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The Mixe– Zoque languages
Zoque languages
are a language family whose living members are spoken in and around the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. The Mexican government recognizes three distinct Mixe–Zoquean languages as official: Mixe or ayook with 188,000 speakers, Zoque or o'de püt with 88,000 speakers, and the Popoluca languages of which some are Mixean and some Zoquean with 69,000 speakers. However the internal diversity in each of these groups is great and the Ethnologue
Ethnologue
counts 17 different languages, and the current classification of Mixe–Zoquean languages by Wichmann (1995) counts 12 languages and 11 dialects. Extinct languages
Extinct languages
classified as Mixe–Zoquean include Tapachultec, formerly spoken along the southeast coast of Chiapas.

Contents

1 History 2 Classification

2.1 Wichmann (1995) 2.2 Kaufman & Justeson (2000)

3 Phonology

3.1 Syllables

4 Grammatical features 5 Ethnologue
Ethnologue
classification and SIL ISO-codes 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Historically the Mixe–Zoquean family may have been much more widespread, reaching into the Guatemalan Pacific coast (i.e. the Soconusco
Soconusco
region). Terrence Kaufman and Lyle Campbell have argued, based on a number of widespread loanwords in other Mesoamerican languages, that it is likely that the Olmec
Olmec
people, generally seen as the earliest dominating culture of Mesoamerica, spoke a Mixe–Zoquean language.[2] Kaufman and John Justeson also claim to have deciphered a substantial part of the text written in Isthmian script
Isthmian script
(called also by them and some others 'Epi-Olmec') which appears on La Mojarra Stela 1, based upon their deciphering of the text as representing an archaic Mixe–Zoquean language. Both of these claims have been criticized: Michael D. Coe and David Stuart argue that the surviving corpus of the few known examples of Isthmian inscriptions is insufficient to securely ground any proposed decipherment. Their attempt to apply Kaufman's and Justeson's decipherments to other extant Isthmian material failed to produce any meaningful results. Wichmann (1995) criticizes certain proposed Mixe–Zoquean loans into other Mesoamerican languages
Mesoamerican languages
as being only Zoquean, not Mixean, which would put the period of borrowing much later than the Proto-Mixe Zoquean time-frame in which the Olmec culture was at its height. The date of the Mixe–Zoque split has however since been pushed back, and the argument is therefore much weaker than it once was thought to be.[3] Later, Kaufman (2001), again on the basis of loans from Mixe–Zoque into other Mesoamerican languages, argues a Mixe–Zoquean presence at Teotihuacan, and he ascribes to Mixe–Zoquean an important role in spreading a number of the linguistic features that later became some of the principal commonalities used in defining the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area. Mixe–Zoque is not thought to be related to any other language-group, though in the early 20th century Edward Sapir
Edward Sapir
included it as a member of his proposed Penutian linguistic superfamily, and it has recently been included with the Totonacan languages
Totonacan languages
in a Toto-Zoquean proposal. The branches of the Mixe–Zoque language family are as follows: Classification[edit] Wichmann (1995)[edit] The following internal classification of the Mixe–Zoquean languages is by Søren Wichmann (1995).

Kaufman & Justeson (2000)[edit] The following internal classification of the Mixe–Zoquean languages is by Kaufman & Justeson (2000), cited in Zavala (2000).[4] Individual languages are marked by italics.

Mixe-Zoque

Mixe

Tapachultec Olutec Mixe Proper

Sayultec (branch)

Lowland Mixe Highland Mixe

Zoque

Gulf Zoquean

Soteapan Zoque (Sierra Popoluca) (branch)

Texistepec Zoque Ayapanec Zoque

Zoque

Chiapas
Chiapas
Zoque Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Zoque

Phonology[edit] The phoneme inventory of Proto-Mixe–Zoquean as reconstructed by Wichmann (1995) can be seen to be relatively simple, but many of the modern languages have been innovative; some have become quite vowel rich, and some also have introduced a fortis–lenis contrast in the stop series. Although the lateral phoneme /l/ is found in a few words in some of the languages, these are probably of onomatopoeic origin.

Front Central Back

Close *i *iː *ɨ *ɨː *u *uː

Mid *e *eː

*o *oː

Open

*a *aː

*ɨ *ɨː has also been reconstructed *ə *əː.

Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal

Stop *p *t *t͡s *k *ʔ

Fricative

*s

*h

Nasal *m *n

Approximant *w

*j

Syllables[edit] Mixe–Zoquean languages are characterized by complex syllabic nuclei made up of combinations of vowels together with the glottal stop and /h/ in the proto-language. Complex syllable-final consonant clusters are also typical in the daughter languages and can be reconstructed for the proto-language. Proto-Mixe–Zoquean syllable nuclei could be either:

V – short vowel V' – short vowel with glottal stop VV – long vowel V'V – long vowel with medial glottal stop VV' – long vowel with final glottal stop Vh – short vowel with h

Grammatical features[edit] The Mixe–Zoquean languages are head-marking and polysynthetic, with morphologically complex verbs and simple nouns. Grammatical subjects as well as objects are marked in the verb. Ergative alignment is used, as well as direct–inverse systems triggered by animacy and topicality. In Mixe–Zoquean verbs, a morphological distinction is made between two basic clause-types, independent and dependent; verbs take different aspectual and personal affixes, depending on the type of clause in which they appear. There are two different sets of aspect-markers, one used in dependent clauses and another used in independent clauses. Three aspects are distinguished within each clause-type: incompletive, completive, and irrealis. Ethnologue
Ethnologue
classification and SIL ISO-codes[edit] Ethnologue
Ethnologue
still uses the earlier pre-Wichmann classification, based on surveys of Mutual intelligibility and comparative work by William Wonderly, as a basis for their work. This classification is not used by historical linguists, and Lyle Campbell's authoritative 1997 presentation uses Wichmann's classification.

Mixe languages
Mixe languages
— an estimated 90,000 native speakers

Eastern Mixe — An estimated 72,000 native speakers

Dialects:Coatlán (mco), Istmo (mir), Quetzaltepec (pxm), Juquila (mxq), Mazatlán (mzl)

Veracruz
Veracruz
Mixe — An estimated 4,000 native speakers

Dialects: Oluta (plo) nearly extinct – only 100 speakers, Sayula (pos)

Western Mixe

An estimated 10,000 native speakers Dialects: Totontepec (mto), Tlahuitoltepec (mxp)

Zoque languages
Zoque languages
— an estimated 60,000 native speakers

Chiapas
Chiapas
Zoque — An estimated 22,000 native speakers

Dialects: Copainalá (zoc), Rayón (zor), Francisco León (zos)

Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Zoque – An estimated 4,500 native speakers

Dialect: Chimalapa (zoh)

Veracruz
Veracruz
Zoque — An estimated 30,000 native speakers

Dialects: Highland (poi), Texistepec (poq) nearly extinct – only 450 speakers, Tabasco
Tabasco
(zoq) nearly extinct – only 40 speakers

Notes[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mixe–Zoque". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Campbell and Kaufman (1976). ^ Wichmann, Beliaev & Davletshin, in press (Sept 2008). ^ Zavala Maldonado, Roberto. 2000. Inversion and other topics in the grammar of Olutec (Mixe). Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Oregon.

References[edit]

Campbell, L., and T. Kaufman (1976), "A Linguistic Look at the Olmecs", American Antiquity, 41 pp. 80–89. Justeson, John S., and Kaufman, Terrence, (1997),"A Newly Discovered Column in the Hieroglyphic Text on La Mojarra Stela 1: a Test of the Epi- Olmec
Olmec
Decipherment", Science, 07/11/97, Vol. 277 Issue 5323, p. 207. Justeson, John S., and Kaufman, Terrence (2001) Epi- Olmec
Olmec
Hieroglyphic Writing and Texts. Kaufman, Terrence, (2001) Nawa linguistic prehistory, published at website of the Mesoamerican Language Documentation Project Wichmann, Søren (1995). The Relationship Among the Mixe–Zoquean Languages of Mexico. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-487-6.  Wichmann, Søren (1998). "A conservative look at diffusion involving Mixe–Zoquean languages". In Roger Blench and Matthew Spriggs (eds.). Archaeology and Language, vol. II: Correlating archaeological and linguistic hypotheses. One World Archaeology series, no. 29. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11761-5. OCLC 35673530. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Brigham Young University press release on behalf of Brigham Young University archaeologist Stephen Houston and Yale University professor emeritus Michael Coe disputing Justeson/Kaufman findings.

External links[edit]

Mixe–Zoque language family

v t e

Mixe–Zoque languages

Mixe

Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Mixe

Coatlán Mixe Isthmus Mixe Totontepec Mixe Tlahuitoltepec Mixe Juquila Mixe Mazatlán Mixe North Central Mixe Quetzaltepec Mixe

Gulf Mixe

Sayula Popoluca Oluta Popoluca

Chiapas
Chiapas
Mixe

Tapachultec†

Zoque

Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Zoque

Chimalapa Zoque

Chiapas
Chiapas
Zoque

Copainalá Zoque Rayón Zoque Francisco León Zoque

Gulf Zoque

Highland Popoluca Texistepec Popoluca Tabasco
Tabasco
Zoque

† – Extinct.

v t e

Language families of Mesoamerica

Demonstrated families

Chibchan Jicaquean Lencan Mayan Misumalpan Oto-Manguean Tequistlatecan Totozoquean (Mixe–Zoque, Totonacan) Uto-Aztecan Xincan

Isolates

Cuitlatec Huave Purépecha (Alagüilac?)

Proposed macrofamilies

Hokan Macro-Mayan Macro-Chibchan Penutian Tolatecan

Linguistic areas

Mesoamerican language area

v t e

List of primary language families

Africa

Afro-Asiatic Austronesian Khoe Kx'a Niger–Congo Nilo-Saharan? Tuu Mande? Songhay? Ijaw? Ubangian? Kadu?

Isolates

Bangime Hadza Jalaa Sandawe Kwadi? Laal? Shabo?

Sign languages

Arab BANZSL French Lasima Tanzanian Others

Europe and Asia

Afro-Asiatic Ainu Austroasiatic Austronesian Chukotko-Kamchatkan Dravidian Eskimo–Aleut Great Andamanese Hmong–Mien Hurro-Urartian Indo-European Japonic Kartvelian Koreanic Mongolic Northeast Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Ongan Sino-Tibetan Tai–Kadai Tungusic Turkic Tyrsenian Uralic Yeniseian Yukaghir Dené–Yeniseian? Altaic? Austronesian–Ongan? Austro-Tai? Sino-Austronesian? Digaro? Kho-Bwa? Siangic? Miji? Vasconic?

Isolates

Basque Burushaski Elamite Hattic Kusunda Nihali Nivkh Sumerian Hruso? Miju? Puroik?

Sign languages

BANZSL French German Japanese Swedish Chinese Indo-Pakistani Arab Chiangmai–Bangkok Others

New Guinea and the Pacific

Arai–Samaia Arafundi Austronesian Baining Binanderean–Goilalan Border Bulaka River Central Solomons Chimbu–Wahgi Doso–Turumsa East Geelvink Bay East Strickland Eleman Engan Fas Kaure–Kosare Kiwaian Kutubuan Kwomtari Lakes Plain Lower Mamberamo Lower Sepik Madang Mairasi North Bougainville Pauwasi Piawi Ramu Senagi Sentani Sepik Skou South Bougainville Teberan Tor–Kwerba–Nimboran Torricelli Trans-Fly Trans–New Guinea Turama–Kikorian West Papuan Yam Yawa Yuat North Papuan? Northeast New Guinea? Papuan Gulf?

Isolates

Abinomn Anêm? Ata? Kol Kuot Porome Taiap? Pawaia Porome Sulka? Tambora Wiru

Sign languages

Hawai'i Sign Language Others

Australia

Arnhem/Macro-Gunwinyguan Bunuban Darwin River Eastern Daly Eastern Tasmanian Garawan Iwaidjan Jarrakan Mirndi Northern Tasmanian Northeastern Tasmanian Nyulnyulan Pama–Nyungan Southern Daly Tangkic Wagaydyic Western Daly Western Tasmanian Worrorran Yangmanic (Wardaman)

Isolates

Giimbiyu Malak-Malak Marrgu Tiwi Wagiman

North America

Algic Alsea Caddoan Chimakuan Chinookan Chumashan Comecrudan Coosan Eskimo–Aleut Iroquoian Kalapuyan Keresan Maiduan Muskogean Na-Dene Palaihnihan Plateau Penutian Pomoan Salishan Shastan Siouan Tanoan Tsimshianic Utian Uto-Aztecan Wakashan Wintuan Yokutsan Yukian Yuman–Cochimí Dené–Yeniseian? Hokan? Penutian?

Isolates

Chimariko Haida Karuk Kutenai Seri Siuslaw Takelma Timucua Waikuri Washo Yana Yuchi Zuni

Sign languages

Inuit (Inuiuuk) Plains Sign Talk Others

Mesoamerica

Chibchan Jicaquean Lencan Mayan Misumalpan Mixe–Zoque Oto-Manguean Tequistlatecan Totonacan Uto-Aztecan Xincan Totozoquean?

Isolates

Cuitlatec Huave Tarascan/Purépecha

Sign languages

Plains Sign Talk Mayan Others

South America

Arawakan Arauan Araucanian Arutani–Sape Aymaran Barbacoan Boran Borôroan Cahuapanan Cariban Catacaoan Chapacuran Charruan Chibchan Choco Chonan Guaicuruan Guajiboan Jê/Gê Harákmbut–Katukinan Jirajaran Jivaroan Kariri Katembri–Taruma Mascoian Matacoan Maxakalian Nadahup Nambikwaran Otomákoan Pano-Tacanan Peba–Yaguan Purian Quechuan Piaroa–Saliban Ticuna–Yuri Timotean Tiniguan Tucanoan Tupian Uru–Chipaya Witotoan Yabutian Yanomaman Zamucoan Zaparoan Chimuan? Esmeralda–Yaruro? Hibito–Cholón? Lule–Vilela? Macro-Jê? Tequiraca–Canichana?

Isolates (extant in 2000)

Aikanã? Alacalufan Andoque? Camsá Candoshi Chimane Chiquitano Cofán? Fulniô Guató Hodï/Joti Irantxe? Itonama Karajá Krenak Kunza Leco Maku-Auari of Roraima Movima Mura-Pirahã Nukak? Ofayé Puinave Huaorani/Waorani Trumai Urarina Warao Yamana Yuracaré

See also

Language isolates Unclassified languages Creoles Pidgins Mixed languages Artificial languages List of sign languages

Families with more than 30 languages are in bold. Families in italics have no liv

.