The MITSUBISHI A6M "ZERO" is a long-range fighter aircraft ,
Mitsubishi Aircraft Company , a part of Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries , and operated by the
Imperial Japanese Navy
When it was introduced early in
World War II
In early combat operations, the Zero gained a legendary reputation as
a dogfighter , achieving an outstanding kill ratio of 12 to 1, but
by mid-1942 a combination of new tactics and the introduction of
better equipment enabled Allied pilots to engage the Zero on generally
equal terms. By 1943, inherent design weaknesses and the failure to
develop more powerful aircraft engines meant that the Zero became less
effective against newer Allied fighters, which possessed greater
firepower, armor, and speed, and approached the Zero's
maneuverability. Although the
* 1 Design and development
* 1.1 Name
* 2 Operational history
* 2.1 Allied analysis
* 2.1.1 American opinions * 2.1.2 British opinions
* 3 Variants
* 3.1 A6M1, Type 0 Prototypes * 3.2 A6M2 Type 0 Model 11 * 3.3 A6M2 Type 0 Model 21 * 3.4 A6M3 Type 0 Model 32 * 3.5 A6M3 Type 0 Model 22 * 3.6 A6M4 Type 0 Model 41/42 * 3.7 A6M5 Type 0 Model 52 * 3.8 A6M6c Type 0 Model 53c * 3.9 A6M7 Type 0 Model 62 * 3.10 A6M8 Type 0 Model 64
* 4 Production
* 4.1 Trainer * 4.2 Total production
* 5 Operators
* 5.1 Post-war
* 6 Surviving aircraft
* 7 Specifications (A6M2 Type 0 Model 21) * 8 Notable appearances in media * 9 See also
* 10 References
* 10.1 Notes * 10.2 Citations * 10.3 Bibliography
* 11 External links
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
Based on the experiences of the A5M in China, the IJN sent out updated requirements in October calling for a speed of 600 km/h (370 mph) and a climb to 3,000 m (9,800 ft) in 3.5 minutes. With drop tanks , they wanted an endurance of two hours at normal power, or six to eight hours at economical cruising speed. Armament was to consist of two 20 mm cannons , two 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns and two 30 kg (66 lb) or 60 kg (130 lb) bombs . A complete radio set was to be mounted in all aircraft, along with a radio direction finder for long-range navigation. The maneuverability was to be at least equal to that of the A5M, while the wingspan had to be less than 12 m (39 ft) to allow for use on aircraft carriers. All this was to be achieved with available engines, a significant design limitation.
Nakajima's team considered the new requirements unachievable and pulled out of the competition in January. Mitsubishi's chief designer, Jiro Horikoshi , thought that the requirements could be met, but only if the aircraft were made as light as possible. Every possible weight-saving measure was incorporated into the design. Most of the aircraft was built of a new top-secret aluminium alloy developed by Sumitomo Metal Industries in 1936. Called "extra super duralumin " (ESD), it was lighter, stronger and more ductile than other alloys (e.g. 24S alloy) used at the time, but was prone to corrosive attack, which made it brittle. This detrimental effect was countered with an anti-corrosion coating applied after fabrication. No armour protection was provided for the pilot, engine or other critical points of the aircraft, and self-sealing fuel tanks , which were becoming common at the time, were not used. This made the Zero lighter, more maneuverable, and the longest-ranged single-engine fighter of World War II, which made it capable of searching out an enemy hundreds of kilometres away, bringing them to battle, then returning to its base or aircraft carrier. However, that tradeoff in weight and construction also made it prone to catching fire and exploding when struck by enemy rounds.
With its low-wing cantilever monoplane layout, retractable, wide-set conventional landing gear and enclosed cockpit, the Zero was one of the most modern carrier based aircraft in the world at the time of its introduction. It had a fairly high-lift, low-speed wing with very low wing loading . This, combined with its light weight, resulted in a very low stalling speed of well below 60 kn (110 km/h; 69 mph). This was the main reason for its phenomenal maneuverability, allowing it to out-turn any Allied fighter of the time. Early models were fitted with servo tabs on the ailerons after pilots complained that control forces became too heavy at speeds above 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph). They were discontinued on later models after it was found that the lightened control forces were causing pilots to overstress the wings during vigorous maneuvers.
It has been claimed that the Zero's design showed a clear influence
from British and American fighter aircraft and components exported to
In the official designation "A6M", the "A" signified a carrier-based
fighter, "6" meant it was the sixth such model built for the Imperial
Navy, and "M" indicated the manufacturer,
The official Allied code name was "Zeke", in keeping with the
practice of giving male names to Japanese fighters, female names to
bombers , bird names to gliders , and tree names to trainers . "Zeke"
was part of the first batch of "hillbilly" code names assigned by
Captain Frank T. McCoy of Nashville, Tennessee, (assigned to the
Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit (ATAIU) at Eagle Farm Airport
in Australia), who wanted quick, distinctive, easy-to-remember names.
When, in 1942, the Allied code for Japanese aircraft was introduced,
he logically chose "Zeke" for the "Zero". Later, two variants of the
fighter received their own code names: the
Nakajima A6M2-N (floatplane
version of the Zero) was called "Rufe" and the A6M3-32 variant was
initially called "Hap". After objections from General "Hap" Arnold ,
commander of the
The first Zeros (pre-series of 15 A6M2) went into operation with the 12th Rengo Kōkūtai in July 1940. On 13 September 1940, the Zeros scored their first air-to-air victories when 13 A6M2s led by Lieutenant Saburo Shindo attacked 27 Soviet-built Polikarpov I-15s and I-16s of the Chinese Nationalist Air Force, shooting down all the fighters without loss to themselves. By the time they were redeployed a year later, the Zeros had shot down 99 Chinese aircraft (266 according to other sources).
At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor , 521 Zeros were active in the Pacific, 328 in first-line units. The carrier-borne Model 21 was the type encountered by the Americans. Its tremendous range of over 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) allowed it to range farther from its carrier than expected, appearing over distant battlefronts and giving Allied commanders the impression that there were several times as many Zeros as actually existed.
The Zero quickly gained a fearsome reputation. Thanks to a
combination of unsurpassed maneuverability — even when compared to
other contemporary Axis fighters — and excellent firepower, it
easily disposed the motley collection of Allied aircraft sent against
it in the Pacific in 1941. It proved a difficult opponent even for
Allied pilots soon developed tactics to cope with the Zero. Due to its extreme agility, engaging a Zero in a traditional, turning dogfight was likely to be fatal. It was better to swoop down from above in a high-speed pass, fire a quick burst, then climb quickly back up to altitude. (A short burst of fire from heavy machine guns or cannon was often enough to bring down the fragile Zero.) Such "boom-and-zoom" tactics were used successfully in the China Burma India Theater (CBI) by the " Flying Tigers " of the American Volunteer Group (AVG) against similarly maneuverable Japanese Army aircraft such as the Nakajima Ki-27 Nate and Nakajima Ki-43 Oscar . AVG pilots were trained by their commander Claire Chennault to exploit the advantages of their P-40s , which were very sturdy, heavily armed, generally faster in a dive and level flight at low altitude, with a good rate of roll.
Another important maneuver was Lieutenant Commander John S. "Jimmy"
Thach 's "
Many highly experienced Japanese aviators were lost in combat, resulting in a progressive decline in quality, which became a significant factor in Allied successes. Unexpected heavy losses of pilots at the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway dealt the Japanese carrier air force a blow from which it never fully recovered. Play media A still image from the short film Recognition of the Japanese Zero Fighter (1943), intended to help U.S. airmen quickly distinguish the Zero from friendly aircraft.
The fighter pilots are very disappointed with the performance and length of sustained fire power of the F4F-4 airplanes. The Zero fighters could easily outmaneuver and out-climb the F4F-3, and the consensus of fighter pilot opinion is that the F4F-4 is even more sluggish and slow than the F4F-3. It is also felt that it was a mistake to put 6 guns on the F4F-4 and thus to reduce the rounds per gun. Many of our fighters ran out of ammunition even before the Jap dive bombers arrived over our forces; these were experienced pilots, not novices.
They were astounded by the Zero's superiority:
In the Coral Sea , they made all their approaches from the rear or high side and did relatively little damage because of our armor. It also is desired to call attention to the fact that there was an absence of the fancy stunting during pull outs or approaches for attacks. In this battle, the Japs dove in, made the attack and then immediately pulled out, taking advantage of their superior climb and maneuverability. In attacking fighters, the Zeros usually attacked from above rear at high speed and recovered by climbing vertically until they lost some speed and then pulled on through to complete a small loop of high wing over which placed them out of reach and in position for another attack. By reversing the turn sharply after each attack the leader may get a shot at the enemy while he is climbing away or head on into a scissor if the Jap turns to meet it.
In contrast, Allied fighters were designed with ruggedness and pilot
protection in mind. The Japanese ace
I had full confidence in my ability to destroy the
When the powerfully armed
Lockheed P-38 Lightning
Due to shortages of high-powered aviation engines and problems with planned successor models, the Zero remained in production until 1945, with over 11,000 of all variants produced.
The Akutan Zero is inspected by US military personnel on Akutan Island on 11 July 1942.
The American military discovered many of the A6M's unique attributes
when they recovered a largely intact specimen of an A6M2, the Akutan
Zero , on
The experts who evaluated the captured Zero found that the plane weighed about 2,360 kg (5,200 lb) fully loaded, some 1,260 kg (2,780 lb) lighter than the Grumman F4F Wildcat , the standard United States Navy fighter of the time. The A6M's airframe was "built like a fine watch"; the Zero was constructed with flush rivets , and even the guns were flush with the wings. The instrument panel was a "marvel of simplicity ... with no superfluities to distract ." What most impressed the experts was that the Zero's fuselage and wings were constructed in one piece, unlike the American method that built them separately and joined the two parts together. The Japanese method was much slower, but resulted in a very strong structure and improved close maneuverability.
Captain Eric Brown , the Chief Naval Test Pilot of the Royal Navy, recalled being impressed by the Zero during tests of captured aircraft. "I don't think I have ever flown a fighter that could match the rate of turn of the Zero. The Zero had ruled the roost totally and was the finest fighter in the world until mid-1943." American test pilots found that the Zero's controls were "very light" at 320 kilometres per hour (200 mph), but stiffened at faster speeds (above 348 km/h, or 216 mph) to safeguard against wing failure. The Zero could not keep up with Allied aircraft in high-speed maneuvers, and its low "never exceed speed " (VNE) made it vulnerable in a dive. While stable on the ground despite its light weight, the aircraft was designed purely for the attack role, emphasizing long range, maneuverability, and firepower at the expense of protection of its pilot. Most lacked self-sealing tanks and armor plating.
A6M1, TYPE 0 PROTOTYPES
The first two A6M1 prototypes were completed in March 1939, powered
by the 580 kW (780 hp)
A6M2 TYPE 0 MODEL 11
While the navy was testing the first two prototypes, they suggested
that the third be fitted with the 700 kW (940 hp)
Nakajima Sakae 12
The new version was so promising that the Navy had 15 built and
shipped to China before they had completed testing. They arrived in
A6M2 TYPE 0 MODEL 21
A6M2 "Zero" Model 21 of Shōkaku prior to attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941.
After the delivery of the 65th aircraft, a further change was worked
into the production lines, which introduced folding wingtips to allow
them to fit on aircraft carriers . The resulting Model 21 would
become one of the most produced versions early in the war. A feature
was the improved range with 520 l (140 US gal) wing tank and 320 l (85
US gal) drop tank. When the lines switched to updated models, 740
Model 21s had been completed by Mitsubishi, and another 800 by
Nakajima. Two other versions of the Model 21 were built in small
numbers, the Nakajima-built A6M2-N "Rufe" floatplane (based on the
Model 11 with a slightly modified tail), and the A6M2-K two-seat
trainer of which a total of 508 were built by
A6M3 TYPE 0 MODEL 32
A6M3 Model 32.
In 1941, Nakajima introduced the Sakae 21 engine, which used a two-speed supercharger for better altitude performance, and increased power to 840 kW (1,130 hp). A prototype Zero with the new engine was first flown on July 15, 1941.
The new Sakae was slightly heavier and somewhat longer due to the larger supercharger, which moved the center of gravity too far forward on the existing airframe. To correct for this, the engine mountings were cut back by 185 mm to move the engine toward the cockpit. This had the side effect of reducing the size of the main fuselage fuel tank (located between the engine and the cockpit) from 518 l (137 US gal) to 470 l (120 US gal). The cowling was redesigned to enlarge the cowl flaps, revise the oil cooler air intake, and move the carburetor air intake to the upper half of the cowling.
The wings were redesigned to reduce span, eliminate the folding tips, and square off the wingtips. The inboard edge of the aileron was moved outboard by one rib, and the wing fuel tanks were enlarged accordingly to 420 l (110 US gal). The two 20 mm wing cannon were upgraded from the Type 99 Mark l to the Type 99 Mark II , which required a bulge in the sheet metal of the wing below each cannon. The wings also included larger ammunition boxes and thus allowing 100 rounds per cannon.
The Sakae 21 engine and other changes increased maximum speed by only 11 km/h (6.8 mph) compared to the Model 21, but sacrifed nearly 1,000 km (620 mi) of range. Nevertheless, the navy accepted the type and it entered production in April 1942.
The shorter wing span led to better roll, and the reduced drag allowed the diving speed to be increased to 670 km/h (420 mph). On the downside, turning and range, which were the strengths of the Model 21, suffered due to smaller ailerons, decreased lift and greater fuel consumption. The shorter range proved a significant limitation during the Solomons Campaign, during which Zeros based at Rabaul had to travel nearly to their maximum range to reach Guadalcanal and return. Consequently, the Model 32 was unsuited to that campaign and was used mainly for shorter range offensive missions and interception.
The appearance of the redesigned A6M3-32 prompted the US to assign
the Model 32 a new code name, "Hap". This name was short-lived, as a
This variant was flown by only a small number of units, and only 343 were built.
A6M3 TYPE 0 MODEL 22
In order to correct the deficiencies of the Model 32, a new version with folding wingtips and redesigned wing was introduced. The fuel tanks were moved to the outer wings, fuel lines for a 330 l (87 US gal) drop tank were installed under each wing and the internal fuel capacity was increased to 570 l (150 US gal). More important, it regained back its capabilities for long operating ranges, similar to the previous A6M2 Model 21, which was vastly shortened by the Model 32.
However, before the new design type was accepted formally by the
Navy, the A6M3 Model 22 already stood ready for service in December
1942. Approximately 560 aircraft of the new type had been produced in
the meantime by
According to a theory, the very late production Model 22 might have had wings similar to the shortened, rounded-tip wing of the Model 52. One plane of such arrangement was photographed at Lakunai Airfield ("Rabaul East") in the second half of 1943, and has been published widely in a number of Japanese books. While the engine cowling is the same of previous Model 32 and 22, the theory proposes that the plane is an early production Model 52. However, the available evidence suggest that this "hybrid" type was simply an early production Model 52.
The Model 32, 22, 22 kou, 52, 52 kou and 52 otsu were all powered by the Nakajima 栄 (Sakae) 21型 engine. That engine kept its designation in spite of changes in the exhaust system for the Model 52.
A6M4 TYPE 0 MODEL 41/42
Lack of suitable alloys for use in the manufacture of a turbo-supercharger and its related ducting caused numerous ruptures, resulting in fires and poor performance. Consequently, further development of a turbo-supercharged A6M was cancelled. The lack of acceptance by the navy suggests that the navy did not bestow model number 41 or 42 formally, although it appears that the arsenal did use the designation "A6M4". The prototype engines nevertheless provided useful experience for future engine designs.
A6M5 TYPE 0 MODEL 52
Sometimes considered as the most effective variant, the Model 52 was developed to again shorten the wings to increase speed and dispense with the folding wing mechanism. In addition, ailerons, aileron trim tab and flaps were revised. Produced first by Mitsubishi, most Model 52s were made by Nakajima. The prototype was made in June 1943 by modifying an A6M3 and was first flown in August 1943. The first Model 52 is said in the handling manual to have production number 3904, which apparently refers to the prototype.
Research by Mr. Bunzo Komine published by Mr. Kenji Miyazaki states
that aircraft 3904 through 4103 had the same exhaust system and cowl
flaps as on the Model 22. This is partially corroborated by two
wrecks researched by Mr. Stan Gajda and Mr. L. G. Halls, production
number 4007 and 4043, respectively. (The upper cowling was slightly
redesigned from that of the Model 22. ) An early production A6M5 Zero
with non separated exhaust, with an A6M3 Model 22 in the background. A
new exhaust system provided an increment of thrust by aiming the
stacks aft and distributing them around the forward fuselage. The new
exhaust system required "notched" cowl flaps and heat shields just aft
of the stacks. (Note, however, that the handling manual translation
states that the new style of exhaust commenced with number 3904.
Whether this is correct, indicates retrofitting intentions, refers to
the prototype but not to all subsequent planes, or is in error is not
clear.) From production number 4274, the wing fuel tanks received
carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. From number 4354, the radio
became the Model 3, aerial Mark 1, and at that point it is said the
antenna mast was shortened slightly. Through production number 4550,
the lowest exhaust stacks were approximately the same length as those
immediately above them. This caused hot exhaust to burn the forward
edge of the landing gear doors and heat the tires. Therefore, from
Subsequent variants included:
* A6M5a, Model 52甲 (Kō, a) - Starting at
Some Model 21 and 52 aircraft were converted to "bakusen" (fighter-bombers) by mounting a bomb rack and 250 kg bomb in place of the centerline drop tank.
Perhaps seven Model 52 planes were ostensibly converted into A6M5-K two-seat trainers. Mass production was contemplated by Hitachi, but not undertaken.
A6M6C TYPE 0 MODEL 53C
This was similar to the A6M5c, but with self-sealing wing tanks and a Nakajima Sakae 31a engine featuring water-methanol engine boost.
A6M7 TYPE 0 MODEL 62
Similar to the A6M6 but intended for attack or
A6M8 TYPE 0 MODEL 64
Similar to the A6M6 but with the Sakae (now out of production)
replaced by the
A6M PRODUCTION: NAGOYA, MITSUBISHI JUKOGYO K.K.
JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. ANNUAL
1940 1 1 1 1 4 3 9 8 9 19 23 19 98
1941 23 23 30 27 30 26 25 30 33 43 52 60 402
1942 60 58 55 54 58 45 46 51 64 65 67 69 692
1943 68 69 73 73 73 73 77 85 93 105 110 130 1,029
1944 125 115 105 109 95 100 115 135 135 145 115 62 1,356
1945 35 59 40 37 38 23 15 52
* A second A6M1 was completed on 17 March 1939, but was written off without explanation after completing the company's flight test program in July 1940.
A6M PRODUCTION: OTA, NAKAJIMA HIKOKI K.K.
JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. ANNUAL
1 6 7
1942 19 22 35 31 36 34 52 65 75 88 99 118 674
1943 110 119 133 144 148 152 153 156 243 182 202 225 1,967
1944 238 154 271 230 232 200 163 232 245 194 109 206 2,474
1945 216 108 207 230 247 185 138 85
A6M TRAINER PRODUCTION: CHIBA, HITACHI KOKUKI K.K. AND OMURA, DAI-NIJUICHI K.K.
JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. ANNUAL
1943 4 5 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 12 12 15 110
1944 12 16 17 18 17 23 30 29 15 23 27 25 252
1945 23 8 34 21 31 23 15
According to USSBS Report: 10,934 Figure includes: 10,094 A6M, 323 A6M2-N and 517 A6M-K builds.
According to Francillon: 11,291 Figure includes: 10,449 A6M, 327 A6M2-N, 508 A6M2-K and 7 A6M5-K builds.
Republic of China
A6M2 Model 21 on display at the
Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl
Harbor , Hawaii, United States. This aircraft was made airworthy in
the early 1980s before it was grounded in 2002. A6M5 on
display at the
National Air and Space Museum
Like many surviving
World War II
Most flying Zeroes have had their engines replaced with similar American units . Only one, the Planes of Fame Museum 's A6M5, has the original Sakae engine.
The rarity of flyable Zeros accounts for the use of single-seat North American T-6 Texans , with heavily modified fuselages and painted in Japanese markings, as substitutes for Zeros in the films Tora! Tora! Tora! , The Final Countdown , and many other television and film depictions of the aircraft, such as Baa Baa Black Sheep (renamed Black Sheep Squadron). One Model 52 was used during the production of Pearl Harbor .
* 840 – On display at the
Australian Aviation Heritage Centre
* Unknown msn – Beijing Military Museum
* Replica – On display at the Technik Museum Speyer in Speyer, Rhineland-Palatinate . Replica of the fuselage section on display at IWM London.
* Unknown msn – The Museum Dirgantara Mandala in Yogyakarta has an A6M in its collection.
* 1493 – On display at the Kawaguchiko Motor Museum in Fujikawaguchiko, Yamanashi . * 4168/4240/4241 – On display at the Yūshūkan in Chiyoda, Tokyo . * 4685 – On display at Hamamatsu Air Base in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka .
* 4708 – On display at the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Museum in Komaki, Aichi . * 31870 – A two-seater on display at the National Museum of Nature and Science in Taito, Tokyo . * 62343 – On display at the Chiran Peace Museum for Kamikaze Pilots in Chiran, Kagoshima . * 82729 – On display at the Yamato Museum in Kure, Hiroshima . * 91518 – On display at the Kawaguchiko Motor Museum in Fujikawaguchiko, Yamanashi. * 92717 – On display at the Kawaguchiko Motor Museum in Fujikawaguchiko, Yamanashi. * Replica – On display at MCAS Iwakuni in Iwakuni, Yamaguchi . * Replica – Owned by businessman Masahide Ishizuka in Kanoya, Kagoshima . Airworthy, with a Pratt & Whitney R-1830 engine.
* 196 – On display at the
Imperial War Museum London
* 1303 – In storage at the
Flying Heritage Collection in Everett,
* 2266 – A small amount of wreckage from the Zero that crashed in
Niihau Incident is on display at the
Pacific Aviation Museum in
Honolulu, Hawaii .
* 3618 – In storage at
Fantasy of Flight in
Polk City, Florida .
* 3852 – Owned by the
Flying Heritage Collection in Everett,
Washington. This aircraft was recovered from
Babo Airfield , Indonesia
, and restored — first in Russia, then in California, and finally in
Washington state — before being delivered to the Flying Heritage
Collection. It has a P&W engine installed.
* 4043 – In storage at
Fantasy of Flight in Polk City, Florida.
Along with several other Zeros, this aircraft was recovered by the
Australian War Memorial
* CREW: one * LENGTH: 9.06 m (29 ft 8 in) * WINGSPAN : 12.0 m (39 ft 4 in) * HEIGHT: 3.05 m (10 ft 0 in) * WING AREA: 22.44 m² (241.5 ft²) * EMPTY WEIGHT : 1,680 kg (3,704 lb) * LOADED WEIGHT: 2,796 kg (6,164 lb) * Aspect ratio : 6.4 * POWERPLANT : 1 × Nakajima Sakae 12 engine, 700 kW (940 hp)
* NEVER EXCEED SPEED : 660 km/h (356 kn, 410 mph) * MAXIMUM SPEED : 534 km/h (287 kn, 332 mph) at 4,550 m (14,930 ft) * RANGE : 3,104 km (1,675 nmi, 1,929 mi) * SERVICE CEILING : 10,000 m (32,810 ft) * RATE OF CLIMB : 15.7 m/s (3,100 ft/min) * WING LOADING : 107.4 kg/m² (22.0 lb/ft²) * POWER/MASS : 294 W/kg (0.18 hp/lb)
* GUNS: Divergence of trajectories between 7.7 mm and 20mm ammunition
* 2× 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 97 aircraft machine guns in the engine cowling, with 500 rounds per gun. * 2× 20 mm Type 99-1 cannon in the wings, with 60 rounds per gun.
* 2× 60 kg (132 lb) bombs or * 1× fixed 250 kg (551 lb) bomb for kamikaze attacks
NOTABLE APPEARANCES IN MEDIA
Main article: Aircraft in fiction § A6M Zero
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Brewster F2A Buffalo
* ^ Note: In Japanese service carrier fighter units were referred to as Kanjō sentōkitai.
* ^ A B Taylan, Justin. "A6M3 Model 22 Zero Manufacture Number 3869
(Replica) Tail X-133". PacificWrecks.com. Pacific Wrecks Incorporated.
Retrieved 23 February 2016.
* ^ Hawks, Chuck. "The Best Fighter Planes of World War II".
chuckhawks.com. Retrieved: 18 January 2007.
* ^ A B Young 2013, p. 36.
* ^ A B Thompson with Smith 2008, p. 231.
* ^ Mersky, Peter B. (Cmdr. USNR). "Time of the Aces: Marine Pilots
in the Solomons, 1942–1944." ibiblio.org. Retrieved: 18 January
* ^ Willmott 1980, pp. 40–41.
* ^ Angelucci and Matricardi 1978, p. 138.
* ^ Young, Edward M. (2013). F4F Wildcat vs A6M Zero-Sen: Pacific
Theater 1942. Oxford, Great Britain: Osprey. p. 18. ISBN
978-1-78096-322-8 – via Google Books.
* ^ Yoshio, Baba."Extra super duralumin and successive aluminum
alloys for aircraft." Journal of
* ^ Taylan, Justin. "A6M5 Model 52 Zero Manufacture Number 4400
Tail HK-102". PacificWrecks.com. Pacific Wrecks Incorporated.
Retrieved 23 February 2016.
* ^ Taylan, Justin. "A6M2 Model 21 Zero Manufacture Number 5356
Tail EII-102". PacificWrecks.com. Pacific Wrecks Incorporated.
Retrieved 22 February 2016.
* ^ "
* Angelucci, Enzo and
Peter M. Bowers . The American Fighter.
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* Mikesh, Robert C. Warbird History: Zero, Combat copyright Zokeisha
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* Okumiya, Masatake and
Jiro Horikoshi , with
Martin Caidin . Zero!
New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1956.
* Nijboer, Donald. Seafire Vs A6M Zero: Pacific Theatre. Oxford, UK:
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* Nohara, Shigeru. Aero Detail 7:
This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Japanese.
* Tour A6M5 Zero cockpit
* Planes of Fame "61-120" A6M5 Zero Flight Video on
* v * t * e
* 1MF * 1MF9 * 1MF10 * 1MT * 2MB1 * 2MB2 * 2MR * 2MR8 * 2MT * 3MT5 * 3MT10 * Ka-8 * Ka-12 * 4MS1 * MC-1 * MC-20 * MH2000 * MU-2 * MU-300 * MRJ * RP-1
IMPERIAL JAPANESE ARMY SHORT DESIGNATIONS
* Ki-1 * Ki-2 * Ki-7 * Ki-15 * Ki-20 * Ki-21 * Ki-30 * Ki-46 * Ki-51 * Ki-57 * Ki-67 * Ki-83 * Ki-109 * Ki-202
IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY SHORT DESIGNATIONS
* A5M * A6M * A7M
CARRIER TORPEDO BOMBERS
* B1M * B2M * B4M * B5M
* C1M * C5M
CARRIER DIVE BOMBERS
LAND-BASED ATTACK BOMBERS
* G1M * G3M * G4M * G6M * G7M
* J2M * J4M * J8M
* K3M * K6M * K7M
WORLD WAR II ALLIED REPORTING NAMES
* Ann * Babs * Betty * Claude * Dinah * Eva * Eve * Gwen * Hap * Hamp * Jack * Jane * Kate 61 * Loise * Louise * Luke * Mabel * Nell * Pete * Pine * Sally * Sam * Sandy * Sonia * Steve * Tina * Topsy * Zeke
JAPANESE SELF-DEFENSE FORCE DESIGNATIONS
* F-1 * F-2 * F-15J * SH-60/UH-60 * T-2 * X-2
* v * t * e
Japanese Navy Carrier Fighters designation series
* 1MF * A1N * A2N * A3N * A4N * A5M * A6M * A6M2-N * A7He * A7M * A8V * AXB * AXD * AXG * AXH * AXHe * AXV
* v * t * e
World War II
AIRCRAFT IN JAPANESE SERVICE
* Abdul * Alf * Ann * Babs * Baka * Belle * Betty * Bob * Buzzard * Cedar * Cherry * Clara * Claude * Cypress * Dave * Dick * Dinah * Dot * Edna * Emily * Eva * Eve * Frances * Frank * Gander * George * Glen * Goose * Grace * Gwen * Hamp * Hank * Hap * Helen * Hickory * Ida (Tachikawa Ki-36) * Ida (Tachikawa Ki-55) * Irving * Jack * Jake * Jane * Jean * Jerry * Jill * Jim * Judy * Kate * Kate 61 * Laura * Lily * Liz * Lorna * Loise * Louise * Luke * Mabel * Mary * Mavis * Myrt * Nate * Nell * Nick * Norm * Oak * Oscar * Pat * Patsy * Paul * Peggy * Perry * Pete * Pine * Rex * Rita * Rob * Rufe * Ruth * Sally * Sally III * Sam * Sandy * Slim * Sonia * Spruce * Stella * Steve * Susie * Tabby * Tess * Thalia * Thelma * Theresa * Thora * Tina * Tillie * Toby * Tojo * Tony * Topsy * Val * Willow * Zeke * Zeke 32
FOREIGN AIRCRAFT ERRONEOUSLY THOUGHT TO BE IN JAPANESE SERVICE
* Bess (Heinkel He 111) * Doc (Messerschmitt Bf 110) * Fred (Focke Wulf Fw 190A-5) * Irene (Junkers Ju 87A) * Janice (Junkers Ju 88A-5) * Mike (Messerschmitt Bf 109E) * Millie (Vultee V-11GB) * Trixie (Junkers Ju 52/3m) * Trudy ( Focke Wulf Fw 200 Kondor)
* GND : 4190748-6 * NDL