A MISSAL is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts
necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Roman Catholicism
* 1.2 Anglicanism
* 2 Sections and illumination
* 3 For use by laypeople
* 4 See also
* 4.1 Missals
* 4.2 Other articles
* 5 References
* 6 External links
_ A page from the Sherbrooke Missal_, one of the earliest
surviving Missals of English origin
Before the compilation of such books, several books were used when
celebrating Mass. These included the Gradual (texts mainly from the
Psalms, with musical notes added), the Evangelary or
Epistolary with texts from other parts of the
New Testament, mainly
the Epistles (letters) of Saint Paul , and the
prayers that the priest himself said.
In late mediaeval times, when it had become common in the West for
priests to say Mass without the assistance of a choir and other
ministers, these books began to be combined into a "Mass book"
Latin), for the priest's use alone. This led to the
appearance of the _missale plenum_ ("full or complete missal"), which
contained all the texts of the Mass, but without the music of the
choir parts. Indications of the rubrics to be followed were also
Roman Missal(_Missale Romanum_) published by Pope St. Pius V in
1570 eventually replaced the widespread use of different missal
traditions by different parts of the church, such as those of
Sarum (Salisbury) , and others. Many episcopal sees had in addition
some local prayers and feast days .
At the behest of the
Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council,
Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VIgreatly
increased the amount of Sacred Scripture read at Mass and, to a lesser
extent, the prayer formulas. This necessitated a return to having the
Scripture readings in a separate book, known as the
Book of the Gospels, with texts extracted from the
Lectionary, is recommended, but is not obligatory. The Roman Missal
continues to include elaborate rubrics, as well as antiphons etc.,
which were not in sacramentaries.
The first complete official translation of the
English appeared in 1973, based on the text of 1970. On 28 March 2001,
Holy Seeissued the Instruction _Liturgiam authenticam_. This
included the requirement that, in translations of the liturgical texts
from the official
Latinoriginals, "the original text, insofar as
possible, must be translated integrally and in the most exact manner,
without omissions or additions in terms of their content, and without
paraphrases or glosses. Any adaptation to the characteristics or the
nature of the various vernacular languages is to be sober and
discreet." The following year, the third typical edition of the
Latinwas released. The
sitting on an altar desk in an
These two texts made clear the need for a new official English
translation of the Roman Missal, particularly because the previous one
was at some points an adaptation rather than strictly a translation.
An example is the rendering of the response "_Et cum spiritu tuo_"
(literally, "And with your spirit") as "And also with you".
The fresh official English translation, prepared by the International
Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL), was adopted by
English-speaking episcopal conferences and received confirmation from
the Holy See.
The text of this revised English translation of the
Order of Mass
Order of Massis
available at this website page, and a comparison between it and that
at present in use in the United States is given under the heading
"Changes in the People\'s Parts".
Anglicantradition, in 1921, the Society of Saints Peter
and Paul published the
Missalin Great Britain. The Frank
Gavin Liturgical Foundation of Mount Sinai published a revised edition
in 1961 and the
AnglicanParishes Association continues to print it.
SECTIONS AND ILLUMINATION
In France missals start being illuminated from the beginning of the
13th century. At this time the missal was normally divided in several
parts: calendar, temporal, preface and canon of the mass, sanctoral,
votive masses and various additions. Two principal parts of the missal
are temporal and sanctoral. Temporal contains texts for the mass, day
by day for the whole liturgical year, organized around
Easter. Sanctoral presents a liturgical year through the
commemoration of the saints. Finally, votive masses (a mass for a
specific purpose or read with a special intention by the priest),
different prayers, new feasts, commemoration of new saints and
canonizations were usually placed to the end of the missal.
Iconographic analysis of the missals of the diocese of Paris during
the 13th-14th centuries reveals the use of certain traditional images
as well as some changing motifs. Among the former group, some types of
initial letters can be named: of the introit to the first Sunday of
Advent; of this one to the preface of the mass for the Holy Week;
of those to the masses for saints (containing their images, as it is
the case of Saint Andrew and
Saint Stephen). The last but not least
is the rich illumination of two pages of the missal in its full size:
Crucifixion of Jesus
Crucifixion of Jesusand
Christ in Majesty
Christ in Majesty. The second group with
changing scenes include some images of the clergy that is not depicted
in all missals, but can be also a repetitive motive appropriate to the
only one manuscript. It can be the praying priest, or the priest
elevating the host (sacramental bread ), the singing monks etc.
FOR USE BY LAYPEOPLE
The term "missal" is also used for books intended for use not by the
priest but by others assisting at Mass or the service of worship .
These books are sometimes referred to as "hand missals" or
"missalettes", while the term "altar missal" is sometimes used to
distinguish the missal for the priest's use from them. Usually they
omit or severely abbreviate the rubrical portions and Mass texts for
other than the regular yearly celebrations, but include the Scripture
One such missal has been used for the swearing in of a United States
President. After the assassination of President
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy,
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnsonwas sworn in as President of the United States
Air Force One
Air Force One_ using a missal of the late President, because
it was presumed to be a Bible.
Missal of Silos
* ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Missal
* ^ Missale plenum
* ^ _Sacrosanctum Concilium_, 51
* ^ The "typical edition" of a liturgical text is that to which
editions by other publishers must conform.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Cavanaugh, Stephen E. (2011). _Anglicans and the Roman
Catholic Church: Reflections on Recent Developments_. Ignatius Press.
p. 105. ISBN 9781586174996 . The first edition of the
was published in London by the Society of Saints Peter and Paul in
1921; the first American edition appeared in 1943, published by the
Frank Gavin Liturgical Foundation of Mount Sinai, Long Island, N.Y.,
and in 1947 a revised edition was published (reprinted in 1961); the
publication rights were given (or sold) to the
Association in the 1970s, which reprinted the 1947 edition.
* ^ Transcript, Lawrence F. O'Brien Oral History Interview XIII,
9/10/86, by Michael L. Gillette, Internet Copy, LBJ Library (page 23