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Guan Moye (simplified Chinese: 管谟业; traditional Chinese: 管謨業; pinyin: Guǎn Móyè; born 17 February 1955), better known by the pen name Mo Yan
Mo Yan
(/moʊ jɛn/, Chinese: 莫言; pinyin: Mò Yán), is a Chinese novelist and short story writer. Donald Morrison of U.S. news magazine TIME referred to him as "one of the most famous, oft-banned and widely pirated of all Chinese writers",[1] and Jim Leach called him the Chinese answer to Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka
or Joseph Heller.[2] He is best known to Western readers for his 1987 novel Red Sorghum Clan, of which the Red Sorghum and Sorghum Wine volumes were later adapted for the film Red Sorghum. In 2012, Mo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his work as a writer "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary".[3][4]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Pen name 3 Works 4 Influences 5 Style 6 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, 2012 7 Controversies and criticism 8 List of works

8.1 Novels 8.2 Short story and novella collections 8.3 Other works

9 Awards and honours 10 Honorary doctorate 11 Adaptations 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Early life[edit] Mo Yan
Mo Yan
was born in 1955, in Gaomi
Gaomi
County in Shandong
Shandong
to a family of farmers, in Dalan Township (which he fictionalised in his novels as "Northeast Township" of Gaomi
Gaomi
County). Mo was 11 years old when the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
was launched, at which time he left school to work as a farmer. At the age of 18, he began work at a cotton factory. During this period, which coincided with a succession of political campaigns from the Great Leap Forward
Great Leap Forward
to the Cultural Revolution, his access to literature was largely limited to novels in the socialist realist style under Mao Zedong, which centered largely on the themes of class struggle and conflict.[5] At the close of the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in 1976, Mo enlisted in the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
(PLA),[6] and began writing while he was still a soldier. During this post-Revolution era when he emerged as a writer, both the lyrical and epic works of Chinese literature, as well as translations of foreign authors such as William Faulkner
William Faulkner
and Gabriel García Márquez, would make an impact on his works.[7] In 1984, he received a literary award from the PLA Magazine, and the same year began attending the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
Arts College, where he first adopted the pen name of Mo Yan.[8] He published his first novella, A Transparent Radish, in 1984, and released Red Sorghum in 1986, launching his career as a nationally recognized novelist.[8] In 1991, he obtained a master's degree in Literature from Beijing Normal University.[6] Pen name[edit] "Mo Yan" – "don't speak" in Chinese – is his pen name.[9] Mo Yan has explained on occasion that the name comes from a warning from his father and mother not to speak his mind while outside, because of China's revolutionary political situation from the 1950s, when he grew up.[2][10] It also relates to the subject matter of Mo Yan's writings, which reinterpret Chinese political and sexual history.[11] In an interview with Professor David Wang, Mo Yan
Mo Yan
stated that he changed his "official name" to Mo Yan
Mo Yan
because he could not receive royalties under the pen name.[12] Works[edit] Mo Yan
Mo Yan
began his career as a writer in the reform and opening up period, publishing dozens of short stories and novels in Chinese. His first novel was Falling Rain on a Spring Night, published in 1981. Mo Yan's Red Sorghum Clan is a non-chronological novel about the generations of a Shandong
Shandong
family between 1923 and 1976. The author deals with upheavals in Chinese history such as the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Communist Revolution, and the Cultural Revolution, but in an unconventional way; for example from the point of view of the invading Japanese soldiers.[13] His second novel, The Garlic Ballads, is based on a true story of when the farmers of Gaomi
Gaomi
Township rioted against a government that would not buy its crops. The Republic of Wine
The Republic of Wine
is a satire around gastronomy and alcohol, which uses cannibalism as a metaphor for Chinese self-destruction, following Lu Xun.[13] Big Breasts & Wide Hips deals with female bodies, from a grandmother whose breasts are shattered by Japanese bullets, to a festival where one of the child characters, Shangguan Jintong, blesses each woman of his town by stroking her breasts.[14] The book was controversial in China
China
because some leftist critics objected to Big Breasts' perceived negative portrayal of Communist soldiers.[14] Extremely prolific, Mo Yan
Mo Yan
wrote Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out
Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out
in only 42 days.[2] He composed the more than 500,000 characters contained in the original manuscript on traditional Chinese paper using only ink and a writing brush. He prefers writing his novels by hand rather than by typing using a pinyin input method, because the latter method "limits your vocabulary".[2] Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out is a meta-fiction about the story of a landlord who is reincarnated in the form of various animals during the Chinese land reform movement.[8] The landlord observes and satirizes Communist society, such as when he (as a donkey) forces two mules to share food with him, because "[in] the age of communism... mine is yours and yours is mine."[11] Influences[edit] Mo Yan's works are predominantly social commentary, and he is strongly influenced by the social realism of Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and the magical realism of Gabriel García Márquez. In terms of traditional Chinese literature, he is deeply inspired by the folklore-based classical epic novel Water Margin.[15] He also cites Journey to the West
Journey to the West
and Dream of the Red Chamber as formative influences.[2] Mo Yan, who himself reads foreign authors in translation, strongly advocates the reading of world literature.[16] At a speech to open the 2009 Frankfurt Book Fair, he discussed Goethe's idea of "world literature", stating that "literature can overcome the barriers that separate countries and nations".[17] Style[edit] Mo Yan's works are epic historical novels characterized by hallucinatory realism and containing elements of black humor.[11] A major theme in Mo Yan's works is the constancy of human greed and corruption, despite the influence of ideology.[13] Using dazzling, complex, and often graphically violent images, he sets many of his stories near his hometown, Northeast Gaomi
Gaomi
Township in Shandong province. Mo Yan
Mo Yan
says he realised that he could make "[my] family, [the] people I'm familiar with, the villagers..." his characters after reading William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury.[2] He satirizes the genre of socialist realism by placing workers and bureaucrats into absurd situations.[11] Mo Yan's writing is characterised by the blurring of distinctions between "past and present, dead and living, as well as good and bad".[14] Mo Yan
Mo Yan
appears in his novels as a semi-autobiographical character who retells and modifies the author's other stories.[8] His female characters often fail to observe traditional gender roles, such as the mother of the Shangguan family in Big Breasts & Wide Hips, who, failing to bear her husband any sons, instead is an adulterer, becoming pregnant with girls by a Swedish missionary and a Japanese soldier, among others. Male power is also portrayed cynically in Big Breasts & Wide Hips, and there is only one male hero in the novel.[14] Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, 2012[edit]

Mo Yan
Mo Yan
in Stockholm to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
2012

On 11 October 2012, the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
announced that Mo Yan
Mo Yan
had received the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
for his work that "with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary".[4] Aged 57 at the time of the announcement, he was the 109th recipient of the award and the first ever resident of mainland China
China
to receive it—Chinese-born Gao Xingjian, having been named the 2000 laureate. In his Award Ceremony Speech, Per Wästberg
Per Wästberg
explained: " Mo Yan
Mo Yan
is a poet who tears down stereotypical propaganda posters, elevating the individual from an anonymous human mass. Using ridicule and sarcasm Mo Yan
Mo Yan
attacks history and its falsifications as well as deprivation and political hypocrisy."[18] Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
head Peter Englund
Peter Englund
said less formally, "He has such a damn unique way of writing. If you read half a page of Mo Yan
Mo Yan
you immediately recognize it as him".[19] Controversies and criticism[edit] Winning the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
occasioned both support and criticism. Firstly, it won warm welcome from the Chinese government immediately after the announcement of the Nobel Prize. The People's Daily
People's Daily
Online, the official newspaper of the Chinese Communist Party, published on 11 October 2012: "Congratulations to Mo Yan
Mo Yan
for winning the Nobel Prize in Literature! It is the first time for a writer of Chinese nationality to win the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. Today is the day that Chinese writers have awaited for too long and that Chinese people have awaited for too long."[20] The Chinese writer Ma Jian deplored Mo Yan's lack of solidarity and commitment to other Chinese writers and intellectuals who were punished or detained in violation of their constitutionally protected freedom of expression.[21] Several other Chinese dissidents such as Ye Du and Ai Weiwei
Ai Weiwei
also criticized him,[22] as did 2009 Nobel Laureate Herta Müller
Herta Müller
who called the decision a "catastrophe".[23] A specific criticism was that Mo hand-copied Mao Zedong's influential Yan'an Talks on Literature and Art in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the speech, which described the writer's responsibility to place politics before art,[24] These "Talks"—which were the intellectual handcuffs of Chinese writers throughout the Mao era and were almost universally reviled by writers during the years between Mao's death in 1976 and the Tiananmen protest in 1989—were now again being held up for adulation. Mo Yan
Mo Yan
not only agreed but has gone further than others to explain that the "Talks," in their time, had "historical necessity" and "played a positive role."[25] He has also attracted criticism for his supposed good relationship with the Chinese Communist Party in general.[26] Anna Sun, an assistant professor of Sociology and Asian studies at Kenyon College, criticized Mo's writing as coarse, predictable, and lacking in aesthetic conviction. "Mo Yan's language is striking indeed," she writes, but it is striking because "it is diseased. The disease is caused by the conscious renunciation of China's cultural past at the founding of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949."[5] Charles Laughlin of the University of Virginia, however, accuses Sun of "piling up aesthetic objections to conceal ideological conflict," comparing her characterization of Mo to the official China
China
Writers Association's characterization of Gao Xingjian
Gao Xingjian
as a mediocre writer when Gao won the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in 2000.[7] Perry Link, describing Mo Yan's fiction and politics in the New York Review of Books, asked, "Does this writer deserve the prize?" Link commented that Chinese writers, whether "inside the system" or not, "all must choose how they will relate to their country's authoritarian government." This "inevitably involves calculations, trade-offs, and the playing of cards in various ways." Link's main criticism was that Mo Yan
Mo Yan
"invoke(d) a kind of daft hilarity when treating 'sensitive' events" such as the Great Chinese Famine
Great Chinese Famine
and the Cultural Revolution. Link believed that the regime approved it because "this mode of writing is useful not just because it diverts a square look at history but because of its function as a safety valve." As Link pointed out, to treat sensitive topics as jokes might be better than banning them outright. Link compared Mo to Liu Xiaobo, winner of the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize, who was jailed for dissidence, whose moral choices were "highly unusual." It would be wrong, Link concludes, "for spectators like you and me, who enjoy the comfort of distance, to demand that Mo Yan risk all and be another Liu Xiaobo. But it would be even more wrong to mistake the clear difference between the two."[27] Charles Laughlin, however, published an article called What Mo Yan's Detractors Get Wrong[28] on China File
File
against Link's argument. As a response to Link's criticism that Mo Yan
Mo Yan
trivialized serious historical tragedies by using black humor and what he called "daft hilarity", Laughlin emphasized the distinction between documentary and art and literature: "art and literature, particularly since the traumas of the twentieth century, never simply document experience." Laughlin argued that Mo Yan's intended readers already know that "the Great Leap Forward
Great Leap Forward
led to a catastrophic famine, and any artistic approach to historical trauma is inflected or refracted." According to him, " Mo Yan
Mo Yan
writes about the period he writes about because they were traumatic, not because they were hilarious."[28] Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
called Mo Yan
Mo Yan
a "patsy" for refusing to sign a petition asking for Liu Xiaobo's freedom.[29] Pankaj Mishra
Pankaj Mishra
saw an "unexamined assumption" lurking in the "western scorn" for these choices, namely that "Anglo-American writers" were not criticized for similarly apolitical attitudes.[30] In his Nobel Lecture, Mo Yan
Mo Yan
himself commented, "At first I thought I was the target of the disputes, but over time I've come to realize that the real target was a person who had nothing to do with me. Like someone watching a play in a theater, I observed the performances around me. I saw the winner of the prize both garlanded with flowers and besieged by stone-throwers and mudslingers." He concluded that "for a writer, the best way to speak is by writing. You will find everything I need to say in my works. Speech is carried off by the wind; the written word can never be obliterated."[10] Another source of criticism was a perceived conflict of interest on the part of Göran Malmqvist, who is one of the members of the Swedish Academy. Malmqvist had translated several of Mo Yan's works into Swedish and published some through his own publishing house. Mo had also written a laudatory preface to one of Malmqvist's own books, and been a close friend of Malmqvist's wife for 15 years. The Nobel committee denied that this constituted a conflict of interest, and said that it would have been absurd for Malmqvist to recuse himself.[31][32][33] List of works[edit] Mo Yan
Mo Yan
has written 11 novels, and several novellas and short story collections. This is a complete list of Mo Yan's works published as a collection in 2012 in China
China
(after Mo Yan
Mo Yan
received the Nobel Prize). Novels[edit]

《红高粱家族》 Red Sorghum (1986) 《天堂蒜薹之歌》 The Garlic Ballads (1988) 《十三步》 Thirteen Steps (1988) 《食草家族》 The Herbivorous Family (1993) 《酒国》 The Republic of Wine: A Novel (1993) 《丰乳肥臀》 Big Breasts & Wide Hips (1995) 《红树林》 Red Forest (1999) 《檀香刑》 Sandalwood Death (2001) 《四十一炮》 Pow! (2003) 《生死疲劳》 Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out
Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out
(2006) 《蛙》 Frog (2009)

Short story and novella collections[edit]

《白狗秋千架》 White Dog and the Swing (30 short stories, 1981–1989) 《与大师约会》 Meeting the Masters (45 short stories, 1990–2005) 《欢乐》 Joy (8 novellas; six of them are published in English as Explosions and Other Stories) 《怀抱鲜花的女人》 The Woman with Flowers (8 novellas) 《师傅越来越幽默》Shifu: You'll Do Anything for a Laugh (9 novellas; one of them, Change, is published independently in English)

Other works[edit]

《会唱歌的墙》 The Wall Can Sing (60 essays, 1981–2011) 《我们的荆轲》 Our Jing Ke (play) 《碎语文学》 Broken Philosophy (interviews, only available in Chinese) 《用耳朵阅读》 Ears to Read (speeches, only available in Chinese) 《盛典:诺奖之行》 Grand Ceremony

Awards and honours[edit]

1998: Neustadt International Prize for Literature, candidate 2005: Kiriyama Prize, Notable Books, Big Breasts and Wide Hips 2005: Doctor of Letters, Open University of Hong Kong 2006: Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize XVII 2007: Man Asian Literary Prize, nominee, Big Breasts and Wide Hips 2009: Newman Prize for Chinese Literature, winner, Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out 2010: Honorary Fellow, Modern Language Association 2011: Mao Dun Literature Prize, winner, Frog 2012: Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature

Honorary doctorate[edit]

2013: The City University of New York, United States[34] 2013: Fo Guang University, Taiwan[35] 2014: Sofia University, Bulgaria[36] 2014: The Open University of Hong Kong, China[37] 2014: The University of Macau, China[38] 2017: Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Baptist University, China[39]

Adaptations[edit] Several of Mo Yan's works have been adapted for film:

Red Sorghum (1987) (directed by Zhang Yimou) Happy Times
Happy Times
(2000) (directed by Zhang Yimou, adaptation of Shifu: You'll Do Anything for a Laugh) Nuan
Nuan
(2003) (directed by Huo Jianqi, adaptation of White Dog Swing) The Sun Has Ears
The Sun Has Ears
(1995) (directed by Yim Ho, adaptation of Grandma Wearing Red Silk)

See also[edit]

Chinese literature List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
in Literature List of Chinese writers

References[edit]

^ Morrison, Donald (14 February 2005). "Holding Up Half The Sky". Time. Retrieved 14 February 2005.  ^ a b c d e f Leach, Jim (Jan–Feb 2011). "The Real Mo Yan". Humanities. 32 (1): 11–13.  ^ " Mo Yan
Mo Yan
får Nobelpriset i litteratur 2012". DN. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
2012 Mo Yan". Nobelprize.org. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ a b Anna Sun. "The Diseased Language of Mo Yan", The Kenyon Review, Fall 2012. ^ a b Wee, Sui-Lee (11 October 2012). "China's Mo Yan
Mo Yan
feeds off suffering to win Nobel literature prize". Reuters. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ a b Laughlin, Charles (17 December 2012). "What Mo Yan's Detractors Get Wrong". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 December 2012.  ^ a b c d Williford, James (Jan–Feb 2011). " Mo Yan
Mo Yan
101". Humanities. 32 (1): 10.  ^ Ahlander, Johan (11 October 2012). "China's Mo Yan
Mo Yan
wins Nobel for "hallucinatory realism"". Reuters. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ a b " Mo Yan
Mo Yan
– Nobel Lecture: Storytellers". translated by Howard Goldblatt, 26 February 2013 ^ a b c d Huang, Alexander (Jul–Aug 2009). " Mo Yan
Mo Yan
as Humorist". World Literature Today. 83 (4): 32–35.  ^ In an interview with Professor David Wang ^ a b c Inge, M. Thomas (June 2000). " Mo Yan
Mo Yan
Through Western Eyes". World Literature Today: 501–507.  ^ a b c d Chan, Shelley W. (Summer 2000). "From Fatherland to Motherland: On Mo Yan's 'Red Sorghum' and 'Big Breasts and Full Hips'". World Literature Today. 74 (3): 495–501. doi:10.2307/40155815.  ^ Howard Yuen Fung Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng's China, 1979 -1997. Leiden: BRILL, 2008. pp. 51–53. ISBN 9004167048. ^ "World Literature and China
China
in a Global Age". Chinese Literature Today. 1 (1): 101–103. July 2010.  ^ Yan, Mo; Yao, Benbiao (July 2010). "A Writer Has a Nationality, but Literature Has No Boundary". Chinese Literature Today. 1 (1): 22–24.  ^ Per Wästberg
Per Wästberg
(10 December 2012). ""The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature 2012 – Award Ceremony Speech"". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 25 May 2017.  ^ "Chinese writer Mo Yan
Mo Yan
wins Nobel prize". The Irish Times. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ 人民网评:祝贺莫言荣获诺贝尔文学奖! (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 14 October 2012.  ^ "From cowherd to Nobel, it was a long lonely journey: Mo Yan". Business Standard. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ " Mo Yan
Mo Yan
Nobel lecture derided by China
China
dissidents". Agence France-Presse. 8 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.  ^ https://www.theguardian.com/books/2012/nov/26/mo-yan-nobel-herta-muller Salon 6 December 2012. ^ Zhou, Raymond (9 October 2012). "Is Mo Yan
Mo Yan
man enough for the Nobel?". China
China
Daily. Retrieved 9 October 2012.  ^ Perry Link "Does This Writer Deserve the Prize?" New York Review of Books, (6 December 2012). ^ "The Nobel prize in literature: A Chinese Dickens?". The Economist. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.  ^ Perry Link,"Does This Writer Deserve the Prize?" New York Review of Books, (6 December 2012). ^ a b [1], What Mo Yan's Detractors Get Wrong ^ "Rushdie: Mo Yan
Mo Yan
is a "patsy of the regime". Salon 6 December 2012. ^ Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
should pause before condemning Mo Yan
Mo Yan
on censorshipThe Guardian 13 December 2012. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 July 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.  ^ http://www.thelocal.se/44274/20121106/#.UTNP8jC91iY ^ http://blog.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/10/18/was_there_a_conflict_of_interest_in_the_nobel_literature_prize ^ http://policy.cuny.edu/policyimport/board_committee_documents/academic_policy,_programs_and_research/agendas/2013/04-08/i-b-03_city_college_-_resolution_to_award_honorary_degrees/document.pdf ^ 佛光大學頒授莫言榮譽文學博士學位 中央社訊息平台 ^ Hanban-News Chinese writer Mr. Mo Yan
Mo Yan
awarded an honorary doctorate by university in Bulgaria ^ The Open University of Hong Kong: Openlink Vol 23 Issue 4 (Dec 2014) ^ News Express: Nobel laureate Mo Yan
Mo Yan
speaks on Chinese literature
Chinese literature
at UM ^ Honorary Doctorates and Honorary University Fellows - HKBU

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Writers on Writing featuring Mo Yan. Ed. Arthur Sze. (Trinity University Press, 2010).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mo Yan.

Novelist Mo Yan
Mo Yan
Takes Aim with 41 Bombs ( China Daily
China Daily
27 June 2003) VÍDEO prize movie of Mo Yan "Granta Audio: Mo Yan", Granta, 11 October 2012, John Freeman Russian site about Mo Yan Mo Yan
Mo Yan
and the Politics of Language China
China
Digital Times 25 February 2013. Mo Yan
Mo Yan
dismisses 'envious' Nobel critics The Guardian 28 February 2013. School dropout to Nobel: A consistent beauty of Mo Yan
Mo Yan
FacenFacts

v t e

Works of Mo Yan

Novels

Red Sorghum (1986) The Republic of Wine
The Republic of Wine
(1993) Big Breasts and Wide Hips
Big Breasts and Wide Hips
(1995) Pow! (2003) Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out
Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out
(2006) Frog (2009)

Screenplay

The Sun Has Ears
The Sun Has Ears
(1996)

Adaptations

Red Sorghum (1988) Happy Times
Happy Times
(2000) Nuan
Nuan
(2003) Red Sorghum (2014)

Related articles

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature

1901–1925

1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw

1926–1950

1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell

1951–1975

1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale

1976–2000

1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian

2001–present

2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

v t e

2012 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates

Chemistry

Robert Lefkowitz
Robert Lefkowitz
(United States) Brian Kobilka
Brian Kobilka
(United States)

Literature

Mo Yan
Mo Yan
(China)

Peace

European Union

Physics

Serge Haroche
Serge Haroche
(France) David J. Wineland
David J. Wineland
(United States)

Physiology or Medicine

John Gurdon
John Gurdon
(United Kingdom) Shinya Yamanaka
Shinya Yamanaka
(Japan)

Economic Sciences

Alvin E. Roth
Alvin E. Roth
(United States) Lloyd Shapley
Lloyd Shapley
(United States)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

v t e

Nobel laureates of the People's Republic of China

Peace

14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
(1989) Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo
(2010)

Literature

Mo Yan
Mo Yan
(2012)

Physiology or Medicine

Tu Youyou
Tu Youyou
(2015)

v t e

Mao Dun Literature Prize

1st (1982)

Wei Wei – Orient Zhou Keqin – Xu Mao and His daughters Yao Xueyin
Yao Xueyin
– Li Zicheng Mo Yingfeng – General's Chant Li Guowen – Spring in Winter Gu Hua – A Small Town Called Hibiscus

2nd (1985)

Zhang Jie – Leaden Wings Liu Xinwu
Liu Xinwu
– Bell and Drum Tower Li Zhun – Yellow River Flowing to East

3rd (1991)

Lu Yao – Ordinary World Ling Li – Young Emperor Sun Li and Yu Xiaohui – Rhapsody of Metropolis Liu Baiyu – The Second Sun Huo Da – The Funeral of Muslim Xiao Ke
Xiao Ke
– Bloody Heaven Xu Xingye – Broken Golden Bowl

4th (1997)

Chen Zhongshi – White Deer Plain Wang Huo – War and People Liu Sifen – White Gate Willow Liu Yumin – Unsettled Autumn

5th (2000)

Alai – After the Dust Settled Wang Anyi – The Song of Everlasting Sorrow Zhang Ping – Decision Wang Xufeng – Three Episodes of Tea-man

6th (2005)

Xiong Zhaozheng – Zhang Juzheng Zhang Jie – Wordless Xu Guixiang – Heaven of History Liu Jianwei – Heroic Time Zong Pu – Lead-in of Wild Gourd

7th (2008)

Jia Pingwa – Qin Qiang Chi Zijian – The Right Bank of Er'guna River Mai Jia – Plot Zhou Daxin – The Scenery of the Lake and the Mountain

8th (2011)

Zhang Wei – On the Plateau Liu Xinglong – Skywalker Bi Feiyu
Bi Feiyu
– Massage Mo Yan
Mo Yan
– Frog Liu Zhenyun – A Word Is Worth Ten Thousand Words

9th (2015)

Su Tong – Yellowbird Story Ge Fei – Jiangnan Trilogy Wang Meng – Scenery on this Side Jin Yucheng – Blossoms Li Peifu – The Book of Life

v t e

Forbes China
China
Celebrity 100

2004

Yao Ming Zhang Ziyi Zhao Wei Faye Wong Gong Li Zhang Yimou Zhou Xun Leon Lai Sun Nan Jet Li Carina Lau Han Hong Lu Yi Yu Quan Sun Jihai Na Ying Wang Zhizhi Zhao Benshan Ge You Li Tie

2005

Yao Ming Zhang Ziyi Liu Xiang Zhao Wei Faye Wong Zhang Yimou Zhou Xun Sun Nan Carina Lau Fan Bingbing Lu Yi Gong Li Dao Lang Chen Kun Ge You Tian Liang Guo Jingjing Feng Xiaogang Zhao Benshan Liu Ye

2006

Yao Ming Zhou Xun Zhang Ziyi Zhao Wei Liu Xiang Li Yuchun Fan Bingbing Chen Kaige Sun Nan Li Bingbing Carina Lau Feng Xiaogang Gong Li Lu Yi Zhao Benshan Chen Kun Chen Hao Xu Jinglei He Jiong Guo Jingjing

2007

Yao Ming Liu Xiang Zhang Yimou Zhang Ziyi Gong Li Zhou Xun Fan Bingbing Li Yuchun Xu Jinglei Carina Lau Feng Xiaogang Zheng Jie
Zheng Jie
& Yan Zi Li Bingbing Zhao Benshan Jane Zhang Hu Jun Chen Kun Chen Daoming Chen Hao Ge You

2008

Yao Ming Liu Xiang Jet Li Yi Jianlian Zhang Ziyi Fan Bingbing Zhao Wei Zhou Xun Li Bingbing Zhao Benshan Gong Li Xu Jinglei Guo Degang Zhang Guoli Jane Zhang Huang Xiaoming Ge You Lin Dan Sun Li Huang Shengyi

2009

Yao Ming Zhang Ziyi Yi Jianlian Guo Jingjing Liu Xiang Jet Li Zhao Wei Fan Bingbing Zhou Xun Li Bingbing Sun Li Gong Li Ge You Zhang Yining Zhao Benshan Huang Xiaoming Lin Dan Zhang Yimou Zhang Guoli Wang Liqin

2010

Jackie Chan Jay Chou Andy Lau Yao Ming Zhang Ziyi Zhao Benshan Jolin Tsai Donnie Yen Liu Xiang Fan Bingbing Lin Chi-ling Eason Chan Lu Chen Nicholas Tse Aaron Kwok Li Yuchun Sun Honglei Zhou Xun Huang Xiaoming Zhao Wei

2011

Andy Lau Jay Chou Faye Wong Jackie Chan Yao Ming Donnie Yen Zhang Ziyi Jet Li Fan Bingbing Zhao Benshan Huang Xiaoming Wang Leehom Lin Chi-ling Feng Xiaogang Jolin Tsai Barbie Shu Jiang Wen Eason Chan Jacky Cheung Zhang Yimou

2012

Jay Chou Andy Lau Fan Bingbing Faye Wong Li Na Zhao Benshan Jolin Tsai Yao Ming Jackie Chan Lin Chi-ling Eason Chan Nicholas Tse Yang Mi Zhang Ziyi Jacky Cheung Wang Leehom Show Lo Donnie Yen Shu Qi Li Bingbing

2013

Fan Bingbing Jay Chou Andy Lau Jackie Chan Zhang Ziyi Eason Chan Yang Mi Huang Xiaoming Jolin Tsai Lin Chi-ling Li Na Wang Leehom Zhao Benshan Show Lo Li Yuchun Mo Yan Shu Qi Donnie Yen Faye Wong Mayday

2014

Fan Bingbing Andy Lau Jay Chou Huang Xiaoming Zhang Ziyi Yang Mi Lin Chi-ling Li Na Nicky Wu Jackie Chan Eason Chan Mayday Show Lo Wang Leehom Zhou Xun Nicholas Tse Donnie Yen Jimmy Lin Hawick Lau Jolin Tsai

2015

Fan Bingbing Jay Chou Nicholas Tse Jackie Chan Huang Xiaoming Sun Li Zhao Wei Andy Lau Li Yifeng Eason Chan G.E.M. Angelababy Li Bingbing Wang Feng Li Na Jolin Tsai Zhou Xun Carina Lau Li Chen Tiffany Tang

2017

Fan Bingbing Luhan Yang Mi Zhao Liying Yang Yang Liu Tao Jackie Chan Angelababy Jay Chou Kris Wu Li Yifeng Deng Chao Sun Li Tiffany Tang Chen Kun Huang Xiaoming TFBoys Hu Ge Liu Shishi Lay

The table includes only the top 20. In 2010, the list started to include Chinese celebrities born in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and abroad. Prior to that it only included celebrities born in mainland China.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 86448126 LCCN: n86075796 ISNI: 0000 0003 6864 5131 GND: 11926689X SELIBR: 205835 SUDOC: 030087589 BNF: cb12157436f (data) BIBSYS: 90536426 NLA: 36646385 NDL: 00317990 NCL: 1085991 NKC: kv2013742559 CiNii: DA03984609

China
China
portal Literature porta

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