MISSISSIPPI /ˌmɪsᵻˈsɪpi/ ( listen ) is a state in the southern
region of the
United States , with part of its southern border formed
Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico . Its western border is formed by the
Mississippi River .
The state has a population of approximately 3 million. It is the 32nd
most extensive and the 32nd most populous of the 50
United States .
Located in the center of the state, Jackson is the state capital and
largest city, with a population of approximately 175,000 people.
The state is heavily forested outside of the
Mississippi Delta area,
Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil
War , most development in the state was along riverfronts, where
slaves worked on cotton plantations. After the war, the bottomlands to
the interior were cleared, mostly by freedmen . By the end of the 19th
African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property
owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land
after a financial crisis.
Clearing altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of
flooding along the Mississippi. Much land is now held by
agribusinesses. A largely rural state with agricultural areas
dominated by industrial farms,
Mississippi is ranked low or last among
the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, and
median household income. The state's catfish aquaculture farms
produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United
Since the 1930s and the Great Migration ,
Mississippi has been
majority white, albeit with the highest percentage of black residents
of any U.S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its
residents were mostly black, a population that before the U.S. Civil
War was composed largely of
African American slaves. Democratic whites
retained political power through
Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws . In the first half of
the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work
and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave
of migration around
World War II
World War II to West Coast cities. In 2010, 37% of
Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of
African Americans in any U.S. state. Since gaining enforcement of
their voting franchise in the late 1960s, most African Americans
support Democratic candidates in local, state and national elections.
Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party . African
Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo
Delta, an area of historic settlement during the plantation era. Since
Mississippi has been ranked as the most religious state in the
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Major cities and towns
* 2.2 Climate
* 2.3 Ecology
* 2.4 Ecological problems
* 2.4.1 Flooding
* 3 History
* 3.1 Colonial era
United States territory
* 3.3 Statehood, 1817–1861
* 3.4 Civil War to 20th century
* 3.5 20th century to present
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Ancestry
* 4.2 Language
* 4.3 Religion
* 4.4 Birth data
* 4.5 LGBT
* 5 Health
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Entertainment and tourism
* 6.2 Manufacturing
* 6.3 Taxation
* 6.4 Federal subsidies and spending
* 7 Law and government
* 7.1 Laws
* 8 Political alignment
* 9 Transportation
* 9.1 Air
* 9.2 Roads
* 9.3 Rail
* 9.3.1 Passenger
* 9.3.2 Freight
* 9.4 Water
* 9.4.1 Major rivers
* 9.4.2 Major bodies of water
* 10 Media
* 11 Education
* 12 Culture
* 12.1 Music
* 12.2 Literature
* 12.3 Sports
* 13 Notable people
* 14 In popular culture
* 15 See also
* 16 Footnotes
* 17 Further reading
* 18 External links
The state's name is derived from the
Mississippi River , which flows
along its western boundary. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word
_misi-ziibi_ ("Great River").
Major highways and waterways in
hardwood swamp near
Mississippi is bordered on the north by
Tennessee , on the east by
Alabama , on the south by
Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of
Mexico ; and on the west, across the
Mississippi River, by Louisiana
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in
Mississippi include the
Big Black River , the Pearl River , the
Yazoo River , the Pascagoula
River , and the
Tombigbee River . Major lakes include Ross Barnett
Arkabutla Lake , Sardis Lake , and
Grenada Lake with the
largest lake being Sardis Lake.
Mississippi is entirely composed of lowlands , the highest point
Woodall Mountain , in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains
, 807 feet (246 m) above sea level . The lowest point is sea level at
Gulf coast . The state's mean elevation is 300 feet (91 m) above
Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain. The
coastal plain is generally composed of low hills, such as the Pine
Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and
the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations.
Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state.
The northeast is a region of fertile black earth that extends into the
Alabama Black Belt .
The coastline includes large bays at Bay
St. Louis , Biloxi , and
Pascagoula . It is separated from the
Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico proper by the
Mississippi Sound , which is partially sheltered by Petit Bois
Island , Horn Island , East and West Ship Islands , Deer Island ,
Round Island , and Cat Island .
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi
Delta , a section of the
Mississippi Alluvial Plain
Mississippi Alluvial Plain . The plain is
narrow in the south and widens north of Vicksburg . The region has
rich soil, partly made up of silt which had been regularly deposited
by the flood waters of the
Areas under the management of the
National Park Service
National Park Service include:
Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site
Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn
Gulf Islands National Seashore
Gulf Islands National Seashore
Natchez National Historical Park
Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez
Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in
Natchez Trace Parkway
Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo
Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg
MAJOR CITIES AND TOWNS
Jackson, Mississippi Northwest view of Gulfport Harbor
Square Commercial Historic District,
Strawberry Patch Park in
Madison, Mississippi Map with all
counties and many cities and towns labeled
Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000 (United
States Census Bureau as of 2010):
* Jackson (173,514)
* Gulfport (67,793)
Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer
than 50,000 (
United States Census Bureau as of 2010):
* Southaven (48,982)
* Hattiesburg (45,989)
* Biloxi (44,054)
* Vicksburg (42,856)
* Meridian (41,198)
* Greenville (34,400)
* Olive Branch (33,484)
* Horn Lake (26,066)
* Clinton (25,216)
* Pearl (25,092)
* Madison (24,149)
* Ridgeland (24,047)
* Starkville (23,888)
* Columbus (23,604)
* Pascagoula (22,392)
* Brandon (21,705)
Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer
than 20,000 (
United States Census Bureau as of 2010):
* Oxford (18,916)
* Gautier (18,572)
* Laurel (18,540)
* Clarksdale (17,962)
* Ocean Springs (17,461)
* Natchez (15,792)
* Greenwood (15,205)
* Long Beach (14,792)
* Corinth (14,573)
* Hernando (14,090)
* Moss Point (13,704)
* Canton (13,189)
* Grenada (13,092)
* McComb (12,790)
* Brookhaven (12,513)
* Byram (11,489)
* Yazoo City (11,403)
* West Point (11,307)
* Picayune (10,878)
* Indianola (10,683)
* Petal (10,454)
_(See: Lists of cities , towns and villages , census-designated
places , metropolitan areas , micropolitan areas , and counties in
Montgomery County in autumn
Mississippi has a humid subtropical climate with long summers and
short, mild winters. Temperatures average about 81°F (about 27°C )
in July and about 48 °F (about 9 °C) in January. The temperature
varies little statewide in the summer; however, in winter, the region
Mississippi Sound is significantly warmer than the inland portion
of the state. The recorded temperature in
Mississippi has ranged from
−19 °F (−28.3 °C), in 1966, at Corinth in the northeast, to 115
°F (46.1 °C), in 1930, at Holly Springs in the north. Heavy snowfall
is possible across the state, such as during the New Year\'s Eve 1963
snowstorm . Yearly precipitation generally increases from north to
south, with the regions closer to the Gulf being the most humid. Thus,
Clarksdale , in the northwest, gets about 50 inches (about 1,270 mm)
of precipitation annually and Biloxi , in the south, about 61 inches
(about 1,550 mm). Small amounts of snow fall in northern and central
Mississippi; snow is occasional in the southern part of the state.
The late summer and fall is the seasonal period of risk for
hurricanes moving inland from the Gulf of Mexico, especially in the
southern part of the state.
Hurricane Camille in 1969 and Hurricane
Katrina in 2005, which killed 238 people in the state, were the most
devastating hurricanes to hit the state. Both caused nearly total
storm surge destruction of structures in and around Gulfport , Biloxi
, and Pascagoula .
As in the rest of the
Deep South , thunderstorms are common in
Mississippi, especially in the southern part of the state. On average,
Mississippi has around 27 tornadoes annually; the northern part of the
state has more tornadoes earlier in the year and the southern part a
higher frequency later in the year. Two of the five deadliest
tornadoes in U.S. history have occurred in the state. These storms
struck Natchez , in southwest
Mississippi (see The Great Natchez
Tornado ) and
Tupelo , in the northeast corner of the state. About
seven F5 tornadoes have been recorded in the state.
Monthly normal high and low temperatures (°F) for various
Mississippi state sign located on
Mississippi is heavily forested, with over half of the state's area
covered by wild trees, including mostly pine , as well as cottonwood ,
elm , hickory , oak , pecan , sweetgum and tupelo .
Due to seasonal flooding, possible from December to June, the
Mississippi and Yazoo rivers and their tributaries created a fertile
floodplain in the
Mississippi Delta. The river's flooding created
natural levees, which planters had built higher to try to prevent
flooding of land cultivated for cotton crops. Temporary workers built
levees along the
Mississippi River on top of the natural levees that
formed from dirt deposited after the river flooded.
From 1858 to 1861, the state took over levee building, accomplishing
it through contractors and hired labor. In those years, planters
considered their slaves too valuable to hire out for such dangerous
work. Contractors hired gangs of Irish immigrant laborers to build
levees and sometimes clear land. Many of the Irish were relatively
recent immigrants from the famine years who were struggling to get
established. Before the
American Civil War
American Civil War , the earthwork levees
averaged six feet in height, although in some areas they reached
Flooding has been an integral part of
Mississippi history, but
clearing of the land for cultivation and to supply wood fuel for
steamboats took away the absorption of trees and undergrowth. The
banks of the river were denuded, becoming unstable and changing the
character of the river. After the Civil War, major floods swept down
the valley in 1865, 1867, 1874 and 1882. Such floods regularly
overwhelmed levees damaged by Confederate and Union fighting during
the war, as well as those constructed after the war. In 1877, the
state created the
Mississippi Levee District for southern counties.
In 1879, the
United States Congress created the
Commission , whose responsibilities included aiding state levee boards
in the construction of levees. Both white and black transient workers
were hired to build the levees in the late 19th century. By 1882,
levees averaged seven feet in height, but many in the southern Delta
were severely tested by the flood that year. After the 1882 flood,
the levee system was expanded. In 1884, the Yazoo-
Levee District was established to oversee levee construction and
maintenance in the northern Delta counties; also included were some
Arkansas which were part of the Delta.
Flooding overwhelmed northwestern
Mississippi in 1912–1913, causing
heavy damage to the levee districts. Regional losses and the
Mississippi River Levee Association's lobbying for a flood control
bill helped gain passage of national bills in 1917 and 1923 to provide
federal matching funds for local levee districts, on a scale of 2:1.
Although U.S. participation in
World War I
World War I interrupted funding of
levees, the second round of funding helped raise the average height of
levees in the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta to 22 feet (6.7 m) in the 1920s.
Scientists now understand the levees have increased the severity of
flooding by increasing the flow speed of the river and reducing the
area of the floodplains. The region was severely damaged due to the
Great Mississippi Flood of 1927
Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 , which broke through the levees.
There were losses of millions of dollars in property, stock and crops.
The most damage occurred in the lower Delta, including Washington and
Even as scientific knowledge about the
Mississippi River has grown,
upstream development and the consequences of the levees have caused
more severe flooding in some years. Scientists now understand that the
widespread clearing of land and building of the levees have changed
the nature of the river. Such work removed the natural protection and
absorption of wetlands and forest cover, strengthening the river's
current. The state and federal governments have been struggling for
the best approaches to restore some natural habitats in order to best
interact with the original riverine ecology.
History of Mississippi
History of Mississippi
MISSISSIPPI STATE SYMBOLS
Flag of Mississippi
Flag of Mississippi
Seal of Mississippi
Wood duck (1974)
Spicebush swallowtail (1991)
Largemouth bass (1974)
Coreopsis (tickseed) (1991)
Honey bee (1980)
White-tailed deer (1974)
Red fox (1997)
Bottlenose dolphin (1974)
American alligator (2005)
American folk dance (1995)
Petrified wood (1976)
_Virtute et armis_
Natchez silt loam (2003)
"Go, Mississippi" (1962)
Teddy bear (2003)
Grand Opera House of Meridian (1993)
Tupelo Auto Museum (2003)
Mississippi Industrial Heritage Museum (1972)
STATE ROUTE MARKER
Released in 2002
Lists of United States state symbols
Near 10,000 BC Native Americans or
Paleo-Indians arrived in what
today is referred to as the American South . Paleoindians in the
South were hunter-gatherers who pursued the megafauna that became
extinct following the end of the
Pleistocene age. In the Mississippi
Delta , Native American settlements and agricultural fields were
developed on the natural levees, higher ground in the proximity of
rivers. The Native Americans developed extensive fields near their
permanent villages. Together with other practices, they created some
localized deforestation but did not alter the ecology of the
Mississippi Delta as a whole.
After thousands of years, succeeding cultures of the Woodland and
Mississippian culture eras developed rich and complex agricultural
societies, in which surplus supported the development of specialized
trades. Both were mound builder cultures. Those of the Mississippian
culture were the largest and most complex, constructed beginning about
950CE. The peoples had a trading network spanning the continent from
the Great Lakes to the Gulf Coast. Their large earthworks, which
expressed their cosmology of political and religious concepts, still
stand throughout the
Ohio River valleys. _ Choctaw
Village near the Chefuncte_, by Francois Bernard, 1869, Peabody Museum
– Harvard University. The women are preparing dye in order to color
cane strips for making baskets.
Descendant Native American tribes of the
Mississippian culture in the
Southeast include the
Choctaw . Other tribes who
inhabited the territory of
Mississippi (and whose names were honored
by colonists in local towns) include the Natchez , the Yazoo , and the
The first major European expedition into the territory that became
Mississippi was that of the Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto , who
passed through the northeast part of the state in 1540, in his second
expedition to the New World.
In April 1699, French colonists established the first European
settlement at _
Fort Maurepas _ (also known as Old Biloxi), built in
the vicinity of present-day Ocean Springs on the Gulf Coast. It was
settled by Pierre Le Moyne d\'Iberville . In 1716, the French founded
Natchez on the
Mississippi River (as _
Fort Rosalie _); it became the
dominant town and trading post of the area. The French called the
greater territory "
New France "; the Spanish continued to claim part
Gulf coast area (east of
Mobile Bay ) of present-day southern
Alabama , in addition to the entire area of present-day
Through the 18th century, the area was ruled variously by Spanish,
French, and British colonial governments. The colonists imported
African slaves as laborers. Under French and Spanish rule, there
developed a class of free people of color (_gens de couleur libres_),
mostly multiracial descendants of European men and enslaved women, and
their children. In the early days the French and Spanish colonists
were chiefly men. Even as more European women joined the settlements,
the men had interracial unions among women of African descent (and
increasingly, multiracial descent), both before and after marriages to
European women. Often the European men would help their multiracial
children get educated or gain apprenticeships for trades, and
sometimes they settled property on them; they often freed the mothers
and their children if enslaved, as part of contracts of _plaçage ._
With this social capital , the free people of color became artisans,
and sometimes educated merchants and property owners, forming a third
class between the Europeans and most enslaved Africans in the French
and Spanish settlements, although not so large a free community as in
the city of
New Orleans , Louisiana. After Great Britain's victory in
French and Indian War
French and Indian War (Seven Years\' War ), the French surrendered
Mississippi area to them under the terms of the Treaty of Paris
(1763) . They also ceded their areas to the north that were east of
Mississippi River, including the
Illinois Country and Quebec.
Choctaw Principal Chief
UNITED STATES TERRITORY
American Revolution , Britain ceded this area to the new
United States of America. The
Mississippi Territory was organized on
April 7, 1798, from territory ceded by Georgia and
South Carolina to
the United States. Their original colonial charters theoretically
extended west to the Pacific Ocean. The
Mississippi Territory was
later twice expanded to include disputed territory claimed by both the
United States and Spain.
From 1800 to about 1830, the
United States purchased some lands
(Treaty of Doak\'s Stand ) from Native American tribes for new
settlements of European Americans; they were mostly migrants from
other Southern states, particularly
Virginia and North Carolina, where
soils were exhausted. On September 27, 1830, the Treaty of Dancing
Rabbit Creek was signed between the U.S. Government and the
Choctaw agreed to sell their traditional homelands in Mississippi
and Alabama, for compensation and removal to reservations in Indian
Territory (now Oklahoma). This opened up land for sale to
European-American immigrant settlement. Article 14 in the treaty
Choctaw who chose to remain in the state to become U.S.
citizens, the second major non-European ethnic group to do so (the
Cherokee were the first). Today approximately 9,500
Choctaw live in
Neshoba, Newton, Leake, and Jones counties. Federally recognized
tribes include the
Mississippi Band of
Choctaw Indians .
Many slaveholders brought slaves with them or purchased them through
the domestic slave trade, especially in New Orleans. Through the
trade, nearly one million slaves were transported to the
Deep South ,
including Mississippi, in a forced internal migration that broke up
many slave families of the Upper South, where planters were selling
excess slaves. The Southerners imposed slave laws and restricted the
rights of free blacks, according to their view of white supremacy .
Beginning in 1822, slaves in
Mississippi were protected by law from
cruel and unusual punishment by their owners. Southern slave codes
made the willful killing of a slave illegal in most cases. For
example, the 1860
Mississippi case of _Oliver v. State_ charged the
defendant with murdering his own slave. Front of D'Evereux.
Built in 1840, it is listed on the National Register of Historic
On December 10, 1817,
Mississippi was the 20th state admitted to the
Union. David Holmes was elected the first governor of the state.
Plantations were developed primarily along the major rivers, where the
waterfront provided access to the major transportation routes. This is
also where early towns developed, linked by the steamboats that
carried commercial products and crops to markets. The backcountry
remained largely undeveloped frontier until it was cleared by freedmen
during Reconstruction and later.
When cotton was king during the 1850s,
owners—especially those of the Delta and Black Belt central
regions—became wealthy due to the high fertility of the soil, the
high price of cotton on the international market, and their assets in
slaves. They used the profits to buy more cotton land and more slaves.
The planters' dependence on hundreds of thousands of slaves for labor
and the severe wealth imbalances among whites, played strong roles
both in state politics and in planters' support for secession . The
state was thinly settled, with population concentrated in the
riverfront areas and towns.
By 1860, the enslaved
African-American population numbered 436,631 or
55% of the state's total of 791,305. There were fewer than 1000 free
people of color . The relatively low population of the state before
the Civil War reflected the fact that land and villages were developed
only along the riverfronts, which formed the main transportation
corridors. Ninety percent of the Delta bottomlands were frontier and
undeveloped. The state needed many more settlers for development.
CIVIL WAR TO 20TH CENTURY
Confederate dead after the Battle of Corinth . Photo taken
October 5, 1862 The legislature of the State of
1890 Further information:
Mississippi in the
American Civil War
American Civil War
On January 9, 1861,
Mississippi became the second state to declare
its secession from the Union , and it was one of the founding members
of the Confederate States . The first six states to secede were those
with the highest number of slaves. During the war, Union and
Confederate forces struggled for dominance on the
critical to supply routes and commerce. More than 80,000
Mississippians fought in the Civil War , and casualties were extremely
heavy. Union General
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant 's long siege of Vicksburg
finally gained the Union control of the river in 1863.
In the postwar period, freedmen withdrew from white-run churches to
set up independent congregations. The majority of blacks left the
Baptist Church, sharply reducing its membership. They created
Baptist congregations. By 1895 they had established
Baptist state associations and the National Baptist
Convention of black churches.
In addition, independent black denominations, such as the African
Methodist Episcopal Church (established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
) and the
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (established in New
York City), sent missionaries to the South in the postwar years. They
quickly attracted hundreds of thousands of converts and founded new
churches across the South. Southern congregations brought their own
influences to those denominations as well.
During Reconstruction , the first
convention in 1868, with delegates both black and white, framed a
constitution whose major elements would be maintained for 22 years.
The convention was the first political organization in the state to
African-American representatives, 17 among the 100 members (32
counties had black majorities at the time). Some among the black
delegates were freedmen , but others were educated free blacks who had
migrated from the North. The convention adopted universal suffrage;
did away with property qualifications for suffrage or for office, a
change that also benefited both blacks and poor whites; provided for
the state's first public school system; forbade race distinctions in
the possession and inheritance of property; and prohibited limiting
civil rights in travel. Under the terms of Reconstruction,
Mississippi was restored to the Union on February 23, 1870.
Mississippi Delta contained so much fertile bottomland
that had not been developed before the Civil War, 90 percent of the
land was still frontier. After the Civil War, tens of thousands of
migrants were attracted to the area by higher wages offered by
planters trying to develop land. In addition, black and white workers
could earn money by clearing the land and raising timber, and
eventually advance to ownership. The new farmers included many
freedmen, who achieved unusually high rates of land ownership in the
Mississippi bottomlands by the late 19th century. In the 1870s and
1880s, many black farmers succeeded in gaining land ownership.
Around the start of the 20th century, two-thirds of the Mississippi
farmers who owned land in the Delta were
African American . Many had
become overextended with debt during the falling cotton prices of the
difficult years of the late 19th century.
Cotton prices fell
throughout the decades following the Civil War. As another
agricultural depression lowered cotton prices into the 1890s, however,
African-American farmers finally had to sell their land to
pay off debts, thus losing the land which they had developed by
Democrats regained control of the state legislature in 1875, after a
year of expanded violence against blacks and intimidation of whites in
what was called the "white line" campaign, based on asserting white
supremacy . Democratic whites became well armed and formed
paramilitary organizations such as the Red Shirts to suppress black
voting. From 1874 to the elections of 1875, they pressured whites to
join the Democrats, and conducted violence against blacks in at least
15 known "riots" in cities around the state to intimidate blacks and
suppress their voting. They killed a total of 150 blacks, although
other estimates place the death toll at twice as many. A total of
three white Republicans and five white Democrats were reported killed.
In rural areas, deaths of blacks could be covered up. Riots (better
described as massacres of blacks) took place in Vicksburg, Clinton,
Macon, and in their counties, as well-armed whites broke up black
meetings and lynched known black leaders, destroying local political
organizations. Seeing the success of this deliberate "Mississippi
South Carolina and other states followed it and also achieved
white dominance. In 1877 the last of federal troops were withdrawn
from the region.
Even in this environment, black Mississippians continued to be
elected into local office. However, black residents were deprived of
all political power after white legislators passed a new state
constitution in 1890 specifically to "eliminate the nigger from
politics", according to the state's Democratic governor, James K.
Vardaman . It erected barriers to voter registration and electoral
provisions that effectively disenfranchised most black Mississippians
and many poor whites. Estimates are that 100,000 black and 50,000
white men were removed from voter registration rolls in the state over
the next few years.
The loss of political influence contributed to the difficulties of
African Americans in their attempts to obtain extended credit in the
late 19th century. Together with imposition of
Jim Crow and racial
segregation laws, whites committed an increased rate of lynchings of
blacks, mostly men, beginning in the 1890s and extending to 1930.
Cotton crops failed due to boll weevil infestation and successive
severe flooding in 1912 and 1913, creating crisis conditions for many
African Americans. With control of the ballot box and more access to
credit, white planters bought out such farmers, expanding their
ownership of Delta bottomlands. They also took advantage of new
railroads sponsored by the state. Child workers, Pass Christian
, 1911, by
20TH CENTURY TO PRESENT
In 1900, blacks made up more than half of the state's population. By
1910, a majority of black farmers in the Delta had lost their land and
become sharecroppers . By 1920, the third generation after freedom,
African Americans in
Mississippi were landless laborers again
facing poverty. Starting about 1913, tens of thousands of black
Mississippi for the North in the Great Migration to
industrial cities such as
St. Louis ,
Philadelphia and New York . They sought jobs, better education for
their children, the right to vote, relative freedom from
discrimination, and better living. In the migration of 1910–1940,
they left a society that had been steadily closing off opportunity.
Most migrants from
Mississippi took trains directly north to Chicago
and often settled near former neighbors.
Blacks also faced violence in the form of lynching, shooting, and the
burning of churches. In 1923, the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People stated "the Negro feels that life is not
Mississippi and his life may be taken with impunity at any
time upon the slightest pretext or provocation by a white man".
Dancing at a juke joint near Clarksdale, Mississippi, in 1939, by
Marion Post Wolcott .
In the early 20th century, some industries were established in
Mississippi, but jobs were generally restricted to whites, including
child workers. The lack of jobs also drove some southern whites north
to cities such as
Chicago and Detroit, seeking employment, where they
also competed with European immigrants. The state depended on
agriculture, but mechanization put many farm laborers out of work.
By 1900, many white ministers, especially in the towns, subscribed to
Social Gospel movement, which attempted to apply Christian ethics
to social and economic needs of the day. Many strongly supported
Prohibition , believing it would help alleviate and prevent many sins.
Baptist churches grew to include more than twice the
number of members as their white
Baptist counterparts. The
African-American call for social equality resonated throughout the
Great Depression in the 1930s and
World War II
World War II in the 1940s.
The Second Great Migration from the South started in the 1940s,
lasting until 1970. Almost half a million people left
the second migration, three-quarters of them black. Nationwide during
the first half of the 20th century,
African Americans became rapidly
urbanized and many worked in industrial jobs. The Second Great
Migration included destinations in the West , especially
where the buildup of the defense industry offered higher paying jobs
African Americans and whites.
Blacks and whites in
Mississippi generated rich, quintessentially
American music traditions: gospel music , country music , jazz , blues
and rock and roll . All were invented, promulgated or heavily
Mississippi musicians, many of them African American, and
most came from the
Mississippi Delta . Many musicians carried their
music north to Chicago, where they made it the heart of that city's
jazz and blues.
African Americans left in the Great Migration that after the
1930s, they became a minority in Mississippi. In 1960 they made up 42%
of the state's population. The whites maintained their discriminatory
voter registration processes established in 1890, preventing most
blacks from voting, even if they were well educated. Court challenges
were not successful until later in the century. After World War II,
African-American veterans returned with renewed commitment to be
treated as full citizens of the
United States and increasingly
organized to gain enforcement of their constitutional rights.
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement had many roots in religion, and the strong
community of churches helped supply volunteers and moral purpose for
Mississippi was a center of activity, based in black
churches, to educate and register black voters, and to work for
integration. In 1954 the state had created the
Sovereignty Commission , a tax-supported agency, chaired by the
Governor, that claimed to work for the state's image but effectively
spied on activists and passed information to the local White Citizens'
Councils to suppress black activism. White Citizens Councils had been
formed in many cities and towns to resist integration of schools
following the unanimous 1954
United States Supreme Court ruling
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education _) that segregation of public schools
was unconstitutional. They used intimidation and economic blackmail
against activists and suspected activists, including teachers and
other professionals. Techniques included loss of jobs and eviction
from rental housing.
In the summer of 1964 students and community organizers from across
the country came to help register black voters in
Freedom Schools . The
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
was established to challenge the all-white Democratic Party of the
Solid South . Most white politicians resisted such changes. Chapters
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan and its sympathizers used violence against
activists, most notably the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner
in 1964 during the
Freedom Summer campaign. This was a catalyst for
Congressional passage the following year of the Voting Rights Act of
Mississippi earned a reputation in the 1960s as a reactionary
After decades of disenfranchisement,
African Americans in the state
gradually began to exercise their right to vote again for the first
time since the 19th century, following the passage of federal civil
rights legislation in 1964 and 1965, which ended _de jure_ segregation
and enforced constitutional voting rights. Registration of
African-American voters increased and black candidates ran in the 1967
elections for state and local offices. The
Democratic Party fielded some candidates. Teacher Robert G. Clark of
Holmes County was the first
African American to be elected to the
State House since Reconstruction. He continued as the only African
American in the state legislature until 1976 and was repeatedly
elected into the 21st century, including three terms as Speaker of the
In 1966, the state was the last to repeal officially statewide
prohibition of alcohol . Before that,
Mississippi had taxed the
illegal alcohol brought in by bootleggers . Governor Paul Johnson
urged repeal and the sheriff "raided the annual
Junior League Mardi
Gras ball at the Jackson Country Club, breaking open the liquor
cabinet and carting off the Champagne before a startled crowd of
nobility and high-ranking state officials".
On August 17, 1969,
Hurricane Camille hit the Mississippi
coast, killing 248 people and causing US$1.5 billion in damage (1969
In 1987, 20 years after the U.S. Supreme Court had ruled in 1967's
Loving v. Virginia
Loving v. Virginia _ that a similar Virginian law was
Mississippi repealed its ban on interracial marriage
(also known as miscegenation ), which had been enacted in 1890. It
also repealed the segregationist -era poll tax in 1989. In 1995, the
state symbolically ratified the Thirteenth Amendment , which had
abolished slavery in 1865. Though ratified in 1995, the state never
officially notified the U.S. archivist , which kept the ratification
unofficial until 2013, when Ken Sullivan contacted the office of
Secretary of State of Mississippi
Secretary of State of Mississippi ,
Delbert Hosemann , who agreed to
file the paperwork and make it official. In 2009, the legislature
passed a bill to repeal other discriminatory civil rights laws, which
had been enacted in 1964, the same year as the federal Civil Rights
Act , but ruled unconstitutional in 1967 by federal courts. Republican
Haley Barbour signed the bill into law.
The end of legal segregation and
Jim Crow led to the integration of
some churches, but most today remain divided along racial and cultural
lines, having developed different traditions. After the Civil War,
African Americans left white churches to establish their own
independent congregations, particularly
Baptist churches, establishing
state associations and a national association by the end of the
century. They wanted to express their own traditions of worship and
practice. In more diverse communities, such as Hattiesburg , some
churches have multiracial congregations. Hurricane Katrina
approaching the Gulf Coast on August 28, 2005.
On August 29, 2005,
Hurricane Katrina , though a
Category 3 storm
upon final landfall, caused even greater destruction across the entire
90 miles (145 km) of the
Mississippi Gulf Coast
Mississippi Gulf Coast from
The center of population of
Mississippi is located in Leake County ,
in the town of Lena .
Mississippi population density map
United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of
Mississippi was 2,992,333 on July 1, 2015, a 0.84% increase since the
United States Census . The state's economist characterized the
state as losing population as job markets elsewhere have caused 3.2
per 1000 to migrate recently.
From 2000 to 2010, the
United States Census Bureau reported that
Mississippi had the highest rate of increase in people identifying as
mixed-race, up 70 percent in the decade; it amounts to a total of 1.1
percent of the population. In addition,
Mississippi led the nation
for most of the last decade in the growth of mixed marriages among its
population. The total population has not increased significantly, but
is young. Some of the above change in identification as mixed race is
due to new births. But, it appears mostly to reflect those residents
who have chosen to identify as more than one race, who in earlier
years may have identified by just one ethnicity. A binary racial
system had been in place since slavery times and the days of racial
segregation . In the civil rights era, people of African descent
banded together in an inclusive community to achieve political power
and gain restoration of their civil rights.
As the demographer
William Frey noted, "In Mississippi, I think it's
changed from within." Historically in Mississippi, after Indian
removal in the 1830s, the major groups were designated as black
(African American), who were then mostly enslaved, and white
(primarily European American). Matthew Snipp , also a demographer,
commented on the increase in the 21st century in the number of people
identifying as being of more than one race: "In a sense, they're
rendering a more accurate portrait of their racial heritage that in
the past would have been suppressed."
After having comprised a majority of the state's population since
well before the Civil War and through the 1930s, today African
Americans comprise approximately 37 percent of the state's population.
Most have ancestors who were enslaved , with many forcibly transported
from the Upper South in the 19th century to work on the area's new
plantations. Some of these slaves were mixed race, with European
ancestors, as there were many children born into slavery with white
fathers. Some also have Native American ancestry. During the first
half of the 20th century, a total of nearly 400,000 African Americans
left the state during the Great Migration , for opportunities in the
North, Midwest and West. They became a minority in the state for the
first time since early in its development.
The state has had conservative laws related to sexuality. The state's
sodomy law criminalized consensual sex between adults of the same
gender until 2003 (but was seldom enforced), when such laws were
voided by the Supreme Court case _
Lawrence v. Texas
Lawrence v. Texas _. In 2004, voters
Mississippi approved Amendment 1 , amending the state's
constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage ; the measure passed with
86% of the vote, the highest margin of victory in the nation. This law
was overturned by _
Obergefell v. Hodges
Obergefell v. Hodges _ (2015), the decision of the
U.S. Supreme Court making same-sex marriage a constitutional right.
Despite conservative laws, same-sex couples were forming families in
the state. According to the 2010 census , approximately 33% of
households led by same-sex couples in
Mississippi included at least
one child, the highest such percentage in the nation.
At the 2010 U.S. census, the racial makeup of the population was:
White American (58.0% non-
Hispanic white , 1.1% White
African American or Black
* 0.5% American Indian and
* 1.4% Other
Ethnically, 2.7% of the total population, among all racial groups,
Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race). As of
2011, 53.8% of Mississippi's population younger than age 1 were
minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not
Hispanic white. For more information on racial and ethnic
classifications in the
United States see race and ethnicity in the
United States Census .
MISSISSIPPI RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION
Two or more races
Americans of Scots-Irish , English and Scottish ancestry are present
throughout the state. It is believed that there are more people with
such ancestry than identify as such on the census, in part because
their immigrant ancestors are more distant in their family histories.
English , Scottish and Scots-Irish are generally the most
under-reported ancestry groups in both the
South Atlantic States
South Atlantic States and
East South Central States
East South Central States . The historian David Hackett Fischer
estimated that a minimum 20% of Mississippi's population is of English
ancestry, though the figure is probably much higher, and another large
percentage is of Scottish ancestry. Many Mississippians of such
ancestry identify simply as American on questionnaires, because their
families have been in North America for centuries. In the 1980
census 656,371 Mississippians of a total of 1,946,775 identified as
being of English ancestry, making them 38% of the state at the time.
The state in 2010 had the highest proportion of
African Americans in
the nation. Recently, the
African-American percentage of population
has begun to increase due mainly to a younger population than the
whites (the total fertility rates of the two races are approximately
equal). Due to patterns of settlement and whites putting their
children in private schools, in almost all of Mississippi's public
school districts, a majority of students are African American. African
Americans are the majority ethnic group in the northwestern Yazoo
Delta , and the southwestern and the central parts of the state. These
are areas where, historically,
African Americans owned land as farmers
in the 19th century following the Civil War, or worked on cotton
plantations and farms.
People of French Creole ancestry form the largest demographic group
in Hancock County on the Gulf Coast. The African-American;
Neshoba County ; and Chinese-American portions of the
population are also almost entirely native born.
Chinese came to
Mississippi as indentured laborers from
the 1870s, with others coming from mainland China in the later 19th
century. The majority entering the state immigrated directly from
Mississippi between 1910 and 1930, when they were recruited
by planters as laborers. While most first worked as sharecroppers, the
Chinese worked as families to improve their lives. Many became small
merchants and especially grocers in small towns throughout the Delta.
In these roles, the ethnic Chinese carved out a niche in the state
between black and white, where they were concentrated in the Delta.
These small towns have declined since the late 20th century, and many
ethnic Chinese have joined the exodus to larger cities, including
Jackson. Their population in the state overall has increased in the
In the early 1980s many Vietnamese immigrated to
other states along the
Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico , where they became employed in
In 2000, 96.4% of
Mississippi residents five years old and older
spoke only English in the home, a decrease from 97.2% in 1990.
English is largely
Southern American English
Southern American English , with some South Midland
speech in northern and eastern Mississippi. There is a common absence
of final /r/ and the lengthening and weakening of the diphthongs /aɪ/
and /ɔɪ/ as in 'ride' and 'oil'. South Midland terms in northern
Mississippi include: tow sack (burlap bag), dog irons (andirons), plum
peach (clingstone peach), snake doctor (dragonfly), and stone wall
TOP 10 NON-ENGLISH LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN MISSISSIPPI
Percentage of population
(as of 2010)
German , Vietnamese , and
Korean , Chinese , Tagalog , Italian (tied)
Under French and Spanish rule beginning in the 17th century, European
colonists were mostly
Roman Catholics . The growth of the cotton
culture after 1815 brought in tens of thousands of Anglo-American
settlers each year, most of whom were Protestants from Southeastern
states. Due to such migration, there was rapid growth in the number of
Protestant churches, especially
The revivals of the
Great Awakening in the late 18th and early 19th
centuries initially attracted the "plain folk" by reaching out to all
members of society, including women and blacks. Both slaves and free
blacks were welcomed into
Baptist churches. Independent
Baptist churches were established before 1800 in Virginia,
South Carolina and Georgia, and later developed in
Mississippi as well.
In the post-Civil War years, religion became more influential as the
South became known as the "
Bible Belt ".
Since the 1970s, fundamentalist conservative churches have grown
rapidly, fueling Mississippi's conservative political trends among
whites. In 1973 the
Presbyterian Church in America attracted numerous
conservative congregations. As of 2010
Mississippi remained a
stronghold of the denomination, which originally was brought by Scots
immigrants. The state has the highest adherence rate of the PCA in
2010, with 121 congregations and 18,500 members. It is among the few
states where the PCA has higher membership than the PC(USA).
According to the
Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010
Baptist Convention had 907,384 adherents and was the
largest religious denomination in the state, followed by the United
Methodist Church with 204,165, and the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church with
112,488. Other religions have a small presence in Mississippi; as of
2010, there were 5,012 Muslims ; 4,389 Hindus ; and 816 Bahá\'í .
Public opinion polls have consistently ranked
Mississippi as the most
religious state in the United States, with 59% of Mississippians
considering themselves "very religious". The same survey also found
that 11% of the population were non-Religious. In a 2009 Gallup poll,
63% of Mississippians said that they attended church weekly or almost
weekly – the highest percentage of all states (U.S. average was 42%,
and the lowest percentage was in
Vermont at 23%). Another 2008 Gallup
poll found that 85% of Mississippians considered religion an important
part of their daily lives, the highest figure among all states (U.S.
Religious affiliation in
% OF MISSISSIPPI POPULATION
Nothing in particular
Other Non-Christian faiths
Don't know/refused answer
_Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted
both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall
Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Hispanic _ (of any race)
United States census counted 6,286 same-sex
unmarried-partner households in Mississippi, an increase of 1,512
since the 2000
United States census. 33% contained at least one
Mississippi the distinction of leading the nation in the
percentage of same-sex couples raising children.
Mississippi has the
largest percentage of
African-American same-sex couples among total
households. The state capital, Jackson, ranks tenth in the nation in
African-American same-sex couples. The state ranks
fifth in the nation in the percentage of
Hispanic same-sex couples
Hispanic households and ninth in the highest concentration
of same-sex couples who are seniors . With the passing of HB 1523 in
April 2016, from July it became legal in
Mississippi to refuse service
to same-sex couples, based on one's religious beliefs. The bill has
become the subject of controversy.
The state is ranked 50th or last place among all the states for
health care, according to the
Commonwealth Fund , a nonprofit
foundation working to advance performance of the health care system.
Mississippi has the highest rate of infant and neonatal deaths of any
U.S. state. Age-adjusted data also shows
Mississippi has the highest
overall death rate, and the highest death rate from heart disease,
hypertension and hypertensive renal disease, influenza and pneumonia.
Mississippi (and Arkansas) had the least number of dentists
in the United States.
For three years in a row, more than 30 percent of Mississippi's
residents have been classified as obese. In a 2006 study, 22.8 percent
of the state's children were classified as such.
Mississippi had the
highest rate of obesity of any
U.S. state from 2005 to 2008, and also
ranks first in the nation for high blood pressure , diabetes , and
adult inactivity . In a 2008 study of
contributing risk factors were shown to be: lack of knowledge about
body mass index (BMI), dietary behavior, physical inactivity and lack
of social support, defined as motivation and encouragement by friends.
A 2002 report on
African-American adolescents noted a 1999 survey
which suggests that a third of children were obese, with higher ratios
for those in the Delta.
The study stressed that "obesity starts in early childhood extending
into the adolescent years and then possibly into adulthood." It noted
impediments to needed behavioral modification, including the Delta
likely being "the most underserved region in the state" with African
Americans the major ethnic group; lack of accessibility and
availability of medical care; and an estimated 60% of residents living
below the poverty level. Additional risk factors were that most
schools had no physical education curriculum and nutrition education
is not emphasized. Previous intervention strategies may have been
largely ineffective due to not being culturally sensitive or
practical. A 2006 survey found nearly 95 percent of Mississippi
adults considered childhood obesity to be a serious problem.
Mississippi locations by per capita income A
Mississippi U.S. quarter
Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Mississippi's total
state product in 2010 was $98 billion. GDP growth was .5 percent in
2015 and is estimated to be 2.4 in 2016 according to Dr. Darrin Webb,
the state's chief economist, who noted it would make two consecutive
years of positive growth since the recession. Per capita personal
income in 2006 was $26,908, the lowest per capita personal income of
any state, but the state also has the nation's lowest living costs.
2015 data records the adjusted per capita personal income at $40,105.
Mississippians consistently rank as one of the highest per capita in
At 56 percent, the state has one of the lowest workforce
participation rates in the country. Approximately 70,000 adults are
disabled which is 10 percent of the workforce.
Mississippi's rank as one of the poorest states is related to its
dependence on cotton agriculture before and after the Civil War, late
development of its frontier bottomlands in the
repeated natural disasters of flooding in the late 19th and early 20th
century that required massive capital investment in levees, and
ditching and draining the bottomlands, and slow development of
railroads to link bottomland towns and river cities. In addition,
when Democrats regained control of the state legislature, they passed
the 1890 constitution that discouraged corporate industrial
development in favor of rural agriculture, a legacy that would slow
the state's progress for years.
Before the Civil War,
Mississippi was the fifth-wealthiest state in
the nation, its wealth generated by the labor of slaves in cotton
plantations along the rivers. Slaves were counted as property and the
rise in the cotton markets since the 1840s had increased their value.
By 1860, a majority – 55 percent – of the population of
Mississippi was enslaved. Ninety percent of the Delta bottomlands
were undeveloped and the state had low overall density of population.
Sharecropper's daughter, Lauderdale County, 1935
Largely due to the domination of the plantation economy, focused on
the production of agricultural cotton , the state's elite was
reluctant to invest in infrastructure such as roads and railroads.
They educated their children privately.
Industrialization did not
reach many areas until the late 20th century. The planter aristocracy
, the elite of antebellum Mississippi, kept the tax structure low for
their own benefit, making only private improvements. Before the war
the most successful planters, such as Confederate President Jefferson
Davis , owned riverside properties along the
Mississippi and Yazoo
rivers in the
Mississippi Delta. Away from the riverfronts, most of
the Delta was undeveloped frontier.
During the Civil War, 30,000
Mississippi soldiers, mostly white, died
from wounds and disease, and many more were left crippled and wounded.
Changes to the labor structure and an agricultural depression
throughout the South caused severe losses in wealth. In 1860 assessed
valuation of property in
Mississippi had been more than $500 million,
of which $218 million (43 percent) was estimated as the value of
slaves. By 1870, total assets had decreased in value to roughly $177
Poor whites and landless former slaves suffered the most from the
postwar economic depression. The constitutional convention of early
1868 appointed a committee to recommend what was needed for relief of
the state and its citizens. The committee found severe destitution
among the laboring classes. It took years for the state to rebuild
levees damaged in battles. The upset of the commodity system
impoverished the state after the war. By 1868 an increased cotton crop
began to show possibilities for free labor in the state, but the crop
of 565,000 bales produced in 1870 was still less than half of prewar
Blacks cleared land, selling timber and developing bottomland to
achieve ownership. In 1900, two-thirds of farm owners in Mississippi
were blacks, a major achievement for them and their families. Due to
the poor economy, low cotton prices and difficulty of getting credit,
many of these farmers could not make it through the extended financial
difficulties. Two decades later, the majority of African Americans
were sharecroppers. The low prices of cotton into the 1890s meant that
more than a generation of
African Americans lost the result of their
labor when they had to sell their farms to pay off accumulated debts.
After the Civil War, the state refused for years to build human
capital by fully educating all its citizens. In addition, the reliance
on agriculture grew increasingly costly as the state suffered loss of
cotton crops due to the devastation of the boll weevil in the early
20th century, devastating floods in 1912–1913 and 1927, collapse of
cotton prices after 1920, and drought in 1930.
It was not until 1884, after the flood of 1882, that the state
created the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta District Levee Board and started
successfully achieving longer term plans for levees in the upper
Delta. Despite the state's building and reinforcing levees for years,
Great Mississippi Flood of 1927
Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 broke through and caused massive
flooding of 27,000 square miles (70,000 km2) throughout the Delta,
homelessness for hundreds of thousands, and millions of dollars in
property damages. With the Depression coming so soon after the flood,
the state suffered badly during those years. In the Great Migration ,
hundreds of thousands of
African Americans migrated North and West for
jobs and chances to live as full citizens.
ENTERTAINMENT AND TOURISM
The legislature's 1990 decision to legalize casino gambling along the
Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast has led to increased revenues and
economic gains for the state. Gambling towns in
attracted increased tourism: they include the Gulf Coast resort towns
St. Louis , Gulfport and Biloxi , and the
towns of Tunica (the third largest gaming area in the United States),
Greenville , Vicksburg and Natchez .
Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast,
Mississippi was the
second-largest gambling state in the Union, after
Nevada and ahead of
New Jersey . An estimated $500,000 per day in tax revenue was lost
following Hurricane Katrina's severe damage to several coastal casinos
in Biloxi in August 2005. Because of the destruction from this
hurricane, on October 17, 2005, Governor
Haley Barbour signed a bill
into law that allows casinos in Hancock and Harrison counties to
rebuild on land (but within 800 feet (240 m) of the water). The only
exception is in Harrison County , where the new law states that
casinos can be built to the southern boundary of
U.S. Route 90
U.S. Route 90 .
Mississippi had the sixth largest gambling revenue of any
state, with $2.25 billion. The federally recognized
Choctaw Indians has established a gaming casino on its reservation,
which yields revenue to support education and economic development.
Momentum Mississippi , a statewide, public–private partnership
dedicated to the development of economic and employment opportunities
in Mississippi, was adopted in 2005.
2014 Toyota Corolla built by Toyota Motor Manufacturing
Mississippi on display at the
Tupelo Automobile Museum
Mississippi, like the rest of its southern neighbors, is a
right-to-work state . It has some major automotive factories, such as
Mississippi Plant in Blue Springs and a Nissan Automotive
plant in Canton . The latter produces the
Nissan Titan .
Mississippi collects personal income tax in three tax brackets,
ranging from 3% to 5%. The retail sales tax rate in
Mississippi is 7%.
Tupelo levies a local sales tax of 2.5%. State sales tax growth was
1.4 percent in 2016 and estimated to be slightly less in 2017. For
purposes of assessment for ad valorem taxes , taxable property is
divided into five classes.
On August 30, 2007, a report by the
United States Census Bureau
Mississippi was the poorest state in the country. Major
cotton farmers in the Delta have large, mechanized plantations, and
they receive the majority of extensive federal subsidies going to the
state, yet many other residents still live as poor, rural, landless
laborers. The state's sizable poultry industry has faced similar
challenges in its transition from family-run farms to large mechanized
operations. Of $1.2 billion from 2002–2005 in federal subsidies to
farmers in the Bolivar County area of the Delta, only 5% went to small
farmers. There has been little money apportioned for rural
development. Small towns are struggling. More than 100,000 people have
left the region in search of work elsewhere. The state had a median
household income of $34,473.
As of March 2016, the state's unemployment rate was 6.5%, the third
highest in the country after
West Virginia .
FEDERAL SUBSIDIES AND SPENDING
With Mississippi's fiscal conservatism, in which
Medicaid , welfare ,
food stamps , and other social programs are often cut, eligibility
requirements are tightened, and stricter employment criteria are
Mississippi ranks as having the second-highest ratio of
spending to tax receipts of any state. In 2005,
received approximately $2.02 per dollar of taxes in the way of federal
spending. This ranks the state 2nd highest nationally, and represents
an increase from 1995, when
Mississippi received $1.54 per dollar of
taxes in federal spending and was 3rd highest nationally. This figure
is based on federal spending after large portions of the state were
Hurricane Katrina , requiring large amounts of federal
aid from the
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). However, from
1981 to 2005, it was at least number four in the nation for federal
spending vs. taxes received.
A proportion of federal spending in
Mississippi is directed toward
large federal installations such as
Camp Shelby , John C. Stennis
Space Center , Meridian Naval Air Station ,
Columbus Air Force Base
Columbus Air Force Base ,
Keesler Air Force Base . Three of these installations are located
in the area affected by
Hurricane Katrina .
LAW AND GOVERNMENT
Government of Mississippi
As with all other U.S. states and the federal government,
Mississippi's government is based on the separation of legislative,
executive and judicial power. Executive authority in the state rests
with the Governor, currently
Phil Bryant (R). The Lieutenant Governor,
Tate Reeves (R), is elected on a separate ballot. Both the
governor and lieutenant governor are elected to four-year terms of
office. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.S.
States, most of the heads of major executive departments are elected
by the citizens of
Mississippi rather than appointed by the governor.
Mississippi is one of five states that elects its state officials in
odd-numbered years (the others are
Louisiana , New Jersey
Mississippi holds elections for these offices every
four years, always in the year preceding Presidential elections.
Mississippi voters approved a state constitutional amendment
banning same-sex marriage and prohibiting
Mississippi from recognizing
same-sex marriages performed elsewhere. The amendment passed 86% to
14%, the largest margin in any state.
Same-sex marriage became legal
Mississippi on June 26, 2015, when the
United States Supreme Court
invalidated all state-level bans on same-sex marriage as
unconstitutional in the landmark case
Obergefell v. Hodges
Obergefell v. Hodges .
Mississippi is one of 32 states which have capital punishment as a
legal sentence (see
Capital punishment in Mississippi ).
Section 265 of the Constitution of the State of
that "No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold
any office in this state." This religious test restriction was held
to be unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in _Torcaso v.
Watkins _ (1961).
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential
Mississippi led the South in developing a disfranchising
constitution, passing it in 1890. By raising barriers to voter
registration, the state legislature disenfranchised most blacks and
many poor whites, excluding them from politics until the late 1960s.
It established a one-party state dominated by white Democrats.
In the mid-20th century,
Mississippi white voters together with other
southern white voters shifted their allegiance to the Republican Party
, first for national and then for state offices, but may still vote
for Democrats at the local level.
Mississippi was the last state to
have presidential elections in which one candidate gained a popular
vote exceeding 90% and 85%, in 1944 and 1964, respectively. In both
years, the voting reflected essentially only white voters in the
state, as most
African Americans were overwhelmingly still
disenfranchised under the state's 1890 constitution and discriminatory
practices. In 1944 , Democrat
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt won nearly 94% of
Mississippi's popular vote. In 1964 , Republican Barry M. Goldwater
carried the state with 87% of votes, reflecting the shift among
conservative white voters to supporting Republican candidates. Most
blacks were still disenfranchised, as they were until after passage of
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965 and concerted grassroots efforts to
achieve registration and encourage voting.
Mississippi has two international airports, one in Jackson
Jackson-Evers International Airport ) and one in Gulfport
Gulfport-Biloxi International Airport )
Vicksburg Bridge carries I-20 and U.S. 80 across the
Mississippi River at Vicksburg.
Mississippi is served by nine interstate highways :
and fourteen main U.S. Routes :
* US 11
* US 45
* US 49
* US 51
* US 61
* US 72
* US 78
* US 278
* US 80
* US 82
* US 84
* US 90
* US 98
* US 425
as well as a system of State Highways .
For more information, visit the
Mississippi Department of
Amtrak provides scheduled passenger service along two routes, the
_Crescent _ and _City of
New Orleans _. Prior to severe damage from
Hurricane Katrina , the _
Sunset Limited _ traversed the far south of
the state; the route originated in Los Angeles,
California and it
All but two of the
United States Class I railroads serve Mississippi
(the exceptions are the
Union Pacific and
Canadian Pacific ):
Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway 's
Illinois Central Railroad
Illinois Central Railroad subsidiary
provides north-south service.
BNSF Railway has a northwest-southeast line across northern
Kansas City Southern Railway provides east-west service in the
middle of the state and north-south service along the
Norfolk Southern Railway
Norfolk Southern Railway provides service in the extreme north and
* CSX has a line along the Gulf Coast.
* Big Black River
* Pearl River
Major Bodies Of Water
Ross Barnett Reservoir
Ross Barnett Reservoir at sunset.
Arkabutla Lake – 19,550 acres (79.1 km2) of water; constructed
and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Vicksburg District
Bay Springs Lake – 6,700 acres (27 km2) of water and 133 miles
(214 km) of shoreline; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps
Grenada Lake – 35,000 acres (140 km2) of water; became
operational in 1954; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers Vicksburg District
Ross Barnett Reservoir
Ross Barnett Reservoir – Named for
Ross Barnett , the 52nd
Governor of Mississippi ; 33,000 acres (130 km2) of water; became
operational in 1966; constructed and managed by The Pearl River Valley
Water Supply District, a state agency; Provides water supply for the
City of Jackson.
* Sardis Lake – 98,520 acres (398.7 km2) of water; became
operational in October 1940; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Vicksburg District
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (March
See also: Category:
List of colleges and universities in Mississippi and
Education in Mississippi School students in their library,
Tupelo, Mississippi, 1936
Until the Civil War era,
Mississippi had a small number of schools
and no educational institutions for African Americans. The first
school for black students was not established until 1862.
During Reconstruction in 1871, black and white Republicans drafted a
constitution that was the first to provide for a system of free public
education in the state. The state's dependence on agriculture and
resistance to taxation limited the funds it had available to spend on
any schools. In the early 20th century, there were still few schools
in rural areas, particularly for black children. With seed money from
Julius Rosenwald Fund, many rural black communities across
Mississippi raised matching funds and contributed public funds to
build new schools for their children. Essentially, many black adults
taxed themselves twice and made significant sacrifices to raise money
for the education of children in their communities, in many cases
donating land and/or labor to build such schools.
Blacks and whites attended segregated and separate public schools in
Mississippi until the late 1960s, although such segregation had been
declared unconstitutional by the
United States Supreme Court in its
1954 ruling in _
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education _. In the majority-black
Mississippi Delta counties, white parents worked through White
Citizens\' Councils to set up private segregation academies , where
they enrolled their children. Often funding declined for the public
But in the state as a whole, only a small minority of white children
were withdrawn from public schools. State officials believed they
needed to maintain public education to attract new businesses. After
several years of integration, whites often dominated local systems
anyway, maintaining white supremacy. Many black parents complained
that they had little representation in school administration, and that
many of their former administrators and teachers had been pushed out.
They have had to work to have their interests and children
In the late 1980s, the state had 954 public elementary and secondary
schools , with a total yearly enrollment of about 369,500 elementary
pupils and about 132,500 secondary students. Some 45,700 students
attended private schools .
In the 21st century, 91% of white children in the state attend public
schools and most of the black children. In 2008,
ranked last among the fifty states in academic achievement by the
American Legislative Exchange Council
American Legislative Exchange Council 's _Report Card on Education_,
with the lowest average ACT scores and sixth-lowest spending per pupil
in the nation. In contrast,
Mississippi had the 17th-highest average
SAT scores in the nation. As an explanation, the Report noted that 92%
Mississippi high school graduates took the ACT, but only 3% of
graduates took the SAT, apparently a self-selection of higher
achievers. This breakdown compares to the national average of high
school graduates taking the ACT and SAT, of 43% and 45%, respectively.
Although unusual in the West, school corporal punishment is common in
Mississippi, with 31,236 public school students paddled at least one
time. A greater percentage of students were paddled in Mississippi
than in any other state, according to government data for the
2011–2012 school year.
Mississippi students scored the lowest of any state on the
National Assessments of Educational Progress in both math and science.
Jackson , the state's capital city, is the site of the state
residential school for deaf and hard of hearing students. The
Mississippi School for the Deaf was established by the state
legislature in 1854 before the civil war.
Mississippi School for Mathematics and Science (MSMS) is a public
residential high school for academically gifted students. It is
Columbus, Mississippi on the campus of the Mississippi
University for Women . MSMS was founded in 1987 by appropriations from
Legislature and it is the fourth public, residential
high school for academically gifted students in the United States. The
school enrolls students only in the last two years of high school.
Rising tenth-grade students from across the state apply and are
selected on a competitive basis.
Mississippi School of the Arts (MSA) is an upper high school of
literary, visual, and performing arts on the historic Whitworth
College Campus in
Brookhaven, Mississippi , about sixty miles (100 km)
south of Jackson, Mississippi. MSA teaches 11th and 12th grade
students. The campus has six buildings designated as Mississippi
Landmarks, and is itself an historic district listed on the U.S.
National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places .
Mississippi School of the Arts provides advanced, residential
programs of study in visual arts, vocal music, theatre, dance, and
literary arts for "artistically gifted" 11th/12th grade students from
throughout Mississippi. The comprehensive residential and academic
curriculum prepares students for further studies or to pursue
employment. Some non-arts courses (some math, science, etc.) are
taught in conjunction with Brookhaven High School, 6 blocks away, to
provide a wider curriculum. Students apply for admission during their
Mississippi has been especially known for its music and
literature, it has embraced other forms of art. Its strong religious
traditions have inspired striking works by outsider artists who have
been shown nationally.
Jackson established the
USA International Ballet Competition , which
is held every four years. This ballet competition attracts the most
talented young dancers from around the world.
Magnolia Independent Film Festival , still held annually in
Starkville , is the first and oldest in the state.
George Ohr , known as the "Mad Potter of Biloxi" and the father of
abstract expressionism in pottery, lived and worked in Biloxi, MS.
Musicians of the state's Delta region were historically significant
to the development of the blues . Although by the end of the 19th
century, two-thirds of the farm owners were black, continued low
prices for cotton and national financial pressures resulted in most of
them losing their land. More problems built up with the boll weevil
infestation, when thousands of agricultural jobs were lost.
Jimmie Rodgers , a native of Meridian and guitarist/singer/songwriter
known as the "Father of Country Music", played a significant role in
the development of the blues. He and
Chester Arthur Burnett were
friends and admirers of each other's music. Their friendship and
respect is an important example of Mississippi's musical legacy. While
the state has had a reputation for being the most racist in the United
States, individual musicians created an integrated music community.
Mississippi musicians created new forms by combining and creating
variations on musical traditions from Africa with the musical
traditions of white Southerners, a tradition largely rooted in
The state is creating a
Blues Trail , with dedicated
markers explaining historic sites significant to the history of blues
music, such as Clarksdale 's Riverside Hotel, where
Bessie Smith died
after her auto accident on Highway 61 . The Riverside Hotel is just
one of many historical blues sites in Clarksdale. The Delta Blues
Museum there is visited by tourists from all over the world. Close by
is "Ground Zero", a contemporary blues club and restaurant co-owned by
Morgan Freeman .
Elvis Presley , who created a sensation in the 1950s as a crossover
artist and contributed to rock 'n' roll, was a native of
Tupelo . From
Leontyne Price to the alternative rock band
3 Doors Down
3 Doors Down ,
to gulf and western singer
Jimmy Buffett , modern rock/jazz/world
Clifton Hyde , to rappers
David Banner , Big
Mississippi musicians have been significant in
Mississippi Braves outfielder Cody Johnson at
List of college athletic programs in Mississippi
* Biloxi is home to the
Biloxi Shuckers baseball team, a AA minor
league affiliate of the
Milwaukee Brewers and member of the Southern
League are currently located in Biloxi at
* Clinton is home to the
Mississippi Brilla soccer team. The Brilla
are a member of the
USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League .
* Pearl is home to the
Mississippi Braves baseball team. The Braves
are an AA minor league affiliate of the
Atlanta Braves . They play in
the Southern League .
* Southaven is home to the
Mississippi RiverKings hockey team,
formerly known as the Memphis RiverKings. The RiverKings are a member
Southern Professional Hockey League
Southern Professional Hockey League .
List of people from Mississippi
List of people from Mississippi Oprah Winfrey,
pictured in 2011, was born in Kosciusko .
Lacey Chabert ,
Morgan Freeman ,
Jim Henson , James Earl
Gerald McRaney ,
Parker Posey ,
Jamie Lynn Spears
Jamie Lynn Spears , Sela Ward
Walter Inglis Anderson and
George E. Ohr
George E. Ohr
Leon Bramlett ,
Ricky Stenhouse, Jr. ,
Cool Papa Bell
Cool Papa Bell ,
Brett Favre ,
Kris Mangum ,
John Mangum ,
Al Jefferson ,
Monta Ellis ,
Clinton Portis ,
Eric Moulds ,
Archie Manning ,
Deuce McAllister ,
Steve McNair ,
Travis Outlaw ,
Walter Payton , and
William Faulkner ,
John Grisham ,
Charlaine Harris ,
Thomas Harris ,
Germany Kent ,
Kathryn Stockett ,
Jesmyn Ward , Eudora
Tennessee Williams ,
Shelby Foote ,
Barry Hannah and Richard
* Civil rights leaders:
James Bevel ,
Medgar Evers , Fannie Lou
Aaron Henry ,
James Meredith , and
* Classical musicians: John Alexander ,
Ruby Elzy , Elizabeth Taylor
Leontyne Price , and
William Grant Still
* Fashion Designers: Patrick Kelly
Pepper Keenan ,
Jimi Jamison ,
3 Doors Down
3 Doors Down , Saving
David Banner ,
Hayley Williams ,
Big K.R.I.T. ,
Lance Bass ,
Jimmy Buffett ,
David L Cook
David L Cook ,
Bo Diddley , David "Honeyboy"
Faith Hill ,
Randy Houser ,
Mississippi John Hurt , Howlin\'
Wolf , Robert Johnson ,
Albert King ,
B.B. King ,
Denise LaSalle ,
Elvis Presley ,
Charlie Patton ,
Charley Pride ,
LeAnn Rimes , Jimmie
David Ruffin ,
Britney Spears ,
Conway Twitty , Muddy Waters
Tammy Wynette , Jumpin\' Gene Simmons ,
Bobbie Gentry , and Blind
IN POPULAR CULTURE
* Children in the
United States and Canada often count
"One-Mississippi, two-Mississippi" during informal games such as hide
and seek to approximate counting by seconds.
* Mississippi's low state rankings has given rise to the saying
Thank God for Mississippi ", denoting relief that the speaker's state
isn't the lowest.
* On March 12, 1894, the Biedenharn Candy Company bottled the first
Coca-Cola in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Root beer was invented in Biloxi
in 1898 by Edward Adolf Barq, the namesake of Barq\'s Root Beer .
Teddy bear gets its name from President Theodore "Teddy"
Roosevelt . On a 1902 hunting trip to
Sharkey County, Mississippi
Sharkey County, Mississippi , he
ordered the mercy killing of a wounded bear.
* In 1935, the world's first night rodeo held outdoors under
electric lights was produced by
Earl Bascom and Weldon Bascom in
Marion County, Mississippi
* In 1936, Dr. Leslie Rush , of Rush Hospital in Meridian,
Mississippi , performed the first bone pinning in the United States.
The "Rush Pin" is still in use.
Burnita Shelton Matthews from near
Hazlehurst, Mississippi , was
the first woman appointed as a judge of a U.S. district court . She
was appointed by
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman on October 21, 1949.
Marilyn Monroe won the Mrs.
Mississippi finals in the 1952 film
_We\'re Not Married! _.
Texas Rose Bascom, of
Columbia, Mississippi , became the most
famous female trick roper in the world, performing on stage and in
Hollywood movies. She toured the world with
Bob Hope , billed as the
"Queen of the Trick Ropers", and was the first Mississippian to be
inducted into the
National Cowgirl Hall of Fame
National Cowgirl Hall of Fame .
* In 1963, Dr. James D. Hardy of the University of Mississippi
Medical Center performed the first human lung transplant in Jackson,
Mississippi. In 1964, Dr. Hardy performed the first heart transplant,
transplanting the heart of a chimpanzee into a human, where it beat
for 90 minutes.
* "At 10:00 a.m. on October 22, 1964, the
United States government
detonated an underground nuclear device in Lamar County, in south
Mississippi. (...) The Project Salmon blast was about one-third as
powerful as the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima in 1945. (...) The
Project Sterling blast, on December 3, 1966, was considerably weaker
than the blast two years earlier, as it was intended to be."
* On January 8, 1935,
Elvis Presley was born in Tupelo.
* In the 1964 song
Mississippi Goddam the anger over racial murders
in the southern states is described by
Nina Simone .
* Several warships have been named USS _Mississippi_ .
* The comic book character Rogue , from the well-known series _X-Men
_, is a Mississippian and self-declared southern belle . Her home town
is located in the fictional county of Caldecott.
* In 2013, researchers at the University of
Center discovered a functional cure for
HIV/AIDS in infants.
* Many of legal thriller writer
John Grisham 's novels are set in
and around the fictional town of Clanton, in the equally fictional
Ford County, northwest Mississippi.
* In _Star Trek_, Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy, Chief Medical Officer
on the U.S.S. Enterprise, studied medicine at the University of
Mississippi Medical Center.
Johnny Carson attended
Millsaps College under an elite Navy
program to train officers, known as the V-12 Program from November
1943 to February 1945.
* The film _
Mississippi Burning _ (1988) is based around the FBI
investigation of the 1964 murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner .
It stars Gene Hackman and Willem Dafoe.
Index of Mississippi-related articles
Outline of Mississippi – organized list of topics about
* ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates".
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau .
June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
* ^ "Median Annual Household Income". _The Henry J. Kaiser Family
Foundation_. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
* ^ "Knob Reset". _NGS data sheet_.
U.S. National Geodetic Survey
U.S. National Geodetic Survey .
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United
States Geological Survey . 2001. Archived from the original on October
15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
* ^ Elevation adjusted to
North American Vertical Datum of 1988
North American Vertical Datum of 1988 .
* ^ "
Mississippi Annual State Health Rankings - 2013". _America's
Health Rankings_. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
* ^ "Percent of People Who Have Completed High School (Including
Equivalency) statistics – states compared – Statemaster".
Retrieved October 5, 2014.
* ^ "State Median Household Income Patterns: 1990–2010". U.S.
Census Bureau. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
* ^ "Aquaculture: Catfish",
Mississippi State University
* ^ Newport, Frank. "
Mississippi Is Most Religious U.S. State
New Hampshire are the least religious states".
_gallup.com/poll_. Gallup. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
* ^ "Mississippi". National Park Service. Retrieved July 16, 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on
August 15, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014. . Retrieved September 20,
* ^ "
Mississippi Weather Forecast-Mississippi
Climate". _ustravelweather.com_. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
* ^ David R. Roediger, _The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making
of the American Working Class_, New York: Verso, 1999, p. 146 ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ John Otto Solomon,_The Final Frontiers, 1880–1930:
Settling the Southern Bottomlands_. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999,
* ^ _A_ _B_ "About the levee: Physical development of a levee
system". Leveeboard.org. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008.
Retrieved July 30, 2010.
* ^ John Otto Solomon, _The Final Frontiers, 1880–1930: Settling
the Southern Bottomlands_. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999, p. 50,
ISBN 978-0313289637 .
* ^ Solomon (1999). _The Final Frontiers_. p. 70.
* ^ Prentice, Guy (2003). "Pushmataha,
Choctaw Indian Chief".
Southeast Chronicles. Archived from the original on December 2, 2007.
Retrieved February 11, 2008.
* ^ Mikko Saikku (January 28, 2010). "Bioregional Approach to
Southern History: The Yazoo-
Mississippi Delta". _Southern Spaces_.
Retrieved September 9, 2015.
* ^ Ben Wynne, _
Mississippi (On-The-Road Histories)_ (2007) p. 12
* ^ Kappler, Charles (1904). "Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties
Vol. II, Treaties". Government Printing Office. Archived from the
original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
* ^ Baird, W. David (1973). "The Choctaws Meet the Americans, 1783
to 1843". _The
Choctaw People_. United States: Indian Tribal Series.
p. 36. ASIN B001G42A16 . Library of Congress 73-80708.
* ^ Bond, Bradley (2005). Mississippi: A Documentary History. Univ.
Press of Mississippi. p. 68. ISBN 1617034304 .
* ^ Morris, Thomas D. (1999). _Southern Slavery and the Law,
1619–1860_. University of
North Carolina Press. p. 172. ISBN
* ^ Fede, Andrew (2012). People Without Rights (Routledge
Revivals): An Interpretation of the Fundamentals of the Law of Slavery
in the U.S. South.
Routledge . p. 79. ISBN 1136716106 .
* ^ McCain, William D. (1967), "The Administrations of David
Holmes, Governor of the
Mississippi Territory, 1809–1817", _Journal
Mississippi History_, vol. 29 (no. 3): pp. 328–347
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ John C. Willis, _Forgotten
Time: The Yazoo-
Mississippi Delta after the Civil War_.
Charlottesville: University of
Virginia Press, 2000, ISBN
* ^ "Historical Census Browser". Fisher.lib.virginia.edu. Archived
from the original on August 23, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ James T. Campbell, _Songs of Zion_, New York: Oxford
University Press, 1995, pp. 53–54, ISBN 9780195360059 , accessed
January 13, 2009
* ^ "The Church in the Southern Black Community", _Documenting the
South_, University of North Carolina, 2004, accessed January 15, 2009
* ^ _A_ _B_ W. E. B. DuBois, _Black Reconstruction in America,
1860–1880_. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1935; reprint New York: The
Free Press, 1998, p. 437, ASIN B00HMUYS7C.
* ^ V. L. Wharton, "The Race Issue in the Overthrow of
Reconstruction in Mississippi:" A Paper Read before the American
Historical Association, 1940, in _Phylon_ (1940–1956), Vol. 2, No. 4
(4th Qtr., 1941), pp. 362-370 via JSTOR (subscription required)
* ^ McMillen, Neil R. "The Politics of the Disfranchised". _Dark
Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow_. p. 43.
Retrieved August 1, 2015.
* ^ Stephen Edward Cresswell, _Rednecks, Redeemers and Race:
Mississippi after Reconstruction_, Jackson: University Press of
Mississippi, 2006, p. 124, ISBN 978-1578068470 .
* ^ "The Louisville Leader. Louisville, Kentucky". _Louisville
Leader Collection_. library.louisville.edu. May 19, 1923. Retrieved
May 28, 2016.
* ^ Randy J. Sparks. _Religion in Mississippi_ (online edition).
Rice University (2001).
* ^ Historical Census Browser, 1960
United States Census,
Virginia Archived August 23, 2007, at the Wayback
Machine ., accessed March 13, 2008
* ^ Joseph Crespino, "
Mississippi as Metaphor: State, Region and
Nation in Historical Imagination", _Southern Spaces_, October 23,
1996, accessed October 1, 2013
* ^ Michael Schenkler, "Memories of Queens College and an American
Tragedy", _Queens Press_, October 18, 2002, accessed March 15, 2008
* ^ "Robert G. Clark, 26 October 2000 (video)", The Morris W. H.
(Bill) Collins Speaker Series,
Mississippi State University, accessed
June 10, 2015
* ^ "Mississippi: Bourbon Borealis", _Time_, February 11, 1966.
* ^ "After oversight,
Mississippi ratifies 13th Amendment
abolishing slavery almost 150 years after its adoption". _Daily News_.
New York. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
* ^ "
Mississippi Officially Abolishes Slavery, Ratifies 13th
Amendment". ABC News. February 7, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
* ^ "
Mississippi fixes oversight, formally ratifies 13th Amendment
on slavery". Fox News. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
* ^ "Segregationist
Mississippi laws repealed". _The
* ^ John Blake (July 30, 2008). "Segregated Sundays". CNN.
Retrieved July 30, 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Susan Saulny, "Black and White and Married in
the Deep South: A Shifting Image", _The New York Times_, March 20,
2011, accessed October 25, 2012
* ^ Resident Population Data (February 18, 2012). "Resident
Population Data - 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the
original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population
for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010
to July 1, 2015".
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau . December 26, 2015. Archived
from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 26,
* ^ "Population and Population Centers by State – 2000". United
States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 12, 2001.
Retrieved December 5, 2008.
* ^ Pender, Geoff. (February 16, 2017). "13 things you need to know
about the state economy". Clarion Ledger website Retrieved February
* ^ "
Mississippi QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau".
Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012.
Retrieved March 14, 2012.
* ^ Liptak, Adam. "Same-Sex Marriage Is a Right, Supreme Court
Rules, 5-4". _The New York Times_. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
* ^ "
Mississippi leads nation in same-sex child rearing".
Mississippi Daily Journal_. August 26, 2011. Retrieved
March 12, 2012.
* ^ "
Mississippi QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau".
Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012.
Retrieved October 25, 2012.
* ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly
minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". _The Plain Dealer
* ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race,
1790 to 1990, and By
Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United
States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Archived from the original on
December 24, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
* ^ Population of Mississippi: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive
Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts
* ^ "2010 Census Data". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
David Hackett Fischer , _Albion\'s Seed: Four British Folkways
in America _, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.602–645
* ^ _Dominic J. Pulera, \'\'Sharing the Dream: White Males in a
Multicultural America\'\'_. Books.google.co.uk. October 20, 2004. ISBN
9780826416438 . Retrieved March 14, 2012.
* ^ "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 - Table 3" (PDF).
Retrieved February 18, 2012.
* ^ James C. Cobb, _The Most Southern Place on Earth: The
Mississippi Delta and the Roots of Regional Identity_ (1994) p. 244
* ^ Vivian Wu Wong, "Somewhere between White and Black: The Chinese
in Mississippi", _Magazine of History_, v10, n4, pp33–36, Summer
1996, accessed October 1, 2013
* ^ Thornell, John G. 2008. "A Culture in Decline: The Mississippi
Delta Chinese", _Southeast Review of Asian Studies_ 30: 196-202
* ^ Loewen, James W. 1971. _The
Mississippi Chinese: Between Black
and White_, Cambridge: Harvard University Press
* ^ Quan, Robert Seto. 1982. _Lotus Among the Magnolias: The
Mississippi Chinese_, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi
* ^ Judge, Phoebe. "Vietnamese Shrimpers May Lose Way Of Life
NPR . May 16, 2010. Retrieved on March 26, 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Mississippi – Languages". _city-data.com_. Retrieved
September 9, 2015.
* ^ " "
Mississippi – Languages". _city-data.com_. Retrieved
September 9, 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Mississippi History Now – Religion in Mississippi".
Mshistory.k12.ms.us. Archived from the original on October 8, 2010.
Retrieved July 30, 2010.
* ^ "
Presbyterian Church in America – Religious Groups – The
Association of Religion Data Archives". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "The
Association of Religion Data Archives State
Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
* ^ Frank Newport (March 27, 2012). "
Mississippi is The Most
Religious U.S. State". Gallup.
* ^ Mississippians Go to Church the Most; Vermonters, Least.
Gallup.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
* ^ State of the States: Importance of Religion. Gallup.com.
Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
* ^ "Adults in Mississippi". _Pew Research Center's Religion &
Public Life Project_. May 11, 2015.
* ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_01.pdf
* ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_12.pdf
* ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr66/nvsr66_01.pdf
* ^ "Census.gov: Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households
2000" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2010.
* ^ "
Mississippi leads nation in same-sex child rearing". Northeast
Mississippi Daily Journal. August 26, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
* ^ Ost, Jason. "Facts and Findings from \'\'The Gay and Lesbian
Atlas\'\'". Urban.org. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
* ^ "LGBT couples can be refused service under new Mississippi
law". _The Guardian_. April 5, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
* ^ "
Mississippi law opens a new front in the battle over gay
rights". _Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
* ^ "
Mississippi passes controversial \'religious freedom\' bill".
BBC News. April 5, 2016.
* ^ "Commonwealth Fund, \'\'Aiming Higher: Results from a State
Scorecard on Health System Performance\'\', 2009".
Commonwealthfund.org. August 3, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
* ^ "Deaths: Final Data for 2013, table 18" (PDF). CDC/National
Center for Health Statistics. May 30, 2014.
* ^ "Health, United States, 2014" (PDF). U.S Department of Health
and Human Services. May 2015.
* ^ Ronni Mott (December 3, 2008). "We-the-Fat". _Jackson Free
Press_. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
* ^ Thomas M. Maugh (August 28, 2007). "
Mississippi heads list of
fattest states". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
* ^ Victor Sutton, PhD, and Sandra Hayes, MPH, Bureau of Health
Data and Research,
Mississippi Department of Health (October 29,
2008). "Impact of Social, Behavioral and Environmental Factors on
Overweight and Obesity among
African American Women in Mississippi".
American Public Health Association: APHA Scientific Session and Event
Listing at 2008 136th Annual Meeting. Archived from the original on
August 11, 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple
names: authors list (link )
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gail D. Hughes, DrPH, MPH and Gloria Areghan, MSN
both with Department of Preventive Medicine-Epidemiology, University
Mississippi Medical Centre; Bern'Nadette Knight, MSPH with
Department of General Internal Medicine, University of Mississippi
Medical Center and Abiodun A. Oyebola, MD with Department of Public
Health, Jackson State University (November 11, 2008). "Obesity and the
African American Adolescent, The
Mississippi Delta Report". American
Public Health Association: 2002 130th Annual APHA Meeting. Retrieved
December 20, 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* ^ Lei Zhang, PhD MBA, Office of Health Data and Research,
Mississippi State Department of Health; Jerome Kolbo, PhD ACSW,
College of Health, Bonnie Harbaugh, PhD RN, School of Nursing and
Charkarra Anderson-Lewis, PhD MPH, Department of Community Health
Sciences, University of Southern
Mississippi (October 29, 2008).
"Public Perception of Childhood Obesity among
American Public Health Association: : APHA Scientific Session and
Event Listing at 2008 136th Annual Meeting. Archived from the original
on August 11, 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple
names: authors list (link )
* ^ "GDP by State". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 13,
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Pender, 2017.
* ^ "Generosity Index". Catalogueforphilanthropy.org. Retrieved
July 30, 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ John Otto Solomon,_The Final Frontiers, 1880–1930:
Settling the Southern Bottomlands_. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999,
pp.10–11, 42–43, 50–51, and 70
* ^ Naipaul, V.S. (1990). _A Turn in the South_. Vintage. p. 216.
ISBN 978-0679724889 . The people who wrote the constitution wanted the
state to remain 'a pastoral state, an agricultural state.' They didn't
want big business or the corporations coming in, encouraging
'unfavorable competition for jobs with the agricultural community.'
* ^ "
Mississippi Almanac Entry". _The New York Times_. July 15,
2004. Retrieved May 12, 2010. , The New York Times Travel Almanac
* ^ "Historical Census Browser". Fisher.lib.virginia.edu. Retrieved
July 30, 2010.
* ^ W. E. B. DuBois,_Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880_.
New York: Harcourt Brace, 1935; reprint New York: The Free Press,
1998, p. 432
* ^ Du Bois (1935), _Black Reconstruction_, p. 437
* ^ Du Bois (1935), _Black Reconstruction_, pp. 432, 434
* ^ Katrina Stats. City of Biloxi. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
* ^ 2013 edition of State of the States: The AGA Survey of Casino
Entertainment Archived October 19, 2013, at the
Wayback Machine ..
American Gaming Association. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
* ^ "
Mississippi Direct Financial Incentives 2011 - Mississippi,
Momentum Mississippi". _Area Development Online_. March 2011.
Retrieved June 16, 2014.
* ^ "Local Sales Taxes Add Significant Burden on Consumers". The
Tax Foundation. September 22, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
* ^ "Ad Valorem Tax".
Mississippi Department of Revenue. Archived
from the original on July 4, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
* ^ Stuesse, Angela and Laura Helton. "Low-Wage Legacies, Race, and
the Golden Chicken in Mississippi: Where Contemporary Immigration
African American Labor History", _Southern Spaces_, December 31,
* ^ Gilbert M. Gaul and Dan Morgan (June 19, 2007), "A Slow Demise
in the Delta: US Farm Subsidies Favor Big Over Small and White Over
Blacks", _The Washington Post_, accessed March 29, 2008
* ^ Les Christie (August 30, 2007). "The Richest (and Poorest)
Places in the U.S.". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved September 22, 2007.
* ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics
* ^ "Tax Foundation". Tax Foundation. Retrieved July