Missing and murdered Indigenous women
Missing and murdered Indigenous women (MMIW) is an issue affecting
Indigenous people in
Canada and the United States, including the First
Métis and Native American communities. It has been
described as a Canadian national crisis. Canadian Indigenous
women are disproportionately affected by all forms of violence, and
are significantly over-represented among female Canadian homicide
victims. They are also far more likely than other women to go
The exact number of Indigenous women and girls who have gone missing
or have been murdered in
Canada since the 1970s is uncertain, with
estimates ranging from approximately 1,000 to nearly 4,000. In
response to activists, the Canadian government funded data collection
on missing and murdered women, ending in 2010; the Native Women's
Canada documented 582 cases since the 1960s, with 39%
occurring after 2000. But aboriginal groups say that many more women
have been missing, with the highest number of cases in British
Columbia. Some notable cases have included 19 women killed in the
Highway of Tears
Highway of Tears murders, and up to 49 women, many of whom were
Indigenous, murdered by Robert Pickton.
Responding to repeated calls of Indigenous groups, other activists,
and non-governmental organizations, the Government of
Justin Trudeau established the National Inquiry into
Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls in September 2016.
2.1 Details of 2014 RCMP investigation and update
2.2 Highway of Tears
3 National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and
4.1 Women's Memorial March
4.2 Sisters in Spirit Vigils
4.3 Families of Sisters in Spirit
5 Creative responses
5.1 REDress Project
5.2 Walking with Our Sisters
5.3 Faceless Dolls Project
5.4 Female inuksuit
5.5 Missing & Murdered: Who Killed Alberta Williams?
5.6 Big Green Sky
6 See also
8 External links
As a group that has been "socially, economically, and politically
marginalized", Indigenous women have been frequent targets for
hatred and violence. Underlying factors such as poverty and
homelessness contribute to their victimization, as do historical
factors such as racism, sexism, and the legacy of colonialism. The
trauma caused by abuses under Canada's residential school system also
likely plays a role. Indigenous women are between 3 and 3.5
times more likely to be victims of violent crime than other
women, and the violence they face is often more
Canada does not maintain a database for missing people, which makes it
difficult to determine the rate at which Indigenous women are murdered
or go missing, or to compare their data to those of other populations.
In addition, various groups have collected data from different periods
of time and different criteria. Available data suggests, however, that
the number of missing and murdered Indigenous women is
disproportionately high compared to their percentage of the total
Although Indigenous women and girls make up only 4% of the female
population in Canada, they represented 16% of all female homicides in
Canada between 1980 and 2012. A 2011 Statistics
estimated that Indigenous women are seven times more likely than other
women to be victims of a homicide. According to a 2007 study
by the province of Saskatchewan – the only province to have
systematically reviewed its missing persons files for cases involving
Indigenous women – Indigenous women were found to have made up
6% of the province's population, and 60% of the province's missing
The total number of missing and murdered Indigenous women is unclear.
A 2014 report by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, ordered by the
Stephen Harper administration, stated 1,181 Indigenous women were
killed or went missing across the country between 1980 and 2012.
With government funding, the Native Women's Association of Canada
(NWAC) had documented 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal
women from the 1960s to 2010, but they believe there are many
more. Of the cases analyzed by the RCMP, 67% were murder victims, 20%
were missing persons, 4% were suspicious deaths, and 9% were
In 2016 Patricia Hajdu, the Canadian minister for the status of women,
suggested that the total number of missing and murdered Indigenous
women could be closer to 4,000. She was basing her statement on
information supplied by NWAC and originally collected by the Walk 4
Justice initiative. She said that historically there had been
underreporting by law enforcement of cases of murdered or missing
"Gladys Radek, co-founder of Walk 4 Justice, said her group collected
the names while speaking to people during a trek across
2008. They stopped collecting information in 2011." Further, "When CBC
News contacted one of the activists who supplied NWAC with the
information, she said "roughly 60 to 70 per cent" of the 4,000 or so
people on her list were Indigenous."
CBC in 2016 investigated accounts of unsolved cases of missing and
murdered Indigenous women, creating an interactive database that now
numbers more than 300 persons. CBC investigated 34 cases in which
families disagreed with authorities' determination that no foul play
was involved; it found "suspicious circumstances, unexplained bruises
and other factors that suggest further investigation is
Details of 2014 RCMP investigation and update
In late 2013, the Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
(RCMP) initiated a study of reported cases of missing and murdered
Indigenous women across all police jurisdictions in Canada. The 2014
report found that there were 1,181 incidents of female homicides and
unresolved missing Indigenous females. Of these 1,181 incidents,
there were 225 unsolved cases between 1980 and 2012; 80% of all female
homicides (Indigenous and non-Indigenous) are solved. RCMP statistics
were updated in 2015, showing murder rates and the percentage solved
(80%) to be essentially unchanged. The RCMP does not collect figures
from the 300 non-RCMP police agencies in Canada.
Highway of Tears
Highway of Tears
Highway of Tears refers to the murder and disappearances
since 1969 of mainly Indigenous women along the 700-kilometre stretch
of Highway 16 from Prince George to Prince Rupert, British
Columbia. Government organizations and Indigenous
organizations have different estimates of the number of victims along
the highway, with police identifying 19 murders, 13 of them teenagers,
and other organizations placing the number as closer to 40. Many
people hitchhike along this stretch of highway because they do not own
cars and there is a lack of public transit. The Highway of Tears
murders has led to initiatives by the British Columbia government to
dissuade women from hitchhiking, such as billboards along the highway
warning women of the potential risks. Numerous documentaries have
focused on the victims associated with this highway. The Canadian
media often refer to the highway in coverage of missing and murdered
Indigenous women, girls, and Two-Spirit people in Canada.
The RCMP in British Columbia launched Project E-PANA in 2005, in
response to the
Highway of Tears
Highway of Tears crisis. It initiated an investigation
of 9 murdered women, launching a task force in 2006. In 2007 it added
an additional 9 cases, which include cases of both murdered and
missing women along Highways 16, 97 and 5. The task force consists of
more than 50 investigators, and cases include those from the years
1969 to 2006.
National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and
Prime Minister of Canada, Justin Trudeau, giving a speech on missing
and murdered Indigenous women in front of Parliament in Ottawa in
After the 2015 Canadian federal election, the Liberal Government
upheld their campaign promise and announced the initiation of a
national inquiry on December 8, 2015. The Canadian government had
pre-inquiry meetings with a variety of people including families,
front-line workers, representatives of the provinces and Indigenous
organizations from December 2015 through February 2016, in order to
determine how to structure the inquiry. The mandate of the inquiry and
the projected length of time of the inquiry were published August 3,
2016. The estimated cost is $53.8 million. In addition, the government
announced $16.17 million over four years to create family information
liaison units in each province and territory.
The inquiry was established as independent from the Government of
Canada, and five commissioners were appointed to oversee the
independent inquiry process:
Marion Buller (chief commissioner),
Michèle Audette, Qajaq Robinson, Marilyn Poitras, and Brian
Eyolfson. An interim report was expected from the Inquiry in
November 2017. The initial conclusion date for the inquiry was set as
December 31, 2018; however, in May 2017 the Chief Commissioner of the
inquiry said the inquiry might seek an extension from the federal
After the first public hearing in April 2017, complaints by observers
started to arise about the inquiry’s terms of reference, its
composition and administration, and a perceived lack of
transparency. Evidence was taken from 50 witnesses during the
first hearings at Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, over three days in May
In July 2017 the Assembly of
First Nations asked the Federal
Government to reset the inquiry, revisit its mandate, and extend its
timeline to allow more data gathering.
Throughout 2017 a number of key staffers left the inquiry.
Executive director Michèle Moreau announced in June that she would
leave her position at the end of July 2017. In July 2017 Marilyn
Poitras resigned as a commissioner. She said in her resignation letter
to the Prime Minister,
"It is clear to me that I am unable to perform my duties as a
commissioner with the process designed in its current
structure ... I believe this opportunity to engage community on
the place and treatment of Indigenous women is extremely important and
necessary. It is time for
Canada to face this relationship and repair
 On August 8, 2017, Waneek Horn-Miller, the inquiry's director of
community relations, stepped down, and on October 8, 2017, CBC
News reported that the Inquiry’s lead lawyer and research director
had also resigned.
Indigenous activists have been organizing protests and vigils relating
to missing and murdered Indigenous women, girls, and two-spirit
individuals for decades. The Native Women's Association of Canada
was one of many organizations that created a database of missing and
murdered Indigenous women. The community-based activist groups
Families of Sisters in Spirit and No More Silence have also been
gathering the names of missing and murdered Indigenous women since
2005. In 2015 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada's
Calls to Action also called for the federal government to establish a
public inquiry into the issues of MMIW. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
announced the inquiry in December 2015.
Women's Memorial March
Women's Memorial March was on February 14, 1991, in Downtown
Eastside, Vancouver, which had numerous missing or murdered Indigenous
women. The march was in response to the murder of a Coast Salish
woman. The annual marches were intended to commemorate Indigenous
women who have been murdered or have gone missing to build support for
a national inquiry and program of response. In 2016 the government
announced it would undertake such an inquiry. During the Vancouver
march, the committee and public stop at the sites where the women were
last seen, or murdered, holding a moment of silence as a sign of
respect. The committee has drawn attention to the issue locally,
nationally and internationally. The committee is made up of family
members, front-line workers, close friends, and loved ones who have
suffered the losses of Indigenous women during recent decades.
This event has expanded and as of 2017, was held annually on
Valentine's Day in more than 22 communities across North America. The
march aims to break down barriers and raise awareness about racial
stereotypes and stigmas that contribute to the high rate of missing
and murdered Indigenous women in Canada.
Sisters in Spirit Vigils
In 2002 the Native Women's Association of
Canada (NWAC), Amnesty
International Canada, KAIROS, Elizabeth Fry Society, and the Anglican
Canada formed the National Coalition for our Stolen Sisters,
an initiative designed to raise awareness about the MMIW crisis in
Canada. In 2005 Indigenous women founded Sisters in Spirit, a
research, education and policy program run by Indigenous women, with a
focus on raising awareness about violence against Indigenous women,
girls, and two-spirit persons. Sisters in Spirit collected the
details of almost 600 cases of Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women
in Canada, including some historical cases that were not accepted by
police, and cases where police closed the book on a woman's death
despite lingering questions from family members. This was the
first database of its kind in
Canada in terms of its detail and scope,
however the federal government stopped funding the program in
2010. Critics of the cut say it was meant to silence the Native
Women’s Association of Canada, the group behind the database.
However, Sisters in Spirit vigils continue to be held across Canada
every year on the 4th of October.
Bridget Tolley founded the Sisters in Spirit vigils in 2005 to honour
of the lives of Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women, Girls and
two-spirit persons. This annual event is organized in
partnership with the NWAC. In 2006, 11 vigils were held across the
country and in 2014, there were 216 vigils. The annual Fort St.
John, British Columbia vigil has been taking place since 2008,
honouring missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls in northeast
British Columbia. Sisters in Spirit continue to hold an annual,
national vigil on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Families of Sisters in Spirit
In 2011 Bridget Tolley cofounded Families of Sisters in Spirit (FSIS)
in response to the funding cuts to Sisters in Spirit. FSIS is
a grassroots group led by Indigenous women dedicated to seeking
justice for missing Indigenous women, girls, and two-spirit persons
through public awareness and advocacy. FSIS differs from Sisters
in Spirit insofar as FSIS is fully autonomous, all-volunteer, and
accepts no government funding. Tolley is Algonquin from the
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation. Her activism began after
her mother, Gladys Tolley, was struck and killed by a Sûreté du
Québec police cruiser while walking across a two-lane highway on the
Kitigan Zibi-Anishinabeg First Nation on October 5, 2001. A police
investigation into her death revealed no wrongdoing and deemed the
case an accident. However, Tolley claims police failed to inform
her family that her mother’s case was closed, and that Montreal
police were brought in even though the local Kitigan Zibi police
department had jurisdiction over the scene and should have been called
to secure it. Bridget Tolley has since campaigned for justice for
her mother, demanding her case be reopened and subject to an
independent investigation by the Province of Quebec. She remains a
committed activist for social justice regarding police violence,
education, housing, and child welfare.
The REDress Project is based in
Canada and is a public art
commemoration of the Aboriginal women known to be missing or
murdered. The installation consists of red dresses, which are
placed to hang or flat in public spaces. Canadian Jaime Black
(Métis) began the project in 2000. She told
CTV News that "a friend
of hers, who is also an aboriginal, explained that red was the only
colour spirits could see. 'So (red) is really a calling back of the
spirits of these women and allowing them a chance to be among us and
have their voices heard through their family members and
community.'" The REDress Project has been displayed at the
campuses of the universities of Winnipeg, Saskatchewan, Kamloops,
Alberta, Toronto, and Queen's University as well as the Manitoba
Legislature, and the Canadian Museum of Human Rights.
Walking with Our Sisters
Walking with Our Sisters
Walking with Our Sisters exhibition in the Shingwauk Auditorium at
Algoma University in 2014
Walking with Our Sisters
Walking with Our Sisters is a community-based art installation,
commemorating murdered or missing women and children from Indigenous
communities. The project is community-led, from the creation of the
piece to the facilitation of the exhibit at different sites. The hope
is to raise awareness on this issue and create a space for
dialogue-based community discussions on this issue. It is a solely
The art project is a collection of vamps from moccasins. A vamp is the
extra layer of leather for the top lip of the moccasin. The
installation has more than 1763 pairs of adult vamps and 108 pairs for
children. Each pair is authentic and custom made for each individual
woman reported missing. The vamps represent the unfinished lives of
the missing or murdered women.
The project began in 2012, with a call to action issued on Facebook.
People were asked to design and create moccasin tops. By July 2013,
the project leaders had received 1,600 vamps, more than tripling their
initial goal of 600. Men, women, and children of all races responded
to the call and became active in the project.
This installation consists of vamps placed on the floor of a public
space. It travels to select galleries and art exhibition halls.
Patrons are asked to take off their shoes and walk alongside the vamps
in the gallery, to ensure that the people they represent are not
forgotten and to show solidarity with the missing or murdered women.
Booked until 2019, the installation is scheduled for 25 locations
across North America.
Faceless Dolls Project
Begun by the Native Women's Association of
Canada (NWAC) in 2012, the
Faceless Dolls Project consists of making dolls to represent missing
and murdered women, and those affected by violence. The dolls are
designed as "a process of reconstructing identity" for women who lose
individuality in becoming victims of crime. The first dolls were made
to commemorate the 582 MMIW documented by the Association. They are
intended as an artistic reminder of the lives and identities of the
affected women and girls. NWAC has brought this art project to
universities and communities across Canada, where participants join in
making dolls as a form of activism and raising awareness of the issue
Since late 2015 Kristen Villebrun, a local activist in Hamilton,
Ontario, and about ten other Indigenous women have been constructing
inuksuit on the Chedoke Radial Trail. This trail connects to the
Chedoke Creek, a watercourse in Hamilton. An inuksuk is a man-made
stone structure commonly used for navigation or trail markers. Inuksuk
translates to "in the likeness of a human".
The women began the project in October 2015 when they noticed that
shadows cast by previously constructed inuksuit on the trail were
lifelike and reminiscent of women. These activists saw an opportunity
to use these structures as a way of drawing attention to the issue of
the missing women. They have constructed 1,181 inuksuit, working for
six hours a day, four days a week. The project has attracted many
questions, with hundreds of people stopping to inquire about the
inuksuit. The women welcomed the questions, and they announced their
intention to continue to build the female inuksuit until the
government undertook an official inquiry into missing Indigenous
women. In December 2015 Prime Minister
Justin Trudeau announced he
would initiate such an inquiry.
In February 2016, Lucy Annanack (Nunavik) and a team of women built
and placed another 1,200 inuksuit in Montreal, Quebec.
Missing & Murdered: Who Killed Alberta Williams?
In October 2016 journalist Connie Walker and the Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation launched a podcast titled Who Killed Alberta
Williams? The eight-part podcast examines the missing and murdered
Indigenous women crisis in
Canada though the lens of a specific case,
the murder of Alberta Williams in 1989 along the
Highway of Tears
Highway of Tears in
British Columbia. The series was nominated for a Webby Award.
Big Green Sky
Big Green Sky is a social justice play commissioned and produced by
Windsor Feminist Theatre, which debuted in May 2016 in Windsor
Ontario. It was prompted by the outrage over the acquittal of Bradley
Barton in the trial of Cindy Gladue’s murder. This play is a direct
result of reaching out to Muriel Stanley Venne, Chair of the
Aboriginal Commission on Human Rights and Justice, and President of
the Institute for the Advancement of Aboriginal Women. Venne's
report was submitted to United Nations rapporteur James Anaya.
Venne created her report because she wanted to 'influence decision
makers who have become very complacent and unconcerned about the lives
of Indigenous women in our country.”
The playwright has created his heroine to be a Nigerian woman who
moves to Northern
Canada to see the Northern Lights and immerses
herself in aboriginal culture. In this sense, members of the audience
who are non-aboriginal are invited to take part in the journey of this
“outsider” as she learns and uncovers the mysteries of murdered
and missing aboriginal women. The title Big Green Sky comes from the
display of the aurora borealis or Northern Lights. Aboriginal
interpretations include that the Northern Lights represent the spirits
of the departed who are communicating with their loved ones. The play
will be gifted by WFT to any organization or individual wishing to
bring awareness to this issue, and distributed without royalty fees,
providing that all revenues/fundraising efforts be donated to local
Métis women’s initiatives.
Annie Mae Aquash
BC Missing Women Investigation
^ "Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women: Resources &
Heidi Heitkamp -
United States Senator for North Dakota.
Retrieved 31 Oct 2017. In 2016, North Dakota alone had 125 cases of
missing Native women reported to the National Crime Information Center
(NCIC), compared to 5,712 total Native women cases reported in the
United States. However, the actual number is likely much higher, as
cases of missing Native women are often under-reported and the data
has never been officially collected.
^ Krishnan, Manisha (3 Aug 2016). "Here's What the Missing And
Murdered Indigenous Women Inquiry is Missing". Vice News. Retrieved 25
Oct 2017. After years of debate and inaction, the Canadian government
has finally launched an inquiry into the national crisis of missing
and murdered Indigenous women.
^ Walker, Connie (10 April 2016). "Missing, murdered aboriginal women
crisis demands a look at root causes". CBC News. Retrieved 25 Oct
^ Bailey, Jane; Shayan, Sara (2016). "Missing and Murdered Indigenous
Women Crisis: Technological Dimensions". Canadian Journal of Women and
the Law. 28 (2): 321–341. Retrieved 25 Oct 2017.
^ a b c Canada, Government of Canada; Indigenous and Northern Affairs.
"Background on the inquiry". www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca.
^ "Disproportionate number of women killed in
^ "Missing, murdered Indigenous women inquiry to ask for more time". 4
^ "Minister's comment highlights confusion over missing, murdered
women numbers". CBC.
^ "About Us — National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous
Women and Girls". National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered
Indigenous Women and Girls.
^ a b Harper, Anita (Winter 2006). "Is
Canada Peaceful and Safe for
Aboriginal Women?". Canadian Woman Studies. 25: 33–38
^ Harper, Anita (Winter 2006).
^ "The Vanishing of Canada's
First Nations Women".
^ "Background". National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous
Women and Girls. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
^ "Violent victimization of Aboriginal women in the Canadian
provinces, 2009". www.statcan.gc.ca.
^ a b c
^ "Violent victimization of Aboriginal women in the Canadian
provinces, 2009". www.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
^ "Fact Sheet: Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women and Girls" (PDF).
Native Women's Association of Canada. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
^ Vivian O’Donnell and Susan Wallace, Women in Canada: A Gender
based Statistical Report: First Nations,
(Statistics Canada, 2011)
^ Saskatchewan Provincial Partnership Committee on Missing Persons,
Final Report, October 2007
^ a b "RCMP Report 2014". Archived from the original on
^ Those Who Take Us Away, Human Rights Watch, 2013, p. 12
^ a b Tasker, John Paul (16 Feb 2016). "Confusion reigns over number
of missing, murdered indigenous women - RCMP said 1,017 indigenous
women were killed between 1980 and 2012;, activists say it's closer to
4,000". CBC News. Retrieved 15 Oct 2017.
^ VIOLENCE AGAINST INDIGENOUS WOMEN AND GIRLS IN CANADA: A SUMMARY OF
AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL’S CONCERNS AND CALL TO ACTION - February 2014
^ Guardian Staff (16 Feb 2016). "A Canadian government minister has
suggested that as many as 4,000 indigenous women have gone missing or
been murdered over the past three decades". The Guardian. Retrieved 23
Oct 2017. Walk 4 Justice initiative had collected at least 4,232 names
of missing or murdered indigenous women
^ "Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved
^ Holly Moore, Martha Troian, "'No foul play' found in deaths of
dozens of Indigenous women, but questions remain", CBC News, 28 Jun
^ "Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational
Overview". Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National
Operational Overview. RCMP. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016.
Retrieved 19 May 2016.
^ Police, Government of Canada, Royal Canadian Mounted. "Missing and
Murdered Aboriginal Women: 2015 Update to the National Operational
Overview - Royal Canadian Mounted Police". www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca.
^ Lee, Miyoung (November 17, 2009). "BC's infamous 'Highway of
Tears'". CBC Digital Archives. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Retrieved 10 December 2009.
^ "Highway of Vanishing Women", Daily Beast, July 10, 2011
^ Human Rights Watch, 2013, "Those Who Take Us Away: Abusive Policing
and Failures in Protection of Indigenous Women and Girls in Northern
British Columbia, Canada".
^ Morton, Katherine (2016). "HITCHHIKING AND MISSING AND MURDERED
INDIGENOUS WOMEN: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF BILLBOARDS ON THE
HIGHWAY OF TEARS". Canadian Journal of Sociology. 41: 299–325.
^ "Highway of Tears". 6 March 2015 – via www.imdb.com.
bc.cb.rcmp-grc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2017-04-21. External link in
^ "Government of Canada: National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered
Indigenous Women and Girls". Government of Canada. Government of
Canada. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
^ Canada, Government of Canada; Indigenous and Northern Affairs.
"National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and
^ "About the commissioners". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.
October 11, 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved
February 10, 2017.
^ Tasker, John Paul (May 19, 2017). "MMIWG chief commissioner still
has 'hope' despite rocky start". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
^ "Canada's MMIW inquiry is falling apart before it even begins".
Macleans. macleans.ca. 8 May 2017.
^ "Missing and murdered inquiry wraps emotional 1st hearings in
^ MacDonald, Nancy (September 13, 2017). "Inside the meltdown of
Canada's inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women".
Macleans.ca. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
^ Sterritt, Angela (June 15, 2017). "4th staffer leaves MMIWG inquiry
commission amid calls for reform". CBC News. Retrieved July 11,
^ Porter, Jody (June 14, 2017). "Tanya Kappo resigns from MMIWG
national inquiry staff". CBC News. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
^ Talaga, Tanya (June 30, 2017). "Executive director of murdered and
missing Indigenous women and girls inquiry resigns". Toronto Star.
Retrieved July 11, 2017.
^ "Marilyn Poitras resigns as MMIWG commissioner". CBC News. Retrieved
July 11, 2017.
^ Galloway, Gloria (July 11, 2017). "MMIW commissioner Marilyn Poitras
resigns in another blow to inquiry". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved
July 11, 2017.
^ "MMIWG loses another key staffer as families slam 'colonial' inquiry
process, demand hard reset". CBC News. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
^ Grabish, Austin (October 8, 2017). "MMIWG inquiry losing 2 more
staffers". CBC News. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
^ "'We're back again. We want justice': Activists hold vigil on
Parliament Hill for missing and murdered women". CBC. October 4, 2016.
Retrieved December 20, 2016.
^ "Background". It Starts With Us - Missing and Murdered Indigenous
Women. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
^ "Honouring The Lives Of Missing And Murdered Indigenous Women".
Retrieved December 20, 2016.
^ Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action
(PDF). Winnipeg, Manitoba: Truth and Reconciliation Commission of
Canada. 2015. p. 4.
^ a b c "26th Annual Feb 14th Women's Memorial March". Feb 14th Annual
Women's Memorial March. Ajik. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
^ "Women's memorial march in
Vancouver attracts hundreds". CBC News
British Columbia. CBC News. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
^ "Annual Women's Memorial March". CBC Player. CBC News. Retrieved 4
^ Siebert, Amanda (February 9, 2017). "Why the way we remember missing
and murdered women of the
Downtown Eastside matters". The Georgia
Straight. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
^ "Sisters In Spirit - NWAC". NWAC. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
^ a b "Sisters in Spirit program used by feds to 'squeeze' Native
Women's Association of
Canada rabble.ca". rabble.ca. Retrieved
^ "Need for 'action' behind funding cut to Sisters in Spirit: cabinet
ministers' letter - APTN News". APTN News. 2010-12-01. Retrieved
^ "Indigenous women and girls face 'internal terrorism,' says Sudbury
vigil organizer". CBC News. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
^ "Marches, vigils held to remember missing and murdered indigenous
women". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
^ "Families share memories of missing and murdered Aboriginal women
Metro Ottawa". metronews.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
^ "October 4th Vigils". NWAC. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
^ Blaze Baum, Kathryn (3 November 2016). "Northern resource
development tied to violence against indigenous women: report". The
Globe and Mail.
^ Newton, Chris (6 October 2017). "Fort St. John resident says she
wanted to make Trudeau aware of government failings at vigil on
Parliament Hill". Energetic City.
^ O'Toole, Megan. "Seeking justice for Canada's murdered women".
www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
^ "Why thousands of indigenous women have gone missing in Canada".
Vox. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
^ "Families of Sisters in Spirit: Justice for missing and murdered
Indigenous women in
Canada rabble.ca". rabble.ca. Retrieved
^ "About – It Starts With Us". itstartswithus-mmiw.com. Retrieved
^ "Bridget Tolley's search for justice for her mother rabble.ca".
rabble.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
^ "Tears from up above The McGill Daily". www.mcgilldaily.com.
^ a b Talaga, Tanya (2017-10-03). "Vigils being held across Canada
Wednesday for murdered and missing Indigenous women and girls". The
Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
^ a b "Unresolved: Gladys Tolley". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved
^ a b "About ‹ The REDress Project". www.redressproject.org.
^ "The REDress Project". www.redressproject.org. Retrieved
^ "Red dresses seek to draw attention to missing, murdered aboriginal
women". CTVNews. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
^ a b "About the REDress project". Indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca.
^ Beeston, Laura (March 21, 2017). "Red dresses a visual reminder of
missing, murdered Indigenous women". thestar.com. Retrieved
^ "Walking With Our Sisters". Walking With Our Sisters. Retrieved 11
^ a b Morrisseau, Miles (April 16, 2012). ""Faceless Dolls Project"
gives voice to missing and murdered Aborginal women". CBC Manitoba.
Retrieved February 14, 2017.
^ Gale, Frank (February 3, 2016). "Murdered women recognized in
Faceless Doll presentation". The Western Star. Retrieved February 14,
^ Ruby, Michelle (August 20, 2014). "FACELESS DOLL PROJECT:
Remembering victims". Brantford Expositor. Retrieved February 14,
^ Windigo, Delaney (November 12, 2015). "Inuksuks along Hamilton
hiking trail created to remember missing, murdered Indigenous women".
Aboriginal Peoples Television Network. Aboriginal Peoples Television
Network. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
^ "What is an Inukshuk?". Inukshuk Gallery. Gallery Indigena.
Retrieved 11 December 2015.
^ Carter, Adam (November 5, 2015). "Aboriginal women remembered with
1,181 inukshuks". Remember Our Sisters Everywhere. CBC. Retrieved 11
^ Murphy, David. "
Nunavik woman spearheads Inuksuit campaign for
Aboriginal women". Nunatsiaq Online. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
^ "Webby Awards: CBC's Missing & Murdered podcast, NFB's Seances
vie for online prize". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
^ "Meet the Reporter Behind a New, Must-Listen Canadian Crime Podcast
- Flare". Flare. 2016-10-20. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
^ Halushak, Maureen (October 20, 2016). "Meet the Reporter Behind a
New, Must-Listen Canadian Crime Podcast". Flare. Retrieved December
^ "Indspire Muriel Stanley Venne". indspire.ca. Retrieved
Missing or empty title= (help)
Missing & Murdered: The Unsolved Cases of Indigenous Women and
Girls, Canadian, CBC News, 2016-2017
Saskatchewan Provincial Partnership Committee on Missing Persons,
Final Report, October 2007
"Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women: Resources &
Information", compilation at US Senator Heidi Heitkamp's website
National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls,
No More Stolen Sisters,
Amnesty International campaign website
Understanding MMIWG, Native Women's Association of
White Buffalo Calf Woman Society website, Native American women's
resources online and in the Plains regions
Constitutional debate in Canada
Culture of Canada
Canadian cultural protectionism
Demographics of Canada
Multiculturalism in Canada
National identities in Canada
Relations between English
and French Canada
National question (Quebec)
Manitoba Schools Question
Manitoba Schools Question (1890–96)
Regulation 17 (1912)
Conscription Crisis of 1917
Conscription Crisis of 1944
Vive le Québec libre
Vive le Québec libre speech (1967)
October Crisis (1970)
Quebec referendum, 1980
Quebec referendum, 1995
Québécois nation motion (2006)
Canadian Multiculturalism Act
Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Global Centre for Pluralism
Multicultural media in Canada
1976 separate schools case
1985 and 1986 Sunday shopping cases
1985 day-of-rest case
1986 separate schools case
1986 homeschooling case
1990 RCMP turban controversy
2001 religious university case
2004 succah case
2006 Kirpan case
2006 school etiquette case
Quebec Charter of Values
Quebec Charter of Values (2013)
2015 niqab case
Official bilingualism in Canada
Language policies of Canada's provinces and territories
Legal dispute over Quebec's language policy
Official bilingualism in the public service of Canada
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism
Timeline of official languages policy in Canada
Immigration to Canada
Canadian nationality law
Economic impact of immigration to Canada
History of immigration to Canada
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
see also :Template:Canadian citizenship
Race and ethnicity
Canadian Anti-racism Education and Research Society
Canadian Race Relations Foundation
Ethnic origins of people in Canada
List of ethnic interest groups in Canada
1899 coalminers' case
1903 voting rights case
1914 employment case
1939 tavern case
1946 Japanese deportation case
1951 housing case
1970 liquor law case
Quebec historical anti-Semitism controversy
Saskatoon freezing deaths
Carding (police policy)
Red River Rebellion
Red River Rebellion (1869)
North-West Rebellion (1885)
Indian Act (1876-present)
1969 White Paper
Oka Crisis (1990)
Nunavik (no final agreement)
First Nations territories
Eeyou Istchee James Bay
Royal Commission (1991–96)
Kelowna Accord (2005)
Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Idle No More
Idle No More protest movement (2012–)
Missing and murdered Indigenous women
see also Template:Canadian Aboriginal case law
Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations
Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (1937–40)
Royal Commission of Inquiry on Constitutional Problems (1953–56)
Patriation debate (1960s to 1982)
Fulton–Favreau formula (to 1965)
Canada Act 1982 and Constitution Act, 1982
Canada Health Act (1984)
Victoria Charter (1971)
Meech Lake Accord
Meech Lake Accord (1987–90)
Citizen's Forum on National Unity (1990–91)
Charlottetown Accord (1992)
Calgary Declaration (1997)
See also template:Constitution of Canada, Category:Federalism in
Canada, and Category:
Canadian federalism case law
Symbols in Canada
Provincial and territorial
Debates and legislation:
Canadian Citizenship Act 1946
Great Canadian Flag Debate
Great Canadian Flag Debate (1963–64)
National Anthem Act (1980)
Debate on the monarchy in
Canada (Monarchism in