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The MISSISSAUGA are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
-speaking First Nations people located in southern Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
. They are closely related to the Ojibwa . The name "Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
word Misi-zaagiing, meaning " Great River-mouth." It closely related to the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
word Misswezahging, which means ‘a river with many outlets.’

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Legacy * 3 Today * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

HISTORY

According to the histories of the Anishinaabe, after departing the "Second Stopping Place" near Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
, the core Anishinaabe peoples migrated along the shores of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
to what is now southern Michigan
Michigan
. They became "lost" both physically and spiritually. The Mississaugas
Mississaugas
migrated along a northern route by the Credit River , to Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
. These were considered their historic traditional lands on the shores of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
and northern Lake Huron around the Mississagi River . The Mississaugas
Mississaugas
called for the core Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
to Midewiwin meaning 'return to the path of the good life'. The core Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
peoples formed the Council of Three Fires and migrated from their "Third Stopping Place" near the present city of Detroit to their "Fourth Stopping Place" on Manitoulin Island , along the eastern shores of Georgian Bay.

By the time the French explorers arrived in 1534, the Mississaugas were a distinct tribe of Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
peoples, living along the Mississagi River and on Manitoulin Island. On the 1675 Carte du Mississippi et des lacs Supérieur, Michigan
Michigan
et Huron, the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
were recorded as "Missisakingdachirinouek" (Misi-zaaging dash ininweg: "Regular-speakers of the Great River-mouth"). They had moved from the Mississagi River area southward into the Kawartha lakes region. From this location, a smaller contingent moved southwest to an area along the Credit River , just west of modern-day Toronto
Toronto
. The French identified the peoples as Mississauga.

Alternate spellings of the name are Mississaga, Massassauga and Missisauga, plural forms of these three, and " Mississauga
Mississauga
Indians". Before the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
language replaced the Wyandot language in mid-17th century as the lingua franca of the Great Lakes region, the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
were also known by the name (exonym) which the Wendat called them.

When Conrad Weiser conducted a census in Logstown in 1748, he identified the people as Tisagechroamis, his attempt at conveying the sound of their exonym , name in Wendat . Other variants of the spelling were Tisagechroamis, Tisaghechroamis, Tisagechroan, Tisagechroanu, and Zisaugeghroanu. "The Tisagechroanu were the Mississagas from Lake Huron , a large tribe of French Indians, or under French influences. The name Tisagechroanue here is probably a misprint, for it is most often found Zisaugeghroanu."

In the waning years of the American Revolution
American Revolution
, starting in 1781, the British Crown
British Crown
purchased land from the Mississauga
Mississauga
in a series of transactions that encompassed much of present-day southern Ontario
Ontario
. They wanted to make land grants to Loyalists who left property in the Thirteen Colonies to reward them for loyalty, and the Crown also wanted to develop this area of the country with farms and towns. In the 21st century, the Canadian government awarded the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of the New Credit First Nation nearly $145 million in settlement of a land claim because of the Crown's underpayment in the 18th century.

LEGACY

* The city of Mississauga
Mississauga
is named after the Mississauga * Western and Eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) are named after them. * Fort Mississauga
Mississauga
is named after them.

TODAY

Historically, there were five First Nations that made up the MISSISSAUGA NATIONS. Today, the six Mississauga
Mississauga
nations are the following (listed under their historical counterpart, if applicable):

* Mississauga
Mississauga
First Nation — Mississagi River 8 Reserve

* Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of Chibaouinani (historical)

* Alderville First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of Alnwick) — Alderville First Nation Reserve , Sugar Island 37A Reserve

* Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of the Credit (historical)

* Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of Beldom (historical) * Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation — New Credit 40A Reserve

* Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of Matchedash (historical)

* Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of Rice Lake, Mud Lake and Scugog Lake (historical)

* Curve Lake First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of Mud Lake) — Curve Lake First Nation 35 Reserve , Curve Lake 35A Reserve and Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A * Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of Grape Island (historical) * Hiawatha First Nation
Hiawatha First Nation
(formerly: Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of Rice Lake) — Hiawatha First Nation
Hiawatha First Nation
Indian Reserve , Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A * Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of Scugog Island Reserve , Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A

One of the largest is the MISSISSAUGAS OF THE NEW CREDIT FIRST NATIONS. As of 2005, the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of New Credit have a population of 1,375. All the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
are a small part of the Ojibwa nation of 200,000 people.

SEE ALSO

* Crawford Purchase * Toronto
Toronto
Purchase

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to MISSISSAUGAS .

* ^ Anonymous (1675): * ^ George Thornton Fleming, Vol. 1, History of Pittsburgh and environs, from prehistoric days to the beginning of the American revolution, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Digital Research Library, 1999

EXTERNAL LINKS

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