Mixtec civilization
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The Mixtecs (), or Mixtecos, are indigenous
Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America. It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica. Withi ...
n peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as
La Mixteca La Mixteca is a cultural, economic and political region in Western Oaxaca and neighboring portions of Puebla, Guerrero in south-central Mexico, which refers to the home of the Mixtec people. In their languages, the region is called either Ñuu Djau ...
of
Oaxaca Oaxaca ( , also , , from nci, Huāxyacac ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 32 states that compose the political divisions of Mexico, Federative Entities of Mexico. It is ...
and
Puebla Puebla ( en, colony, settlement), officially Free and Sovereign State of Puebla ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla), is one of the 32 states which comprise the Political divisions of Mexico, Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into M ...
as well as La Montaña Region and Costa Chica Regions of the state of
Guerrero Guerrero is one of the 32 states that comprise the Administrative divisions of Mexico, 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in Municipalities of Guerrero, 81 municipalities and its capital city is Chilpancingo and its largest city is Acap ...
. The
Mixtec Culture The Mixtec culture (also called Mixtec Civilization) was a pre-hispanic In the history of the Americas The prehistory of the Americas (North America, North, South America, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean) begins with people mig ...
was the main Mixtec civilization, which lasted from around 1500 BC until being conquered by the Spanish in 1523. The Mixtec region is generally divided into three subregions based on geography: the
Mixteca Alta La Mixteca is a cultural, economic and political region in Western Oaxaca Oaxaca ( , also , , from nci, Huāxyacac ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 32 states that compo ...
(Upper Mixtec or Ñuu Savi Sukun), the
Mixteca Baja La Mixteca is a cultural, economic and political region in Western Oaxaca Oaxaca ( , also , , from nci, Huāxyacac ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 32 states that compo ...
(Lower Mixtec or Ñuu I'ni), and the Mixteca Costa (Coastal Mixtec or Ñuu Andivi). The Alta is drier with higher elevations, while the Baja is lower in elevation, hot but dry, and the Coasta also low in elevation but much more humid and tropical. The Alta has seen the most study by archaeologists, with evidence for human settlement going back to the Archaic and Early Formative periods. The first urbanized sites emerged here. Long considered to be part of the larger Mixteca region, groups living in the Baja were probably more culturally related to neighboring peoples in Eastern Guerrero than they were to the Mixtecs of the Alta. They even had their own hieroglyphic writing system called ñuiñe. The Costa only came under control of the Mixtecs during the military campaigns of the Mixtec cultural hero
Eight Deer Jaguar Claw Eight Deer Jaguar Claw ( mix, Iya Nacuaa Teyusi Ñaña ), or 8 Deer for brevity, was a powerful Mixtec ruler in 11th century Oaxaca referred to in the 15th century deerskin manuscript Codex Zouche-Nuttall, and other Mixtec codices, Mixtec manuscr ...
. Originally from
Tilantongo Tilantongo was a Mixtec Altepetl, citystate in the Mixteca Alta region of the modern-day state of Oaxaca which is now visible as an archeological site and a modern town of Santiago Tilantongo. It is located at 17°15' N. Lat. and 97°17' W. Long. ...
in the Alta, Eight Deer and his armies conquered several major and minor kingdoms on their way to the coast, establishing the capital of Tututepec in the Lower Río Verde valley. Previously, the Costa had been primarily occupied by the Chatinos. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtec kingdoms competed and allied with each other and with Zapotec kingdoms in the Central Valleys. Like the rest of the
indigenous peoples of Mexico Indigenous peoples of Mexico ( es, gente indígena de México, pueblos indígenas de México), Native Mexicans ( es, nativos mexicanos) or Mexican Native Americans ( es, pueblos originarios de México, lit=Original peoples of Mexico), are those ...
, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbian Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million. Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Oto-Manguean language family.


Nomenclature and etymology

The term Mixtec (''Mixteco'' in Spanish) comes from the
Nahuatl Nahuatl (; ), Aztec, or Mexicano is a language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan languages, Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about Nahuas, Nahua peoples, most of whom live mainly in ...
word ''mixtecah'' , "cloud people". There are many names that the Mixtecs have for naming themselves: ''ñuù savi, nayívi savi, ñuù davi, nayivi davi''. etc. All these denominations can be translated as 'the land of the rain'. The historic homeland of Mixtec people is La Mixteca, called in Mixtec language ''Ñuu Savi'', ''Ñuu Djau'', ''Ñuu Davi'', etc., depending on the local variant. They call their language ''sa'an davi'', ''da'an davi'' or ''tu'un savi''.


Overview

In
pre-Columbian In the history of the Americas, the pre-Columbian era spans from the Migration to the New World, original settlement of North and South America in the Upper Paleolithic period through European colonization of the Americas, European colonization, w ...
times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of
Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America. It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica. Withi ...
. Important ancient centers of the Mixtec include the ancient capital of
Tilantongo Tilantongo was a Mixtec Altepetl, citystate in the Mixteca Alta region of the modern-day state of Oaxaca which is now visible as an archeological site and a modern town of Santiago Tilantongo. It is located at 17°15' N. Lat. and 97°17' W. Long. ...
, as well as the sites of
Achiutla The thumb is the first digit of the hand A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs. A few other vertebrates such as the Koala# ...
, Cuilapan, Huajuapan,
Mitla Mitla is the second-most important archeological site in the Political divisions of Mexico, state of Oaxaca in Mexico, and the most important of the Zapotec peoples, Zapotec culture. The site is located 44 km from the Oaxaca, Oaxaca, city of ...
,
Tlaxiaco Tlaxiaco is a city, and its surrounding Municipalities of Oaxaca, municipality of the same name, in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is located in the Tlaxiaco District in the south of the Mixteca Region, with a population of about 17,450. The cit ...
, Tututepec, Juxtlahuaca, and Yucuñudahui. The Mixtec also made major constructions at the ancient city of
Monte Albán Monte Albán is a large pre-Columbian In the history of the Americas, the pre-Columbian era spans from the Migration to the New World, original settlement of North and South America in the Upper Paleolithic period through European colonization ...
(which had originated as a Zapotec city before the Mixtec gained control of it). The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in
stone In geology, rock (or stone) is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition, and the way in which it is formed. Rocks ...
, wood, and metal was well regarded throughout ancient Mesoamerica. According to West, "the Mixtec of Oaxaca...were the foremost goldsmiths of Mesoamerica," which included the "
lost-wax casting Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or ''cire perdue'' which has been adopted into English from the French language, French, ) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, bras ...
of gold and its alloys." At the height of the Aztec Empire, many Mixtecs paid tribute to the Aztecs, but not all Mixtec towns became
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until a ...
s. They put up resistance to Spanish rule until they were subdued by the Spanish and their central Mexican allies led by
Pedro de Alvarado Pedro de Alvarado (; c. 1485 – 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala.Lovell, Lutz and Swezey 1984, p. 461. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán ...
. Mixtecs have migrated to various parts of both Mexico and the United States. In recent years a large exodus of indigenous peoples from Oaxaca, such as the Zapotec and Triqui, has seen them emerge as one of the most numerous groups of
Amerindians The Indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European colonization of the Americas, European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peopl ...
in the United States. As of 2011, an estimated 150,000 Mixteco people were living in California, and 25,000 to 30,000 in New York City. Large Mixtec communities exist in the
border Borders are usually defined as geographical boundaries, imposed either by features such as ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth ...
cities of
Tijuana, Baja California Tijuana ( ,"Tijuana"
(US) and
< ...
, San Diego, California and
Tucson, Arizona , "(at the) base of the black ill , nicknames = "The Old Pueblo", "Optics Valley", "America's biggest small town" , image_map = , mapsize = 260px , map_caption = Interactive ...
. Mixtec communities are generally described as trans-national or trans-border because of their ability to maintain and reaffirm social ties between their native homelands and diasporic community. (See: Mixtec transnational migration.)


Mixtecs in the colonial era

There is considerable documentation in the Mixtec (Ñudzahui) native language for the colonial era, which has been studied as part of the
New Philology New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology Philology () is the study of language in oral and writing, written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, a ...
. Mixtec documentation indicates parallels between many indigenous social and political structures with those in the Nahua areas, but published research on the Mixtecs does not primarily focus on economic matters. There is considerable Mixtec documentation for land issues, but sparse for market activity, perhaps because indigenous cabildos did not regulate commerce or mediate economic disputes except for land. Long-distance trade existed in the prehispanic era and continued in indigenous hands in the early colonial. In the second half of the colonial period, there were bilingual Mixtec merchants, dealing in both Spanish and indigenous goods, who operated regionally. However, in the Mixteca “by the eighteenth century, commerce was dominated by Spaniards in all but the most local venues of exchange, involving the sale of agricultural commodities and indigenous crafts or the resale of imported goods.”. Despite the development of a local exchange economy, a number of Spaniards with economic interests in Oaxaca, including “ me of the Mixteca priests, merchants, and landowners maintained permanent residence in Puebla, and labor for the ''obrajes'' (textile workshops) of the city of Puebla in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was sometimes recruited from peasant villages in the Mixteca." There is evidence of community litigation against Mixtec caciques who leased land to Spaniards and the growth of individually contracted wage labor. Mixtec documentation from the late eighteenth century indicates that "most caciques were simply well-to-do investors in Spanish-style enterprises"; some married non-Indians; and in the late colonial era had little claim to hereditary authority.


Geography

The Mixtec area, both historically and currently, corresponds roughly to the western half of the state of
Oaxaca Oaxaca ( , also , , from nci, Huāxyacac ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 32 states that compose the political divisions of Mexico, Federative Entities of Mexico. It is ...
, with some Mixtec communities extending into the neighboring state of
Puebla Puebla ( en, colony, settlement), officially Free and Sovereign State of Puebla ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla), is one of the 32 states which comprise the Political divisions of Mexico, Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into M ...
to the north-west and also the state of
Guerrero Guerrero is one of the 32 states that comprise the Administrative divisions of Mexico, 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in Municipalities of Guerrero, 81 municipalities and its capital city is Chilpancingo and its largest city is Acap ...
. The Mixtec people and their homelands are often subdivided into three geographic areas: The ''
Mixteca Alta La Mixteca is a cultural, economic and political region in Western Oaxaca Oaxaca ( , also , , from nci, Huāxyacac ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 32 states that compo ...
'' or Highland Mixtec living in the mountains in, around, and to the west of the
Valley of Oaxaca The Central Valleys ( es, Valles Centrales) of Oaxaca, also simply known as the Oaxaca Valley, is a geographic region located within the modern-day state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. In an administrative context, it has been defined as comprising ...
; the ''
Mixteca Baja La Mixteca is a cultural, economic and political region in Western Oaxaca Oaxaca ( , also , , from nci, Huāxyacac ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 32 states that compo ...
'' or Lowland Mixtec living to the north and west of these highlands, and the '' Mixteca de la Costa'' or Coastal Mixtec living in the southern plains and the coast of the Pacific Ocean. For most of Mixtec history, the Mixteca Alta was the dominant political force, with the capitals of the Mixtec nation located in the central highlands. The valley of Oaxaca itself was often a disputed border region, sometimes dominated by the Mixtec and sometimes by their neighbors to the east, the Zapotec. An ancient Coixtlahuaca Basin cave site known as the Colossal Natural Bridge is an important sacred place for the Mixtec.


Rulers at Mixteca Alta


Acatepec, ''Yucu Yoo''

* 1090-1097: Lady 6 Monkey ''War Quexquemitl'' (usurper, deposed), ** Sub-rulers Lord 3 Aligator and Lord 1 Movement * 1097-1115: Lord 8 Deer ''Jaguar Claw'' (usurper)


Achiutla The thumb is the first digit of the hand A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs. A few other vertebrates such as the Koala# ...
, ''Ñuu Ndecu''


Suchixtlán/Huachino dynasty

* ?: Lord 11 Flower ''Cloud Xicolli'', with Lady 13 Wind ''Cloud Hair'' (siblings and spouses, children of Lord 4 Wind, King of ''Nuu Yuchi'') * ?: Lord 10 Aligator ''Digging Stick'' (father-in-law of Lord 2 Wind, King of Tlaxiaco) * ?: Lord 8 Wind ''Smoked Claw'' (brother-in-law of Lord 12 Deer, King of Tlaxiaco) * ?: Lord 7 Movement ''Blood Shedding Rain'' (son-in-law of 11 Wind, King of Tlaxiaco) * ?: Lord 9 Wind ''Sun Fire Serpent'' * ?: Lord 10 Aligator ''Jaguar with Claws like Flints'' (son of the previous)


''Water Rubber Ball'' ( Chacahua? Manialtepec?)

* ?: Lord 9 Serpent (deposed) * ?-1115: Lord 8 Deer ''Jaguar Claw'' (usurper)


Andua

* ?: Lord 3 Monkey ''Mexican Jaguar''


Bulto de Xipe/ Huachino

* ?: Lord 10 Movement * ?: Lord 12 Lizard * ?-1101: Lord 11 Wind ''Blood Jaguar'' (son of the previous) ** To Tilantongo (1101-1115) and ''Nuu Yuchi'' (1115-1164) * ?: Lord 6 Vulture ''Jaguar with Knife'' (son of Lord 9 Rain of Tlaxiaco)


Chalcatongo, ''Nuu Ndaya''

* ?: Lord 8 Aligator ''Bloody Coyote'' ** ?: Lord 3 Dog (son-in-law of Lord 8 Alligator, in the settlement of Santa Catarina Yuxia, ''Yuu Usa'') * ?: Lord 13 Jaguar ''War Beard'' (descendant)


Cholula

* ?: Lord 1 Lizard ''Serpent-Decorated Shield'', with Lady 11 Serpent ''Jewel Mouth'' (wife) * c.1096: Lord 4 Jaguar ''Night Face''


Jaltepec, ''Añute''

* ?: Lord 10 Reed ''Eagle'' * ?: Lord 3 Rain (son of the previous)


Suchixtlán dynasty

* ?-1027: Lord 8 Wind ''Twenty Jaguars'' ** ?: Lord 13 Grass (son of Lord 8 Wind, in the settlement of ''Arrow-Red Liquid'' ) * 1027-1090: Lady 9 Wind ''Stone Quexquemitl'' (daughter of Lord 8 Wind), with Lord 10 Eagle ''Stone Jaguar'' (son of Lord 10 Flower, King of Tilantongo) * 1090-1101: Lady 6 Monkey ''War Quexquemitl'' (daughter of the previous) * 1101-?: Lord 1 Alligator ''Field Eagle'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 5 Lizard (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 3 Reed (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 1 Rain (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 9 Lizard ''Flames'' (descendant) * ?: Lord 2 Jaguar (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 5 Water ''Jaguar of Tlaxiaco'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 10 Monkey ''Rain Falling from Heaven'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 10 Rain ''Sun Rain'' * ?: Lord 13 Grass ''Fire Serpent''


Juquila, ''Nuu Sitoho''

* ?: Lord 1 Death ''Sun Serpent'', with Lady 11 Serpent ''Flower Quetzal Feathers'' (wife)


“Monkey”

* ?: Lord 7 Grass ''Bloody Jaguar''


Mitlatongo, ''Dzandaya''

* ?: Lord 1 Monkey


''Flower Mountain'', ''Yucu Ita''

* ?: Lord 11 Jaguar


''Broken Mountain''

* ?: Lady 1 Death


Place of Flints/Pedernales, ''Nuu Yuchi''


Suchixtlán/Huachino dynasty

* 1115-1164: Lord 4 Wind ''Fire Serpent'' (son of Lady 6 Monkey, Queen of Jaltepec) * 1164-?: Lady 13 Flower ''Precious Jewel'' (daughter of the previous * ?: Lord 7 Eagle ''Flames'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 4 Jaguar ''War Jaguar'' (brother of the previous) * ?: Lord 1 Eagle (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 7 Reed (son of the previous) ** Annexed to Teozacoalco


Quetzal

* ?: Lord 4 Stone ''Face with Quetzal Feathers''


Río de la Serpiente

* ?: Lord 3 Eagle


San Pedro Cántaros, ''Nuu Naha''


Teozacoalco dynasty

* ?: Lord 1 House ''Jaguar Sky Assassin'' (son of Lord 8 Rabbit, King of Teozacoalco) * ?: Lord 6 Death ''Sun Rain'' (descendant, brother-in-law of Lord 6 Deer, King of Teozacoalco) * ?: Lord 3 Dog (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 3 Monkey (grandson of the previous)


''Place of the Drum'' ( Soyaltepec) (?)

* ?: Lord 4 Jaguar ''Serpent War Snare''


Suchixtlán, ''Chiyo Yuhu''

* ?: Lord 8 Wind ''Stone Eagle/Twenty Eagles'' (also in Jaltepec)


Teozacoalco dynasty

* ?: Lord 13 Eagle ''Bloody Jaguar'' (husband of Lady 12 Flower, Queen of Tilantongo) * ?: Lord 6 Deer ''Sacred Rain'' (brother-in-law of the previous; also king in Teozacoalco) * ?: Lord 4 Death ''War Venus'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 8 Monkey (nephew of the former; son of Lord 4 Flower, King of Teozacoalco)


Teita

* ?: Lord 10 Rabbit ''Heart'' * ?: Lord 13 Jaguar ''War Eagle''


Teozacoalco, ''Chiyo Cahnu''


Teozacoalco dynasty

* ?: Lord 4 Dog ''Coyote Hunter'' (born c.1110; son of Lord 8 Deer of Tilantongo; independence from Tilantongo) * ?: Lord 13 Dog ''Venus Eagle'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 7 Water ''Red Eagle'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 13 Eagle ''Sacred Rain'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 8 Rabbit ''Fire of Tlaxiaco'' (born in 1189; son of the previous) * ?: Lord 12 House ''Flying Fire Serpent in the Sky'', with Lady 11 Alligator ''Quetzal Jewel'' (siblings and spouses, children of Lord 8 Rabbit) * ?-1321/c.1342: Lord 9 Movement ''Precious Water'', with Lady 2 Jaguar ''Jade Spiderweb'' (siblings and spouses, children of the previous)


Zaachila/Xipe dynasty

* 1321Pérez Jiménez & Jansen 2010, p.407-461/1346-?: Lord 2 Dog ''Rope and Knives'' (son of Lady 4 Rabbit, sister of the previous) * ?: Lord 9 House ''Mexican Jaguar'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 2 Water ''Fire Serpent'' (son of the previous, also in Tilantongo) * ?: Lord 5 Rain ''Eagle that comes down from Heaven'' (son of the previous, , also in Tilantongo) Here there was an ''exchange'' of lines: Lord 5 Rain's sons inherited Tlaxiaco; the inheritors of Teozacoalco were the children of Lady 12 Flower (Lord 5 Rain's sister).


Suchixtlán dynasty

* ?: Lord 6 Deer ''Sacred Rain'' (born in 1393; son of Lady 12 Flower, sister of the previous) * ?: Lord 4 Flower ''Pheasant'' (born in 1409; son of the previous) * ?: Lord 10 Rain ''Sun Rain'' (born in 1438; son of the previous) * ?: Lord 4 Deer ''Eagle of Tlaxiaco'' (born in 1476; son of the previous)


Tilantongo Tilantongo was a Mixtec Altepetl, citystate in the Mixteca Alta region of the modern-day state of Oaxaca which is now visible as an archeological site and a modern town of Santiago Tilantongo. It is located at 17°15' N. Lat. and 97°17' W. Long. ...
, ''Ñuu Tnoo''


1st dynasty of Tilantongo

* ?: Lord 10 House ''Jaguar'' * ?: Lord 3 Eagle ''Eagle of the Serpent Place'' * ?: Lord 9 Wind ''Stone Skull'' * ?: Lord 10 Flower (I) ''Burnt-Eyed Jaguar'' ** ?: Lord 10 Flower (II) ''Tail Arc'' (brother-in-law of 10 Flower (I); in the settlement of ''Dark Speckled Mountain'' ) ** ?: Lord 13 Death (son-in-law of 10 Flower; in the settlement of ''Head'' ; he would also become father-in-law of Lord 8 Deer) ** ?: Lord 10 Reed (I) ''Precious Jaguar'' (son-in-law of 10 Flower (I); in the settlement of Tataltepec (''Yucu Tatnu'')) ** ?: Lord 10 Reed (II) (son-in-law of 10 Flower (I); in the settlement of Topiltepec, ''Yucu Quesi/Nuu Ñañu'' ) * ?-c.1080: Lord 12 Lizard ''Arrow Feet'' (son of Lord 10 Flower (I)) * c.1080-?: Lord 5 Movement (son of the previous) * ?-1096: Lord 2 Rain ''Twenty Jaguars'' (son of the previous) ** Lady 4 Rabbit ''Precious Quetzal'' (sister of Lord 12 Lizard) was the probable heiress, as, before usurping the throne, Lord 8 Deer had bowed to her)


2nd dynasty of Tilantongo

* 1097-1115: Lord 8 Deer ''Jaguar Claw'' (usurper; after his death influence passed to Pedernales', but succession continues) ** ?: Lord 1 Deer ''Coanacoch'' (father-in-law of Lord 8 Deer, in the settlement of Cuyotepeji) * 1115-?: Lord 6 House ''Jaguar Falling from Heaven'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 5 Water ''Stone Jaguar Heaven'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 8 Reed ''Pheasant'', with Lady 5 Rabbit ''Jewel'' (siblings and spouses, children of the previous) * ?-1206: 2 Movement ''Serpent with Markings'' (son of the previous) ** Lord 1 Lizard ''Bloody Jaguar'' (son of the previous, heir apparent) * 1206-?: Lord 12 Reed ''Coyote Sun'', with Lady 3 Jaguar ''Precious Butterfly Sun'' (siblings and spouses, children of Lord 1 Lizard) * ?: Lord 5 Rain ''Sun Movement'' (son of the previous) ** ?: Lord 7 Movement ''Bloody Jaguar'' (father-in-law of Lord 5 Rain, in the settlement of ''Puma'' ) * ?: Lord 13 Wind ''Fire Serpent'' (son of Lord 5 Rain) * ?: Lord 9 Serpent ''Jaguar that Lightens the War'' (son of the previous) * ?-1341: Lord 4 Water ''Bloody Eagle'' (son of the previous)


Teozacoalco dynasty

* 1341-?: Lady 6 Water ''Quetzal Flower War Jewel'' (widow of the previous) * ?: Lord 2 Water ''Fire Serpent'' (brother of the previous, also in Teozacoalco) * ?: Lord 5 Rain ''Eagle that comes down from Heaven'' (son of the previous, also in Teozacoalco) * ?: Lady 12 Flower ''Broken Mountain Butterfly'' (daughter of the previous), with Lord 13 Eagle ''Bloody Jaguar'' (of Suchixtlán; husband) ** To Teozacoalco


Tlaxiaco Tlaxiaco is a city, and its surrounding Municipalities of Oaxaca, municipality of the same name, in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is located in the Tlaxiaco District in the south of the Mixteca Region, with a population of about 17,450. The cit ...
, ''Ndisi Nuu''


1st dynasty of Tlaxiaco

* ?: Lord 8 Jaguar ''Bloody Coyote'' * ?: Lord 4 Grass ''Sun Face''(son of the previous) * ?: Lord 2 Wind ''Bloody Rain'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 2 Movement ''Fire Serpent in Flames'' (uncle of the previous; brother of Lord 4 Grass) * ?: Lord 3 Serpent ''Flame Rain'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 1 Deer ''Eagle'' (son of the previous) * ?-1305: Lord 12 Rain ''Bloody Jaguar'' (son of the previous) * 1305-?: Lady 8 Serpent ''Sun Spiderweb'' (daughter of the previous), with Lord 3 Dog ''Venus Sun'' (great-grandson of Lord 1 Movement, brother of Lord 2 Wind) * ?: Lord 12 Deer ''Serpent that Lightens the War'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 6 Death (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 4 Movement (son of the previous) * ?: Lady 11 Rabbit ''Jewel of the Rising Sun'' (niece of 12 Deer; daughter of Lord 12 Deer's sister Lady 10 Dog)


2nd dynasty of Tlaxiaco

* ?: Lord 10 Rabbit ''Jaguar of Tlaxiaco'' (husband and co-ruler of the previous) * ?: Lord 9 Rain ''Bloody Jaguar'' (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 11 Wind ''Smoked Claw'' (son of the previous) ** ?: Lord 1 Dog (brother-in-law of Lord 11 Wind, in the settlement of ''Feline Mountain'' ) * ?: Lord 1 Monkey ''Sun Rain'' (son of Lord 11 Wind) ** ?: Lord 3 Reed ''Smoked Eye'' (son of Lord 1 Monkey, in the settlement of Cuilapán) * ?: Lord 13 Eagle ''Eagle of Tlaxiaco'' (son of Lord 1 Monkey)


Teozacoalco dynasty

* ?: Lady 8 Deer ''Quetzal Spiderweb'' (daughter of Lady 5 Flower, daughter of the previous, and Lord 5 Rain, King of Teozacoalco) * ?: Lord 3 Serpent ''Venus Sun'' (brother of the previous) * ?-1511: Lord 8 Grass ''Sun Rain'' ( Malinaltzin) (brother of the previous)


Totomihuacan

* ?: Lord 5 Eagle


Tula (

Toltec The Toltec culture () was a Pre-Columbian era, pre-Columbian Mesoamerican culture that ruled a state centered in Tula (Mesoamerican site), Tula, Hidalgo (state), Hidalgo, Mexico, during the Epiclassic and the early Post-Classic period of Mesoam ...
)

* ?: Lord 4 Jaguar


Tututepec, ''Yucu Dzaa''

* ?: Nizainzo Huidzo * c.357: Mzatzin * 1084-1097: Lord 8 Deer ''Jaguar Claw'' (usurper) ** to Tilantongo


''Deep Valley''

* ?: Lord 12 Dog ''Eagle'', with Lady 5 Lizard ''Pulque-Zacate Vase'' (wife)


Yanhuitlán

* c.1320: Lord 6 Water ''Multicolored Feathers'' * c.1500?: Lady 1 Flower ''Jaguar Quexquemitl'', with Lord 8 Death ''Fire Serpent'' (husband; son of Lord 10 Rain, King of Teozacualco)


Zaachila, ''Nuhu Tocuisi'' ( Zapotec)


Xipe dynasty

* ?: Lord 9 Serpent * ?-1328: Lord 5 Flower Xipe (son of the previous) * 1328-1361: Lord 3 Alligator, ''Ozomatli'' (second son of the previous) * 1361-1386: Lord 11 Water ''Stone Rain'', ''Huijatoo'' (son of the previous) * 1386-1415: Lord 6 Water, ''Zaachila I'' (son of the previous) * 1415-1454: Lord 3 Reed ''Smoked Eye'', ''Zaachila II'' (son of the previous) * 1454-1487: Lord 5 Reed ''Twenty Jaguars'', ''Zaachila III'' (cousin of the previous; son of Lady 3 Alligator, daughter of King 11 Water) * 1487-1502: Lord 8 Deer ''Fire Serpent'', ''Cosijoeza'' (nephew of the previous; son of Lord 5 Rain, King of Teozacoalco) * 1502-1523: Cosijopii I, with Pinopija (until c.1520) (children of the previous) ** 1502-1518: Xilabela, regent


Zacatepec, ''Yucu Chatuta''

* 1120-?: Lord 11 Jaguar ''Tlaloc Fire Wall''


Rulers at Mixteca Baja


Acatlan

* ?: Lord 1 Rain * ?: Lord 9 Reed (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 6 Deer (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 4 Dog (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 8 Flint (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 8 Alligator (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 7 Monkey (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 8 Movement (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 9 Flint (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 6 Water (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 4 Eagle (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 10 Reed (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 4 Flower (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 4 House (son of the previous) * ?-1519/20: ''Unknown'' (son of the previous) ** To the
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...


Chila

* ?: Lord 10 Flint * ?: Lord 4 Deer (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 1 Eagle (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 13 Dog (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 13 Reed (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 2 Monkey (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 10 Monkey (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 10 Movement (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 3 House (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 8 Wind (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 6 Rabbit (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 13 Death (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 1 House (son of the previous) * ?: Lord 5 Monkey (son of the previous) * ?-1519/20: Lord 4 Dog (son of the previous) ** To the
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...


Language, codices, and artwork

The
Mixtecan languages The Mixtecan languages constitute a branch of the Oto-Manguean languages, Oto-Manguean language family of Mexico. They include the Trique language, Trique (or Triqui) languages, spoken by about 24,500 people; Cuicatec language, Cuicatec, spoken by ...
(in their many variants) were estimated to be spoken by about 300,000 people at the end of the 20th century, although the majority of Mixtec speakers also had at least a working knowledge of the Spanish language. Some Mixtecan languages are called by names other than Mixtec, particularly Cuicatec (Cuicateco), and Triqui (or Trique). The Mixtec are well known in the anthropological world for their Codices or phonetic pictures in which they wrote their history and genealogies in deerskin in the "fold-book" form. The best-known story of the Mixtec Codices is that of Lord Eight Deer, named after the day in which he was born, whose personal name is Jaguar Claw, and whose epic history is related in several codices, including the Codex Bodley and Codex Zouche-Nuttall. He successfully conquered and united most of the Mixteca region. They were also known for their exceptional mastery of jewelry and mosaic, among which gold and turquoise figure prominently. Products by Mixtec goldsmiths formed an important part of the tribute the Mixtecs paid to the Aztecs during parts of their history. Turquoise mosaic masks also played an important role in both political and religious functions. These masks were used as gifts to form political alliances, in ceremonies during which the wearer of the mask impersonated a god, and were fixed to funerary bundles that were seen as oracles.


References


Further reading

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External links

{{Authority control Pre-Columbian cultures of Mexico Indigenous peoples in Mexico Mesoamerican cultures Mesoamerican people Archaeological cultures of North America