. * ^ אתר השפה העברית. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Akkadian". Safa-ivrit.org. Retrieved 2014-08-26.

SYNTAX

The syntax of Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is mainly Mishnaic, while also showing the influence of different contact languages to which its speakers have been exposed over the past century.

WORD ORDER

The word order of Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is predominately SVO (subject–verb–object ). Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
was originally verb–subject–object (VSO), but drifted into SVO. Modern Hebrew maintains classical syntactic properties associated with VSO languages—it is prepositional rather than postpositional in making case and adverbial relations, auxiliary verbs precede main verbs; main verbs precede their complements, and noun modifiers (adjectives , determiners other than the definite article ה-‎, and noun adjuncts ) follow the head noun, hence in genitive constructions the possessee noun precedes the possessor. Moreover, Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
allows and in cases requires sentences with a predicate initial.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Haiim B. Rosén (1962). A Textbook of Israeli Hebrew. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-72603-8 . * Gila Freedman Cohen; Carmia Shoval (2011). Easing Into Modern Hebrew Grammar: A User-friendly Reference and Exercise Book. Magnes Press. ISBN 978-965-493-601-9 . * Ornan, Uzzi (2003). The Final Word: Mechanism for Hebrew Word Generation. Haifa University. * Ben-Ḥayyim, Ze'ev (1992). The Struggle for a Language. Jerusalem: The Academy of the Hebrew Language. * Dekel, Nurit (2014). Colloquial Israeli Hebrew: A Corpus-based Survey. De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-037725-5 . * Matras, Yaron ; Schiff, Leora (2005). "Spoken Israeli Hebrew revisited: Structures and variation" (PDF). Studia Semitica. Journal of Semitic Studies Jubilee Volume. 16: 145–193. * Shlomo Izreʾel; Shlomo Raz (1996). Studies in Modern Semitic Languages. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-10646-4 . * Stefan Weninger (23 December 2011). The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-025158-6 . * Bergsträsser, Gotthelf (1983). Peter T. Daniels , ed. Introduction to the Semitic Languages: Text Specimens and Grammatical Sketches. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-10-2 . * Wexler, Paul (1990). The Schizoid Nature of Modern Hebrew: A Slavic Language in Search of a Semitic Past. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-03063-2 . * Choueka, Yaakov (1997). Rav-Milim: A comprehensive dictionary of Modern Hebrew. Tel Aviv: CET. ISBN 965-448-323-8 .

REFERENCES

* ^ "Hebrew". UCLA Language Materials Project. University of California. Retrieved 1 May 2017. * ^ A B C D Dekel 2014 * ^ Meir Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hebrew". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Klein, Zeev (March 18, 2013). "A million and a half Israelis struggle with Hebrew". Israel
Israel
Hayom . Retrieved 2 November 2013. * ^ Nachman Gur, Behadrey Haredim. "Kometz Aleph – Au• How many Hebrew speakers are there in the world?". Retrieved 2 November 2013. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ A B C Dekel 2014 ; quote: "Most people refer to Israeli Hebrew simply as Hebrew. Hebrew is a broad term, which includes Hebrew as it was spoken and written in different periods of time and according to most of the researchers as it is spoken and written in Israel
Israel
and elsewhere today. Several names have been proposed for the language spoken in Israel
Israel
nowadays, Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is the most common one, addressing the latest spoken language variety in Israel
Israel
(Berman 1978, Saenz-Badillos 1993:269, Coffin-Amir & Bolozky 2005, Schwarzwald 2009:61). The emergence of a new language in Palestine at the end of the nineteenth century was associated with debates regarding the characteristics of that language.... Not all scholars supported the term Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
for the new language. Rosén (1977:17) rejected the term Modern Hebrew, since linguistically he claimed that 'modern' should represent a linguistic entity that should command autonomy towards everything that preceded it, while this was not the case in the new emerging language. He also rejected the term Neo-Hebrew, because the prefix 'neo' had been previously used for Mishnaic and Medieval Hebrew
Medieval Hebrew
(Rosén 1977:15–16), additionally, he rejected the term Spoken Hebrew as one of the possible proposals (Rosén 1977:18). Rosén supported the term Israeli Hebrew as in his opinion it represented the non-chronological nature of Hebrew, as well as its territorial independence (Rosén 1977:18). Rosén then adopted the term Contemporary Hebrew from Téne (1968) for its neutrality, and suggested the broadening of this term to Contemporary Israeli Hebrew (Rosén 1977:19)" * ^ A B C Matras quote: The language with which we are concerned in this contribution is also known by the names Contemporary Hebrew and Modern Hebrew, both somewhat problematic terms as they rely on the notion of an unambiguous periodization separating Classical or Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
from the present-day language. We follow instead the now widely-used label coined by Rosén (1955), Israeli Hebrew, to denote the link between the emergence of a Hebrew vernacular and the emergence of an Israeli national identity in Israel/Palestine in the early twentieth century." * ^ Haiim Rosén (1 January 1977). Contemporary Hebrew. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 15–18. ISBN 978-3-11-080483-6 . * ^ Hebrew language
Hebrew language
Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ אברהם בן יוסף ,מבוא לתולדות הלשון העברית (Avraham ben-Yosef, Introduction to the History of the Hebrew Language), page 38, אור-עם, Tel Aviv, 1981. * ^ Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde: "There is general agreement that two main periods of RH (Rabbinical Hebrew) can be distinguished. The first, which lasted until the close of the Tannaitic era (around 200 CE), is characterized by RH as a spoken language gradually developing into a literary medium in which the Mishnah, Tosefta, baraitot and Tannaitic midrashim would be composed. The second stage begins with the Amoraim and sees RH being replaced by Aramaic
Aramaic
as the spoken vernacular, surviving only as a literary language. Then it continued to be used in later rabbinic writings until the tenth century in, for example, the Hebrew portions of the two Talmuds and in midrashic and haggadic literature." * ^ Hobsbawm, Eric (2012). Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-39446-9 . , "What would the future of Hebrew have been, had not the British Mandate in 1919 accepted it as one of the three official languages of Palestine, at a time when the number of people speaking Hebrew as an everyday language was less than 20,000?" * ^ Swirski, Shlomo (11 September 2002). Politics and Education in Israel: Comparisons with the United States. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-58242-5 . : "In retrospect, question should be rephrased, substituting the Rothschild house for the British state and the 1880s for 1919. For by the time the British conquered Palestine, Hebrew had become the everyday language of a small but well-entrenched community." * ^ Palestine Mandate (1922): "English, Arabic
Arabic
and Hebrew shall be the official languages of Palestine" * ^ Benjamin Harshav (1999). Language in Time of Revolution. Stanford University Press. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-0-8047-3540-7 . * ^ Roberto Garvio, Esperanto and its Rivals, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015, p. 164 * ^ Which words are marked as "New Words" in the Even-Shoshan Hebrew Dictionary , s.v. חצילים; see: Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
usages * ^ Compare Rashi
Rashi
's commentary on Exodus 9:17, where he says the word mesillah is translated in Aramaic
Aramaic
oraḥ kevīsha (A blazoned trail); the word "kevīsh" being only an adjective or descriptive word, but not a common noun as it is used today. It is said that Ze\'ev Yavetz (18