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The Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally.[1] It was composed of a series of urban settlements and satellite villages (suburbs) linked together by a loose trading network,[2] the largest city being Cahokia, believed to be a major religious center. The civilization flourished from the southern shores of the Great Lakes at Western New York and Western Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in what is now the Eastern Midwest, extending south-southwest into the lower Mississippi Valley and wrapping easterly around the southern foot of the Appalachians
Appalachians
barrier range into what is now the Southeastern United States.[1] The Mississippian way of life began to develop in the Mississippi River Valley (for which it is named). Cultures in the tributary Tennessee River
Tennessee River
Valley may have also begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. Almost all dated Mississippian sites predate 1539–1540 (when Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
explored the area),[3] with notable exceptions being Natchez communities that maintained Mississippian cultural practices into the 18th century.[4]

Contents

1 Cultural traits 2 Chronology 3 Regional variations

3.1 Middle Mississippian 3.2 South Appalachian Mississippian 3.3 Caddoan Mississippian 3.4 Plaquemine Mississippian

4 Known Mississippian settlements 5 Related modern nations 6 Contact with Europeans 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Cultural traits[edit]

A priest with a ceremonial flint mace and severed sacrificial head, based on a repoussé copper plate

Reconstruction of the Birdman burial at Cahokia.

Mass grave burial at Cahokia
Cahokia
of fifty-three sacrificed Native American women

Shell tempered ceramic effigy jug with swirls painted in clay slip, Rose Mound, Cross County, Arkansas, U.S., 1400-1600 CE, 8" (20 cm) high

A number of cultural traits are recognized as being characteristic of the Mississippians. Although not all Mississippian peoples practiced all of the following activities, they were distinct from their ancestors in adoption of some or all of these traits.

The construction of large, truncated earthwork pyramid mounds, or platform mounds. Such mounds were usually square, rectangular, or occasionally circular. Structures (domestic houses, temples, burial buildings, or other) were usually constructed atop such mounds. Maize-based agriculture. In most places, the development of Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
coincided with adoption of comparatively large-scale, intensive maize agriculture, which supported larger populations and craft specialization. Shell tempered pottery. The adoption and use of riverine (or more rarely marine) shells as tempering agents in ceramics. Widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico, and east to the Atlantic Ocean. The development of the chiefdom or complex chiefdom level of social complexity. The development of institutionalized social inequality. A centralization of control of combined political and religious power in the hands of few or one. The beginnings of a settlement hierarchy, in which one major center (with mounds) has clear influence or control over a number of lesser communities, which may or may not possess a smaller number of mounds. The adoption of the paraphernalia of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC), also called the Southern Cult. This is the belief system of the Mississippians as we know it. SECC items are found in Mississippian-culture sites from Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(see Aztalan State Park) to the Gulf Coast, and from Florida
Florida
to Arkansas
Arkansas
and Oklahoma. The SECC was frequently tied into ritual game-playing, as with chunkey.

The Mississippians had no writing system or stone architecture. They worked naturally occurring metal deposits, such as hammering and annealing copper for ritual objects like Mississippian copper plates and other decorations,[5] but did not smelt iron or practice bronze metallurgy. Chronology[edit] The Mississippi
Mississippi
stage is usually divided into three or more chronological periods. Each period is an arbitrary historical distinction varying regionally. At a particular site, each period may be considered to begin earlier or later, depending on the speed of adoption or development of given Mississippian traits. The " Mississippi
Mississippi
period" should not be confused with the "Mississippian culture". The Mississippi
Mississippi
period is the chronological stage, while Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
refers to the cultural similarities that characterize this society.

The Early Mississippi
Mississippi
period (c. 1000–1200 CE) had just transitioned from the Late Woodland period
Woodland period
way of life (500–1000). Different groups abandoned tribal lifeways for increasing complexity, sedentism, centralization, and agriculture. Production of surplus corn and attractions of the regional chiefdoms led to rapid population concentrations in major centers. The Middle Mississippi
Mississippi
period (c. 1200–1400) is the apex of the Mississippi
Mississippi
era. The expansion of the great metropolis and ceremonial complex at Cahokia
Cahokia
(in present-day Illinois), the formation of other complex chiefdoms, and the spread and development of SECC art and symbolism are characteristic changes of this period. The Mississippian traits listed above came to be widespread throughout the region. The Late Mississippi
Mississippi
period (c. 1400–1540) is characterized by increasing warfare, political turmoil, and population movement. The population of Cahokia
Cahokia
dispersed early in this period (1350–1400), perhaps migrating to other rising political centers. More defensive structures are often seen at sites, and sometimes a decline in mound-building and large scale, public ceremonialism. Although some areas continued an essentially Middle Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
until the first significant contact with Europeans, the population of most areas had dispersed or were experiencing severe social stress by 1500.[6][7][8] Along with the contemporaneous Ancestral Pueblo peoples, these cultural collapses coincide with the global climate change of the Little Ice Age. Scholars theorize drought and the reduction of maize agriculture, together with possible deforestation and overhunting by the concentrated populations, forced them to move away from major sites. This period ended with European contact in the 16th century.

Regional variations[edit] Middle Mississippian[edit]

Replica of a Mississippian house from over 1000 years ago excavated at the Aztalan site of the Oneota
Oneota
region in an exhibit at the Wisconsin Historical Museum

A mound diagram of the Mississippian cultural period showing the multiple layers of mound construction, mound structures such as temples or mortuaries, ramps with log stairs, and prior structures under later layers, multiple terraces, and intrusive burials.

Cahokia, the largest Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
site

Kincaid, showing its platform mounds and encircling palisade

The term Middle Mississippian is also used to describe the core of the classic Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
area. This area covers the central Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Valley, the lower Ohio River
Ohio River
Valley, and most of the Mid-South area, including western and central Kentucky, western Tennessee, and northern Alabama and Mississippi. Sites in this area often contain large ceremonial platform mounds, residential complexes and are often encircled by earthen ditches and ramparts or palisades.[9] Middle Mississippian cultures, especially the Cahokia
Cahokia
polity located near East St. Louis, Illinois, was very influential on neighboring societies. High status artifacts, including stone statuary and elite pottery associated with Cahokia, have been found far outside of the Middle Mississippian area. These items, especially the pottery, were also copied by local artists.

Cahokia: The largest and most complex Mississippian site and the largest Pre-Columbian settlement north of Mexico, Cahokia
Cahokia
is considered to have been the most influential of the Mississippian culture centers. Discoveries found at the massive site include evidence of copper working ( Mound
Mound
34), astronomy ( Cahokia
Cahokia
Woodhenge and the symbolic maximum southern moon rise aligned Rattlesnake Causeway), and ritual retainer burials ( Mound
Mound
72). Angel Mounds: A chiefdom in southern Indiana
Indiana
near Evansville. It is thought by some archaeologists that the Late Mississippian Caborn-Welborn culture
Caborn-Welborn culture
developed from the Angel Phase
Angel Phase
people around 1400 CE and lasted to around 1700 CE.[10] Kincaid Site: A major Mississippian mound center in southern Illinois across the Ohio River
Ohio River
from Paducah, Kentucky. Moundville: Ranked with Cahokia
Cahokia
as one of the two most important sites at the core of the Mississippian culture,[11] located near Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The Parkin Site: The type site for the "Parkin phase", an expression of Late Mississippian culture, believed by many archaeologists to be the province of Casqui
Casqui
visited by Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
in 1542.[12]

South Appalachian Mississippian[edit]

Stone effigies found at the Etowah Site

The term South Appalachian Province was originally used by W. H. Holmes in 1903 to describe a regional ceramic style in the southeast involving surface decorations applied with a carved wooden paddle. By the late 1960s archaeological investigations had shown the similarity of the culture that produced the pottery and the midwestern Mississippian pattern defined in 1937 by the Midwestern Taxonomic System. In 1967 James B. Griffin coined 'South Appalachian Mississippian' to describe the evolving understanding of the peoples of the Southeast.[13] South Appalachian Mississippian area sites are distributed across a contiguous area including Alabama, Georgia, northern Florida, South Carolina, central and western North Carolina, and Tennessee. Chronologically this area became influenced by Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
later than the Middle Mississippian area (about 1000 CE as compared to 800 CE) to its northwest. It is believed that the peoples of this area adopted Mississippian traits from their northwestern neighbors.[9] Typical settlements were located on riverine floodplains and included villages with defensive palisades enclosing platform mounds and residential areas.[9] Etowah, Ocmulgee, and Nacoochee Mound
Mound
(all located in Georgia) are prominent examples of the South Appalachian Mississippian settlements. Caddoan Mississippian[edit] Main article: Caddoan Mississippian culture

Map of the Caddoan Mississippian culture

Spiro, in eastern Oklahoma

The Caddoan Mississippian area, a regional variant of the Mississippian culture, covered a large territory, including what is now eastern Oklahoma, western Arkansas, northeastern Texas, and northwestern Louisiana. Archaeological evidence has led to a scholarly consensus that the cultural continuity is unbroken from prehistory to the present, and that the Caddo
Caddo
and related Caddo
Caddo
language speakers in prehistoric times and at first European contact are the direct ancestors of the modern Caddo
Caddo
Nation of Oklahoma.[14] The climate in this area was drier than areas in the eastern woodlands, hindering maize production, and the lower population on the plains to the west may have meant fewer neighboring competing chiefdoms to contend with. Major sites such as Spiro and the Battle Mound
Mound
Site are in the Arkansas
Arkansas
River and Red River Valleys, the largest and most fertile of the waterways in the Caddoan region, where maize agriculture would have been the most productive.[15] The sites generally lacked wooden palisade fortifications often found in the major Middle Mississippian towns. Living on the western edge of the Mississippian world, the Caddoans may have faced fewer military threats from their neighbors. Their societies may also have had a somewhat lower level of social stratification. The Caddoan people were speakers of one of the many Caddoan languages.[16] The Caddoan languages
Caddoan languages
once had a broad geographic distribution, but many are now extinct. The modern languages in the Caddoan family include Caddo
Caddo
and Pawnee, now spoken mainly by elderly people. Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
led an expedition into the area in the early 1540s, he encountered several native groups now thought to have been Caddoan. Composed of many tribes, the Caddo
Caddo
were organized into three confederacies, the Hasinai, Kadohadacho, and Natchitoches, which were all linked by their similar languages. Plaquemine Mississippian[edit] Main article: Plaquemine culture

Map showing the geographical extent of the Plaquemine culture
Plaquemine culture
and some of its major sites

The Plaquemine culture
Plaquemine culture
was an archaeological culture in the lower Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Valley in western Mississippi
Mississippi
and eastern Louisiana. Good examples of this culture are the Medora Site
Medora Site
(the type site for the culture and period) in West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, and the Anna, Emerald Mound, Winterville and Holly Bluff sites located in Mississippi.[17] Plaquemine culture
Plaquemine culture
was contemporaneous with the Middle Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
at the Cahokia
Cahokia
site near St. Louis, Missouri. It is considered ancestral to the Natchez and Taensa Peoples.[18]

Emerald Mound: A Plaquemine Mississippian period archaeological site located on the Natchez Trace Parkway
Natchez Trace Parkway
near Stanton, Mississippi. The site dates from the period between 1200 and 1730. The platform mound is the second-largest Pre-Columbian earthwork in the country, after Monks Mound
Mound
at Cahokia. Grand Village of the Natchez: The main village of the Natchez people, with three mounds. The only mound site to be used and maintained into historic times.

Known Mississippian settlements[edit] Main article: List of Mississippian sites Although the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
was heavily disrupted before a complete understanding of the political landscape was written down, many Mississippian political bodies were documented and others have been discovered by research. Related modern nations[edit] Mississippian peoples were almost certainly ancestral to the majority of the American Indian nations living in this region in the historic era. The historic and modern day American Indian nations believed to have descended from the overarching Mississippian Culture include: the Alabama, Apalachee, Caddo, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee Creek, Guale, Hitchiti, Houma, Kansa, Missouria, Mobilian, Natchez, Osage, Quapaw, Seminole, Tunica-Biloxi, Yamasee, and Yuchi.[citation needed] Contact with Europeans[edit]

A map showing the de Soto route through the Southeast

Scholars have studied the records of Hernando de Soto's expedition of 1539–1543 to learn of his contacts with Mississippians, as he traveled through their villages of the Southeast. He visited many villages, in some cases staying for a month or longer. The list of sites and peoples visited by the Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
Expedition chronicles those villages. Some encounters were violent, while others were relatively peaceable. In some cases, de Soto seems to have been used as a tool or ally in long-standing native feuds. In one example, de Soto negotiated a truce between the Pacaha
Pacaha
and the Casqui. De Soto's later encounters left about half of the Spaniards and perhaps many hundreds of Native Americans dead. The chronicles of de Soto are among the first documents written about Mississippian peoples, and are an invaluable source of information on their cultural practices. The chronicles of the Narváez expedition
Narváez expedition
were written before the de Soto expedition; the Narváez expedition
Narváez expedition
informed the Court of de Soto about the New World. After the destruction and flight of the de Soto expedition, the Mississippian peoples continued their way of life with little direct European influence. Indirectly, however, European introductions dramatically changed native societies in the Eastern United States. Because the natives lacked immunity to new infectious diseases, such as measles and smallpox, epidemics caused so many fatalities that they undermined the social order of many chiefdoms. Some groups adopted European horses and changed to nomadism.[19] Political structures collapsed in many places. At Joara, near Morganton, North Carolina, Native Americans of the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
interacted with Spanish colonizers of the Juan Pardo expedition, who built a base there in 1567 called Fort San Juan. Expedition documentation and archaeological evidence of the fort and Native American culture both exist. The soldiers were at the fort about 18 months (1567–1568) before the natives killed them and destroyed the fort. (They killed soldiers stationed at five other forts as well; only one man of 120 survived.) Sixteenth-century Spanish artifacts have been recovered from the site, marking the first European colonization in the interior of what became the United States.[20] By the time more documentary accounts were being written, the Mississippian way of life had changed irrevocably. Some groups maintained an oral tradition link to their mound-building past, such as the late 19th-century Cherokee.[21] Other Native American groups, having migrated many hundreds of miles and lost their elders to diseases, did not know their ancestors had built the mounds dotting the landscape. This contributed to the myth of the Mound
Mound
Builders as a people distinct from Native Americans, which was rigorously debunked by Cyrus Thomas
Cyrus Thomas
in 1894. See also[edit]

List of Mississippian sites List of burial mounds in the United States Southeastern Ceremonial Complex

Notes[edit]

^ a b Adam King, "Mississippian Period: Overview", New Georgia Encyclopedia, 2002, accessed 15 Nov 2009 ^ Metropolitan Life on the Mississippi ^ "Mississippian Period Archaeological Sites". About.com Education. Retrieved 2016-12-13.  ^ Barnett, Jim. "The Natchez Indians". Mississippi
Mississippi
History Now. Retrieved 1 Oct 2013. ^ Chastaina, Matthew L.; Deymier-Black, Alix C.; Kelly, John E.; Brown, James A.; Dunand, David C. (July 2011). "Metallurgical analysis of copper artifacts from Cahokia". Journal of Archaeological Science. 38 (7): 1727–1736. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2011.03.004.  ^ Pauketat, Timothy R. (2003) "Resettled Farmers and the Making of a Mississippian Polity," American Antiquity Vol. 68 No. 1. ^ Pauketat, Timothy R. (1998) "Refiguring the Archaeology of Greater Cahokia," Journal of Archaeological Research Vol. 6 No. 1 ^ Sullivan, Lynne P., Archaeology of the Appalachian Highlands, University of Tennessee Press, 2001 ISBN 1-57233-142-9. ^ a b c "Southeastern Prehistory:Mississippian and Late Prehistoric Period". National Park Service. Retrieved 2011-06-16.  ^ David Pollack (2004). Caborn-Welborn - Constructing a New Society after the Angel Chiefdom Collapse. University of Alabama Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8173-5126-4.  ^ "Southeastern Prehistory: Mississippian and Late Prehistoric Period". "National Park Service". Retrieved 2007-12-04.  ^ Hudson, Charles M. (1997). Knights of Spain, Warriors of the Sun. University of Georgia Press.  ^ Ferguson, Leland G. (October 25–26, 1974). Drexel A., Peterson, ed. South Appalachian Mississippian: A Definition and Introduction (PDF). Thirty First Southeastern Archaeological Conference. Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 8–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-14.  ^ "Tejas- Caddo
Caddo
Fundamentals-Caddoan Languages and Peoples". Retrieved 2010-02-04.  ^ "Tejas- Caddo
Caddo
Fundamentals-Mississippian World". Retrieved 2010-02-04.  ^ "Tejas- Caddo
Caddo
Fundamentals-Caddoan Languages and Peoples". Retrieved 2010-02-04.  ^ "Mississippian and Late Prehistoric Period". Retrieved 2008-09-08.  ^ "The Plaquemine Culture, A.D 1000". Cedar Mesa Project. Retrieved 2013-10-02.  ^ Bense pp. 256–257, 275–279 ^ Constance E. Richards, "Contact and Conflict", American Archaeologist, Spring 2004, accessed 26 Jun 2008 ^ Hudson pp. 334

References[edit]

Bense, Judith A. Archaeology of the Southeastern United States: Paleoindian to World War I. Academic Press, New York, 1994. ISBN 0-12-089060-7. Cheryl Anne Cox; and David H. Dye, eds; Towns and Temples along the Mississippi. University of Alabama Press, 1990 Hudson, Charles; The Southeastern Indians. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 1976. ISBN 0-87049-248-9. Keyes, Charles R. Prehistoric Man in Iowa. Palimpsest 8(6):185–229. (1927). O'Conner, Mallory McCane. Lost Cities of the Ancient Southeast. University Press of Florida, Florida
Florida
A & M University, Gainesville, Fla., 1995. ISBN 0-8130-1350-X. Pauketat, Timothy R.; The Ascent of Chiefs: Cahokia
Cahokia
and Mississippian Politics in Native North America. University of Alabama Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-8173-0728-8. Pauketat, Timothy R.; "The Forgotten History of the Mississippians" in North American Archaeology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2005.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mississippian culture.

The Mississippian and Late Prehistoric Period, National Park Service Southeastern Archaeology Center Mississippian World, Texas Beyond History Cahokia
Cahokia
Mounds Etowah Indian Mounds
Etowah Indian Mounds
State Historic Site Indian Mounds of Mississippi, a National Park Service
National Park Service
Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Moundville Archaeological Park Chucalissa Museum and Archaeological site Encyclopedia of Alabama: Mississippian Period Animation: Towns and Temples of the Mississippian Culture-5 Sites

v t e

Mississippian and related cultures

List of Mississippian sites Timeline of Mississippi
Mississippi
valley

Middle Mississippian

American Bottom and Upper Mississippi

Aztalan Big Eddy Cahokia

Monks Mound Mound
Mound
34 Mound
Mound
72 Woodhenge

Cloverdale Dickson Mounds Emerald Acropolis Emmons Cemetery Horseshoe Lake John Chapman Kuhn Station Larson Lunsford-Pulcher McCune Mitchell Orendorf Sleeth Steed-Kisker culture Sugarloaf Mound

Lower Ohio River
Ohio River
and Confluence area

Adams Dogtooth Bend Kincaid Mounds Marshall Millstone Bluff Orr-Herl Rowlandton Mound Towosahgy Turk Twin Mounds Ware Wickliffe Mounds

Middle Ohio River

Angel Mounds Angel Phase Annis Mound Bone Bank Caborn-Welborn culture Ellerbusch Hovey Lake-Klein Hovey Lake District Murphy Prather Slack Farm Tolu Welborn Village Yankeetown

Tennessee and Cumberland

Backusburg Beasley Mounds Brentwood Library Brick Church Castalian Springs Dunbar Cave Fewkes Group Mound
Mound
Bottom Riverview Sellars Obion Old Town Swallow Bluff

Central and Lower Mississippi

Belle Meade Boone's Boyd Campbell Carson Chucalissa Eaker Janet's Menard-Hodges Murphy Nodena

Nodena Phase

Owl Creek Parkin Tipton Phase Tunica

Koroa Yazoo

Walls Phase

South Appalachian Mississippian

Adamson Avery Beaverdam Creek Bell Field Mound Bessemer Bussell Island Chauga Chiaha Chota Citico Coosa Dallas Phase Dyar Etowah Garden Creek Hoojah Branch Irene Jere Shine Joara Joe Bell King Lamar Lamar Phase Liddell Little Egypt Long Swamp Mabila Mandeville McMahan Moccasin Bend Moundville Mouse Creek Phase Mulberry Muscogee (Creek) Nacoochee Nikwasi Ocmulgee Park Mound Pisgah Phase Punk Rock Shelter Rembert Roods Landing Rucker's Bottom Savannah Shiloh Sixtoe Summerour Tomotley Toqua Town Creek Waddells Mill Pond Wilbanks

Fort Walton culture

Anhaica Apalachee Apalachee
Apalachee
Province Cayson Corbin-Tucker Fort Walton Mound Lake Jackson Leon-Jefferson Culture Letchworth Velda Yon

Pensacola culture

Bottle Creek Dauphin Island Fort Walton Hickory Ridge Cemetery Naval Live Oaks Cemetery Pensacola people

Plaquemine Mississippian

Anna Atchafalaya Basin Emerald Fitzhugh Flowery Fosters Ghost Glass Grand Village of the Natchez Holly Bluff Jaketown Jordan Julice Mangum Mazique Medora Mott Natchez

Taensa

Pocahontas Routh Scott Place Sims Transylvania Venable Winterville

Caddoan Mississippian

Battle Belcher Blue Spring Shelter Bluffton Caddo Caddoan Mounds Gahagan Hughes Ka-Do-Ha Indian Village Keller Spiro

Upper Mississippian cultures

Oneota

Beattie Park Mound
Mound
Group Blood Run Hartley Fort State Preserve Roche-a-Cri Petroglyphs

Fort Ancient
Fort Ancient
culture

Alligator Effigy Mound Clover Dodge Leo Petroglyph Serpent Mound SunWatch Indian Village

Culture

Agriculture

Beans Chenopodium Little barley Maize Marshelder Pumpkin Squash Sunflower Three Sisters Tobacco

Artwork

Emmons mask Copper plates

Rogan plates Spiro plates Wulfing cache

Long-nosed god maskette Mill Creek chert Pottery Shell gorget Stone statuary

Languages

Caddoan Central Algonquian Cherokee Mobilian Jargon Muskogean Natchez

Taensa

Siouan Timucuan Tunican Yuchi

Religion

Ballgame (Southeastern)

Northern

Black drink Burial mound Ceremonial pipe

Chanunpa

Chunkey Earth/fertility cult Green Corn Ceremony Horned Serpent Platform mound Red Horn Sacred bundle

Village bundle

Southeastern Ceremonial Complex Stone box grave Thunderbird Underwater panther

Related topics Chevron bead Clarksdale bell Mound
Mound
Builder de Soto Expedition

v t e

Pre-Columbian North America

Periods Lithic Archaic Formative Classic Post-Classic

Archaeological cultures

Adena Alachua Ancient Beringian Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi) Baytown Belle Glade Buttermilk Creek Complex Caborn-Welborn Calf Creek Caloosahatchee Clovis Coles Creek Comondú Deptford Folsom Fort Ancient Fort Walton Fremont Glacial Kame Glades Hohokam Hopewell

List of Hopewell sites

La Jolla Las Palmas Leon-Jefferson Mississippian

List of Mississippian sites

Mogollon Monongahela Old Cordilleran Oneota Paleo-Arctic Paleo-Indians Patayan Plano Plaquemine Poverty Point Red Ocher Santa Rosa-Swift Creek St. Johns Steed-Kisker Tchefuncte Tocobaga Troyville

Archaeological sites

Angel Mounds Anzick Clovis burial Bandelier National Monument Blue Spring Shelter The Bluff Point Stoneworks Cahokia Candelaria Cave Casa Grande Chaco Canyon Coso Rock Art District Crystal River Archaeological State Park Cuarenta Casas Cueva de la Olla Eaker El Fin del Mundo El Vallecito Effigy Mounds National Monument Etowah Indian Mounds Eva Folsom Site Fort Ancient Fort Center Fort Juelson Four Mounds Site Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Glenwood Grimes Point Holly Bluff Site Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Huápoca Kimball Village Kincaid Mounds Kolomoki Mounds L'Anse aux Meadows Marksville Marmes Rockshelter Meadowcroft Rockshelter Mesa Verde Moaning Cavern Moorehead Circle Morrison Mounds Moundville Mummy Cave Nodena Site Ocmulgee National Monument Old Stone Fort Orwell Site Paquime Parkin Park Pinson Mounds Portsmouth Earthworks Poverty Point Pueblo Bonito Recapture Canyon Rock Eagle Rock Hawk Russell Cave National Monument Salmon Ruins Serpent Mound Sierra de San Francisco Spiro Mounds SunWatch Taos Pueblo Toltec Mounds Town Creek Indian Mound Turkey River Mounds Upward Sun River site West Oak Forest Earthlodge Winterville Wupatki National Monument

Human remains

Anzick-1 Arlington Springs Man Buhl Woman Kennewick Man La Brea Woman Leanderthal Lady Minnesota Woman Spirit Cave mummy

Miscellaneous

Aridoamerica Black drink Ceremonial pipe Chunkey Clovis point Container Revolution Eastern Agricultural Complex Eden point Effigy mound Falcon dancer Folsom point Green Corn Ceremony Horned Serpent Kiva Medicine wheel Metallurgy Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing Mound
Mound
Builders N.A.G.P.R.A. Norse colonization of North America Oasisamerica Piasa Southeastern Ceremonial Complex Stickball Three Sisters agriculture Thunderbird Underwater panther Water glyphs

Related Genetic history Portal
Portal
of Indigenous peoples of North America

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