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The MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
. It is also known informally as SHAW\'S GARDEN for founder and philanthropist Henry Shaw .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Cultural festivals

* 3 The Gardens

* 3.1 Popular culture

* 4 Butterfly House * 5 Earthways Center * 6 Shaw Nature Reserve * 7 The Plant List
The Plant List
* 8 Sponsorship * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

Founded in 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States and a National Historic Landmark , and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
. The Garden is a center for botanical research and science education of international repute, as well as an oasis in the city of St. Louis, with 79 acres (32 ha) of horticultural display. It includes a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Japanese strolling garden named Seiwa-en ; the Climatron geodesic dome conservatory; a children's garden, including a pioneer village; a playground; a fountain area and a water locking system, somewhat similar to the locking system at the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
; an Osage camp; and Henry Shaw’s original 1850 estate home. It is adjacent to Tower Grove Park , another of Shaw’s legacies.

In 1983, the Botanical Garden was added as the fourth subdistrict of the Metropolitan Zoological Park and Museum District .

For part of 2006, the Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
featured "Glass in the Garden", with glass sculptures by Dale Chihuly placed throughout the garden. Four pieces were purchased to remain at the gardens. In 2008 sculptures of the French artist Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle
were placed throughout the garden. In 2009, the 150th anniversary of the Garden was celebrated, including a floral clock display.

After 40 years of service to the Garden, Dr. Peter Raven retired from his presidential post on September 1, 2010. Dr. Peter Wyse Jackson replaced him as President.

CULTURAL FESTIVALS

The Garden is a place for many annual cultural festivals, including the Japanese Festival and the Chinese Culture Days by the St. Louis Chinese Culture Days Committee. During this time, there are showcases of the culture's botanics as well as cultural arts, crafts, music and food. The Japanese Festival features sumo wrestling, taiko drumming, koma-mawashi top spinning, and kimono fashion shows. The Garden is known for its bonsai growing, which can be seen all year round, but is highlighted during the multiple Asian festivals.

Major garden features include: Tower Grove House seen here behind a hedge maze

THE GARDENS

* Tower Grove House (1849) and Herb Garden - Shaw's Victorian country house designed by prominent local architect George I. Barnett in the Italianate style. * Victory of Science Over Ignorance - Marble statue by Carlo Nicoli ; a copy of the original (1859) by Vincenzo Consani in the Pitti Palace , Florence
Florence
. * Linnean House (1882) - Said to be the oldest continually operated greenhouse west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
. Originally Shaw's orangery , in the late 1930s it was converted to house mostly camellias . * Gladney Rose Garden (1915) - Circular rose garden with arbors. * Climatron (1960) and Reflecting Pools - the world's first geodesic dome greenhouse designed by architect and engineer Thomas C. Howard of Synergetics, Inc; lowland rain forest with approximately 1500 plants. * English Woodland Garden (1976) - aconite , azaleas , bluebells , dogwoods , hosta , trillium , and others beneath the tree canopy. * Seiwa-en Japanese Garden (1977) - is a 14-acre (5.7 ha) chisen kaiyu-shiki (wet strolling garden) with lawns and path set around a 4-acre (1.6 ha) central lake. It was designed by Koichi Kawana and is the largest Japanese Garden in North America. * Grigg Nanjing
Nanjing
Friendship Chinese Garden (1995) - Designed by architect Yong Pan; major features were gifts from sister city Nanjing , and include a moon gate , lotus gate , pavilion, and Chinese scholar\'s rocks from Lake Tai . * Blanke Boxwood Garden (1996) - walled parterre with a fine boxwood collection. * Strassenfest German Garden (2000) - flora native to Germany and Central Europe; bust of botanist and Henry Shaw's scientific advisor George Engelmann (sculpted by Paul Granlund
Paul Granlund
) * Biblical garden featuring Date palm , pomegranate , fig and olive trees, caper , mint , citron and other plants mentioned in the Bible
Bible
. * Ottoman garden with water features and xeriscape.

POPULAR CULTURE

Douglas Trumbull , director of the 1972 science fiction classic film Silent Running , stated that the geodesic domes on the spaceship Valley Forge were based on the Missouri Botanical Garden's Climatron dome.

*

Bonsai showcased at Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
*

Site plan, as of 1974-1977 *

Henry Shaw's Mausoleum
Mausoleum
is located in the gardens *

Seiwa-en

BUTTERFLY HOUSE

Main article: Butterfly House, Missouri Botanical Garden

Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
also operates the Sophia M. Sachs Butterfly House in Chesterfield . The Butterfly House includes an 8,000-square-foot (740 m2) indoor butterfly conservatory as well as an outdoor butterfly garden.

EARTHWAYS CENTER

The EarthWays Center is a group at the Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
that provides resources on and educates the public about green practices, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and other sustainability matters.

SHAW NATURE RESERVE

Main article: Shaw Nature Reserve

The Shaw Nature Reserve was started by the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1925 as a place to store plants away from the pollution of the city. The air in St. Louis later cleared up and the reserve has continued to be open to the public and for enjoyment, research, and education ever since. The 2,400-acre (9.7 km2) reserve is located in Gray Summit, Missouri 35 miles (56 km) away from the city.

THE PLANT LIST

The Plant List
The Plant List
is an Internet encyclopedia project to compile a comprehensive list of botanical nomenclature , created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , and the Missouri Botanical Garden. The Plant List has 1,040,426 scientific plant names of species rank, of which 298,900 are accepted species names. In addition, the list has 620 plant families and 16,167 plant genera.

SPONSORSHIP

Monsanto has donated $10 million to the Missouri Botanical Garden since the 1970s, which named its 1998 plant science facility the ' Monsanto Center'.

SEE ALSO

* List of botanical gardens in the United States * Peter F. Stevens , a biologist working in the Missouri Botanical Garden * Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden , journal * St. Louis Chinese Culture Day * List of National Historic Landmarks in Missouri * National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in St. Louis south and west of downtown

REFERENCES

* ^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. * ^ "Missouri Botanical Garden". National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2008-06-28. * ^ " National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
- Nomination Form" (PDF). Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2008-05-30. * ^ "MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN BOARD OF TRUSTEES APPOINTS DR. PETER WYSE JACKSON AS SUCCESSOR TO GARDEN PRESIDENT DR. PETER H. RAVEN" (PDF). Mobot.org. Retrieved 7 December 2014. * ^ * ^ Commentary accompanying the DVD
DVD
release of the film Silent Running. * ^ "Conservation in Action: the EarthWays Center". Missouribotanicalgarden.org. Retrieved 2013-04-23. * ^ "Shaw Nature Reserve". Shawnature.org. Retrieved 2013-04-23. * ^ Claire Bates (2011-01-05). "Botanical A-Z via Kew: British experts complete database of every plant name on the planet - all 1.25million of them". Daily Mail. Retrieved 2013-04-23. * ^ "Discovery News: World\'s Largest Plants Database Assembled". News.discovery.com. 2010-12-29. Retrieved 2013-04-23. * ^ CBC: US, British scientists draw up comprehensive list of world\'s known land plants * ^ Press release Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
receives $3 million gift from Monsanto Company toward development of a World Flora Online. Missouri Botanical Garden, 5 June

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