Modern Hebrew or Israeli Hebrew (עברית חדשה, ʿivrít
ḥadašá[h], [ivˈrit xadaˈʃa] – "Modern Hebrew" or "New
Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew
(עברית Ivrit), is the standard form of the Hebrew language
spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew, a member of the
Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the
Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of
Aramaic beginning in the
third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and
literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and
20th centuries and is one of the two official languages of Israel,
along with Arabic.
Modern Hebrew is spoken by about nine million people, counting native,
fluent, and non-fluent speakers. Most speakers are citizens of
Israel: about five million are
Israelis who speak
Modern Hebrew as
their native language, 1.5 million are immigrants to Israel, 1.5
million are Arab citizens of Israel, whose first language is usually
Arabic, and half a million are expatriate
Israelis or diaspora Jews
living outside Israel.
The organization that officially directs the development of the Modern
Hebrew language, under the law of the State of Israel, is the Academy
of the Hebrew Language.
8.1 Word order
13 External links
The most common scholarly term for the language is "Modern Hebrew"
(עברית חדשה ʿivrít ħadašá[h]). Most people refer to
it simply as Hebrew (עברית Ivrit).
The term "Modern Hebrew" has been described as "somewhat
problematic" as it implies unambiguous periodization from Biblical
Hebrew. Haiim B. Rosén (he) supported the now widely used term
"Israeli Hebrew" on the basis that it "represented the
non-chronological nature of Hebrew". In 2006, Israeli linguist
Ghil'ad Zuckermann proposed the term "Israeli" to represent the
multiple origins of the language.
Main article: Hebrew language
One can divide the history of the
Hebrew language into four major
Biblical Hebrew, until about the 3rd century BCE; the language of most
of the Hebrew Bible
Mishnaic Hebrew, the language of the
Mishnah and Talmud
Medieval Hebrew, from about the 6th to the 13th century CE
Modern Hebrew, the language of the modern State of Israel.
Jewish contemporary sources describe Hebrew flourishing as a spoken
language in the kingdoms of
Israel and Judah, during about 1200 to 586
BCE. Scholars debate the degree to which Hebrew remained a spoken
vernacular following the Babylonian captivity, when Old
the predominant international language in the region.
Hebrew died out as a vernacular language somewhere between 200 and 400
CE, declining after the
Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 CE, which
devastated the population of Judea. After the exile Hebrew became
restricted to liturgical use.
Main article: Revival of the Hebrew language
Hebrew had been spoken at various times and for a number of purposes
throughout the Diaspora, and during the
Old Yishuv it had developed
into a spoken lingua franca among the Jews of Palestina. Eliezer
Ben-Yehuda then led a revival of the
Hebrew language as a mother
tongue in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modern Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew morphemes, Mishnaic spelling, and Sephardic
pronunciation. Idioms and calques were made from Yiddish. Its
acceptance by the early Jewish immigrants to Ottoman Palestine was
primarily due to support from the organisations of Edmond James de
Rothschild in the 1880s and the official status it received in the
1922 constitution of the British Mandate for
Palestine. Jews from Arab lands introduced many
Arabic (e.g. na'ana, zaatar, mishmish, kusbara,
ḥilba, lubiya, hummus, gezer, rayḥan, etc.). The words gerev
(sing.) / garbayim (pl.) are now applied to "socks," a diminutive of
Arabic ğuwārib ("socks"). Ben-Yehuda codified and planned
Modern Hebrew using 8,000 words from the Bible and 20,000 words from
rabbinical commentaries. He also invented some words, such as
ḥatzilīm for eggplants (aubergines) and ḥashmal for
electricity. As no Hebrew equivalent could be found for the names
of certain produce endemic to the New World, they devised new Hebrew
words for maize and tomato, calling them tiras (Heb. תירס) and
ʿagḇaniyyah (Heb. עגבניה), respectively. The latter word is
derived from the shape of the vegetable, which resembled a buttocks
(Heb. ʿagaḇīm). Sometimes, old Hebrew words took on different
meanings altogether. For example, the Hebrew word kǝvīš
(כביש), which now denotes a "street" or a "road," is actually
Aramaic adjective meaning "trodden down; blazoned", rather than a
common noun. It was originally used to describe "a blazoned
One of the phenomena seen with the revival of the
Hebrew language is
that, occasionally, old meanings of words were changed for altogether
different meanings, such as bardelas (ברדלס), which in
Mishnaic Hebrew meant "hyena", but in
Modern Hebrew now means
"cheetah;" or shezīph (שְׁזִיף) which is now used for
"plum," but formerly meant "jujube." The word kishū’īm
(formerly "cucumbers") is now applied to a variety of summer
squash (Cucurbita pepo var. cylindrica), a plant native to the New
For a simple comparison between the Sephardic and Yemenite versions of
Mishnaic Hebrew, see Yemenite Hebrew.
Modern Hebrew is classified as an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic
family and the Canaanite branch of the North-West semitic
subgroup. Although it has been influenced by
Modern Hebrew retains its Semitic character in
its morphology and in much of its syntax.[page needed] A
minority of scholars argue that the revived language had been so
influenced by various substrate languages that it is genealogically a
hybrid with Indo-European. These theories have not
been met with general acceptance, and
Modern Hebrew continues to be
considered a Semitic language by most experts. Modern Hebrew
is based on Mishnaic and Biblical Hebrew, and is commonly seen as a
direct continuation of one or both.
Main article: Hebrew alphabet
Modern Hebrew is written from right to left using the Hebrew alphabet,
which is an abjad, or consonant-only script of 22 letters based on the
"square" letter form, known as Ashurit (Assyrian), which was developed
Aramaic script. A cursive script is used in handwriting. When
necessary, vowels are indicated by diacritic marks above or below the
letters known as Nikkud, or by use of Matres lectionis, which are
consonantal letters used as vowels. Further diacritics like
Sin and Shin dots are used to indicate variations in the pronunciation
of the consonants (e.g. bet/vet, shin/sin). The letters "צ׳",
"ג׳", "ז׳", each modified with a Geresh, represent the
consonants [t͡ʃ], [d͡ʒ], [ʒ]. [t͡ʃ] is also in some places
written as "תש". [w] is represented interchangeably by a simple vav
"ו", non-standard double vav "וו" and sometimes by non-standard
geresh modified vav "ו׳".
Modern Hebrew phonology
Modern Hebrew has fewer phonemes than
Biblical Hebrew but it has
developed its own phonological complexity. Israeli Hebrew has 25 to 27
consonants and 8 to 10 vowels, depending on the speaker and the
The following table lists the consonant phonemes of Israeli Hebrew in
1 In modern Hebrew /ħ/ for ח has been absorbed by /x~χ/ that was
traditionally only for fricative כ, though some older Mizrahi
speakers still separate these.
2 The glottal consonants are mostly elided in unstressed syllables,
and sometimes also in stressed syllables as well, but are pronounced
in careful or formal speech. In modern Hebrew /ʕ/ for ע has been
absorbed by /ʔ/ that was traditionally only for א, though some older
Mizrahi speakers still separate these.
3 Commonly transcribed /r/. This is usually pronounced as a velar
fricative [ɣ], sometimes as a uvular fricative or approximant [ʁ],
and sometimes as a uvular or alveolar trill, depending on the
background of the speaker.
4 The phonemes /w, tʃ, dʒ, ʒ/ were introduced through borrowings.
Obstruents assimilate in voicing: voiceless obstruents (/p t ts tʃ k,
f s ʃ x/) become voiced ([b d dz dʒ ɡ, v z ʒ ɣ]) when they appear
immediately before voiced obstruents, and vice versa.
Hebrew has nine vowel phonemes, five short and four long:
Long vowels occur unpredictably where two identical vowels were
historically separated by a pharyngeal or glottal consonant, and the
first was stressed. Any of the five short vowels may be realized as a
schwa [ə] when far from lexical stress. There are two diphthongs,
/aj/ and /ej/.
Most lexical words have lexical stress on one of the last two
syllables, of which the last syllable is the more frequent in formal
speech. Loanwords may have stress on the antepenultimate syllable or
even further back.
Modern Hebrew morphology (formation, structure, and interrelationship
of words in a language) is essentially Semitic. Modern Hebrew
showcases much of the inflectional morphology of the classical upon
which it was based. In the formation of new words, all verbs and the
majority of nouns and adjectives are formed by the classically Semitic
devices of triconsonantal roots (shoresh) with affixed patterns
(mishkal). Mishnaic attributive patterns are often used to create
nouns, and Classical patterns are often used to create adjectives.
Blended words are created by merging two bound stems or parts of
words. As any living language,
Modern Hebrew has expanded its
vocabulary effectively to meet the needs of casual vernacular, of
science and technology, of journalism and belles-lettres.
The syntax of
Modern Hebrew is mainly Mishnaic, while also showing
the influence of different contact languages to which its speakers
have been exposed over the past century.
The word order of
Modern Hebrew is predominately SVO
Biblical Hebrew was originally
verb–subject–object (VSO), but drifted into SVO. Modern Hebrew
maintains classical syntactic properties associated with VSO
languages—it is prepositional rather than postpositional in making
case and adverbial relations, auxiliary verbs precede main verbs; main
verbs precede their complements, and noun modifiers (adjectives,
determiners other than the definite article ה-, and noun adjuncts)
follow the head noun, hence in genitive constructions the possessee
noun precedes the possessor. Moreover,
Modern Hebrew allows and in
cases requires sentences with a predicate initial.
While the pronunciation of
Modern Hebrew is based on Sephardi Hebrew,
the pronunciation has been affected by the immigrant communities that
have settled in
Israel in the past century and there has been a
general coalescing of speech patterns. The guttural [χ] has largely
replaced the softer [ħ] of
Sephardi Hebrew for the phoneme chet
(Hebrew: ח) which
Sephardi Hebrew only used for fricative chaf
(Hebrew: כ). The pronunciation of the phoneme ayin (Hebrew:
ע), has merged with the pronunciation of aleph (Hebrew: א)
which is either [ʔ] or unrealized [∅] and has come to dominate
Modern Hebrew; in many variations of liturgical Sephardi Hebrew, it is
[ʕ], a voiced pharyngeal fricative. The letter vav (Hebrew: ו) is
realized as [v], which is standard for both Ashkenazi and most
variations of Sephardi Hebrew. The Jews of Iraq, Aleppo, Yemen and
some parts of North Africa pronounced vav as [w]. Yemenite Jews,
during their liturgical readings in the synagogues, will still make
use of the older pronunciation of this Hebrew letter. The
pronunciation of the letter resh (Hebrew: ר) has also largely
shifted from Sephardi [r] to either a [ɣ] or a [ʁ].
Modern Hebrew has loanwords from
Arabic (both from the local Levantine
dialect and from the dialects of Jewish immigrants from Arab
countries), Aramaic, Yiddish, Judaeo-Spanish, German, Polish, Russian,
English and other languages. Simultaneously, Israeli Hebrew makes use
of words that were originally loanwords from the languages of
surrounding nations from ancient times:
Canaanite languages as well as
Mishnaic Hebrew borrowed many nouns from Aramaic, as well as
some from Greek. In the Middle Ages, liturgical Hebrew borrowed
heavily from Spanish, Greek, and Arabic. Some typical examples of
Hebrew loanwords are:
to have fun[w 1]
to scram[w 2]
the father/my father
shoddy work[w 3]
to make a mess
to sleep deeply
inflamed wound[w 5]
temple servant[w 6]
^ bitFormation. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Arabic". Safa-ivrit.org.
^ "morfix dictionary". Morfix.mako.co.il. Archived from the original
on 2013-01-07. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
^ a b bitFormation. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Russian".
Safa-ivrit.org. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
^ bitFormation. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Turkish". Safa-ivrit.org.
^ bitFormation. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Ladino". Safa-ivrit.org.
^ אתר השפה העברית. "Loanwords in Hebrew from Akkadian".
Safa-ivrit.org. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
Haiim B. Rosén (1962). A Textbook of Israeli Hebrew. University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-72603-8.
Gila Freedman Cohen; Carmia Shoval (2011). Easing Into Modern Hebrew
Grammar: A User-friendly Reference and Exercise Book. Magnes Press.
Ornan, Uzzi (2003). The Final Word: Mechanism for Hebrew Word
Generation. Haifa University.
Ben-Ḥayyim, Ze'ev (1992). The Struggle for a Language. Jerusalem:
The Academy of the Hebrew Language.
Dekel, Nurit (2014). Colloquial Israeli Hebrew: A Corpus-based Survey.
De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-037725-5.
Matras, Yaron; Schiff, Leora (2005). "Spoken Israeli Hebrew revisited:
Structures and variation" (PDF). Studia Semitica. Journal of Semitic
Studies Jubilee Volume. 16: 145–193.
Shlomo Izreʾel; Shlomo Raz (1996). Studies in Modern Semitic
Languages. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-10646-4.
Stefan Weninger (23 December 2011). The Semitic Languages: An
International Handbook. Walter de Gruyter.
Bergsträsser, Gotthelf (1983). Peter T. Daniels, ed. Introduction to
the Semitic Languages: Text Specimens and Grammatical Sketches.
Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-10-2.
Wexler, Paul (1990). The Schizoid Nature of Modern Hebrew: A Slavic
Language in Search of a Semitic Past. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.
Choueka, Yaakov (1997). Rav-Milim: A comprehensive dictionary of
Modern Hebrew. Tel Aviv: CET. ISBN 965-448-323-8.
^ "Hebrew". UCLA Language Materials Project. University of California.
Retrieved 1 May 2017.
^ a b c d Dekel 2014
^ Meir & Sandler, 2013, A Language in Space: The Story of Israeli
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute
for the Science of Human History.
^ Klein, Zeev (March 18, 2013). "A million and a half Israelis
struggle with Hebrew".
Israel Hayom. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
^ Nachman Gur, Behadrey Haredim. "Kometz Aleph – Au• How many
Hebrew speakers are there in the world?". Retrieved 2 November
2013. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ a b c Dekel 2014; quote: "Most people refer to Israeli Hebrew simply
as Hebrew. Hebrew is a broad term, which includes Hebrew as it was
spoken and written in different periods of time and according to most
of the researchers as it is spoken and written in
Israel and elsewhere
today. Several names have been proposed for the language spoken in
Modern Hebrew is the most common one, addressing the
latest spoken language variety in
Israel (Berman 1978, Saenz-Badillos
1993:269, Coffin-Amir & Bolozky 2005, Schwarzwald 2009:61). The
emergence of a new language in Palestine at the end of the nineteenth
century was associated with debates regarding the characteristics of
that language.... Not all scholars supported the term Modern Hebrew
for the new language. Rosén (1977:17) rejected the term Modern
Hebrew, since linguistically he claimed that 'modern' should represent
a linguistic entity that should command autonomy towards everything
that preceded it, while this was not the case in the new emerging
language. He also rejected the term Neo-Hebrew, because the prefix
'neo' had been previously used for Mishnaic and Medieval Hebrew
(Rosén 1977:15–16), additionally, he rejected the term Spoken
Hebrew as one of the possible proposals (Rosén 1977:18). Rosén
supported the term Israeli Hebrew as in his opinion it represented the
non-chronological nature of Hebrew, as well as its territorial
independence (Rosén 1977:18). Rosén then adopted the term
Contemporary Hebrew from Téne (1968) for its neutrality, and
suggested the broadening of this term to Contemporary Israeli Hebrew
^ a b c Matras & Schiff 2005; quote: The language with which we
are concerned in this contribution is also known by the names
Contemporary Hebrew and Modern Hebrew, both somewhat problematic terms
as they rely on the notion of an unambiguous periodization separating
Biblical Hebrew from the present-day language. We follow
instead the now widely-used label coined by Rosén (1955), Israeli
Hebrew, to denote the link between the emergence of a Hebrew
vernacular and the emergence of an Israeli national identity in
Israel/Palestine in the early twentieth century."
^ Haiim Rosén (1 January 1977). Contemporary Hebrew. Walter de
Gruyter. pp. 15–18. ISBN 978-3-11-080483-6.
Hebrew language Encyclopædia Britannica
^ אברהם בן יוסף ,מבוא לתולדות הלשון
העברית (Avraham ben-Yosef, Introduction to the History of the
Hebrew Language), page 38, אור-עם, Tel Aviv, 1981.
^ Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde: "There is general
agreement that two main periods of RH (Rabbinical Hebrew) can be
distinguished. The first, which lasted until the close of the
Tannaitic era (around 200 CE), is characterized by RH as a spoken
language gradually developing into a literary medium in which the
Mishnah, Tosefta, baraitot and Tannaitic midrashim would be composed.
The second stage begins with the
Amoraim and sees RH being replaced by
Aramaic as the spoken vernacular, surviving only as a literary
language. Then it continued to be used in later rabbinic writings
until the tenth century in, for example, the Hebrew portions of the
two Talmuds and in midrashic and haggadic literature."
^ TUDOR PARFITT; THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE OLD YISHUV TO THE REVIVAL OF
HEBREW, Journal of Semitic Studies, Volume XXIX, Issue 2, 1 October
1984, Pages 255–265, https://doi.org/10.1093/jss/XXIX.2.255
^ Hobsbawm, Eric (2012). Nations and Nationalism since 1780:
Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-1-107-39446-9. , "What would the future of Hebrew
have been, had not the British Mandate in 1919 accepted it as one of
the three official languages of Palestine, at a time when the number
of people speaking Hebrew as an everyday language was less than
^ Swirski, Shlomo (11 September 2002). Politics and Education in
Israel: Comparisons with the United States. Routledge.
ISBN 978-1-135-58242-5. : "In retrospect, [Hobsbawm's]
question should be rephrased, substituting the Rothschild house for
the British state and the 1880s for 1919. For by the time the British
conquered Palestine, Hebrew had become the everyday language of a
small but well-entrenched community."
^ Palestine Mandate (1922): "English,
Arabic and Hebrew shall be the
official languages of Palestine"
^ Benjamin Harshav (1999). Language in Time of Revolution. Stanford
University Press. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-0-8047-3540-7.
^ Cf. Rabbi Hai Gaon's commentary on
Mishnah Kelim 27:6, where
אמפליא (ampalya) was used formerly for the same, and had the
equivalent meaning of the
Arabic word ğuwārib ("stockings; socks").
^ Roberto Garvio, Esperanto and its Rivals, University of Pennsylvania
Press, 2015, p. 164
^ Which words are marked as "New Words" in the Even-Shoshan Hebrew
Dictionary, s.v. חצילים; see:
Modern Hebrew usages. Ḥashmal is
found only once in the Hebrew Bible, in Ezekiel's vision of the
chariot (Ezek. 1:4; 1:27), but has been explained in a medieval
Arabic lexicon (reprinted in the book, Jewish Culture in Muslim
Lands and Cairo Geniza Studies, ed. Yosef Tobi, Tel-Aviv University:
Tel-Aviv 2006, p. 61 [note 114]) as being some angelic entity which
had "utmost strength". Others have explained it to mean an angel that
^ Compare Rashi's commentary on Exodus 9:17, where he says the word
mesillah is translated in
Aramaic oraḥ kevīsha (A blazoned trail);
the word "kevīsh" being only an adjective or descriptive word, but
not a common noun as it is used today. It is said that Ze'ev Yavetz
(1847–1924) is he that coined this modern Hebrew word for
“road.” See Haaretz, Contributions made by Ze'ev Yavetz; Maltz,
Judy (25 January 2013). "With Tu Bishvat Near, a Tree Grows in Zichron
Yaakov". Haaretz. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
^ Maimonides' commentary and Rabbi Ovadiah of Bartenura's commentary
Mishnah Baba Kama 1:4; Rabbi Nathan ben Abraham's Mishnah
Commentary, Baba Metzia 7:9, s.v. הפרדלס; Sefer Arukh, s.v.
ברדלס; Zohar Amar, Flora and Fauna in Maimonides' Teachings,
Kefar Darom 2015, pp. 177–178; 228
^ Zohar Amar, Flora and Fauna in Maimonides' Teachings, Kfar Darom
2015, p. 157, s.v. שזפין OCLC 783455868, explained to mean
"jujube" (Ziziphus jujube); Solomon Sirilio's Commentary of the
Jerusalem Talmud, on Kila'im 1:4, s.v. השיזפין, which he
explained to mean in Spanish "azufaifas" (= "jujubes"). See also Saul
Lieberman, Glossary in Tosephta - based on the Erfurt and Vienna
Codices (ed. M.S. Zuckermandel), Jerusalem 1970, s.v. שיזפין (p.
LXL), explained in German as meaning, "Brustbeerbaum" (= jujubes).
^ Thus explained by Maimonides in his Commentary on
1:2 and in
Mishnah Terumot 2:6. See: Zohar Amar, Flora and Fauna in
Maimonides' Teachings, Kefar Darom 2015, pp. 111, 149 (Hebrew)
OCLC 783455868; Zohar Amar, Agricultural Produce in the Land of
Israel in the Middle Ages (Hebrew title: גידולי
ארץ-ישראל בימי הביניים), Ben-Zvi Institute:
Jerusalem 2000, p. 286 ISBN 965-217-174-3 (Hebrew)
^ Hebrew at
Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
^ a b Weninger, Stefan, Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet CE
Watson, Gábor Takács, Vermondo Brugnatelli, H. Ekkehard Wolff et al.
The Semitic Languages. An International Handbook. Berlin–Boston
^ Robert Hetzron (1997). The Semitic Languages. Taylor & Francis.
ISBN 9780415057677. [not in citation given]
^ Hadumod Bussman (2006). Routledge Dictionary of Language and
Linguistics. Routledge. p. 199. ISBN 9781134630387.
^ Patrick R. Bennett (1998). Comparative Semitic Linguistics: A
Manual. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575060217.
Olga Kapeliuk (1996). "Is
Modern Hebrew the only "Indo-Europeanied"
Semitic Language? And what about Neo-Aramaic?". In Shlomo Izre'el;
Shlomo Raz. Studies in Modern Semitic Languages.
Studies. BRILL. p. 59. ISBN 9789004106468.
^ Wexler, Paul, The Schizoid Nature of Modern Hebrew: A Slavic
Language in Search of a Semitic Past: 1990.
^ Izre'el, Shlomo (2003). "The Emergence of Spoken Israeli Hebrew."
In: Benjamin H. Hary (ed.), Corpus Linguistics and Modern Hebrew:
Towards the Compilation of The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew
(CoSIH)", Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, The Chaim Rosenberg School of
Jewish Studies, 2003, pp. 85–104.
^ See p. 62 in Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2006), "A New Vision for 'Israeli
Hebrew': Theoretical and Practical Implications of Analysing Israel's
Main Language as a Semi-Engineered Semito-European Hybrid Language",
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies 5 (1), pp. 57–71.
^ Yael Reshef. "The Re-Emergence of Hebrew as a National Language" in
Weninger, Stefan, Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet CE Watson,
Gábor Takács, Vermondo Brugnatelli, H. Ekkehard Wolff et al. (eds)
The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Berlin–Boston
(2011). p. 551
^ Robert Hetzron. (1987). "Hebrew". In The World's Major Languages,
ed. Bernard Comrie, 686–704. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
^ a b c Dekel 2014.
^ a b R. Malatesha Joshi; P. G. Aaron, eds. (2013). Handbook of
Orthography and Literacy. Routledge. p. 343.
^ Li, Charles N. Mechanisms of Syntactic Change. Austin: U of Texas,
Modern Hebrew Swadesh list
The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew - introduction by Tel Aviv
Hebrew Today – Should You Learn
Modern Hebrew or Biblical Hebrew?
History of the Ancient and
Modern Hebrew Language by David Steinberg
Short History of the Hebrew Language by Chaim Menachem Rabin
Academy of the Hebrew Language: How a Word is Born
Transliteration to English / from English
Biblical (northern dialect)
Kubutz and Shuruk
Niqqud / missing / full
Law of attenuation
Hebrew / ancient / modern Israeli literature
Unicode and HTML
Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament
Modern Semitic languages
varieties of Arabic
Koy Sanjaq Surat
Old South Arabian
Modern South Arabian
Betanure Jewish Neo-Aramaic
Kayla / Qwara (Cushitic)
Dialects / Argots
Yiddish sign language
Krymchak / Karaim (Turkic)