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Miss America
Miss America
is a beauty pageant that is held annually and is open to women from the United States
United States
between the ages of 17 and 25.[2] Originating in 1921 as a "bathing beauty revue", the contest is now judged on competitors' talent performances and interviews in addition to their physical appearance. Miss America
Miss America
travels about 20,000 miles a month, changing her location every 24 to 48 hours, touring the nation and promoting her particular platform of interest.[3] The winner is crowned by the previous year's titleholder. The current titleholder, Miss America
Miss America
2018, is Miss North Dakota
North Dakota
2017, Cara Mund, who was crowned on September 10, 2017, by her predecessor Savvy Shields
Savvy Shields
( Miss America
Miss America
2017).

Contents

1 Overview 2 History

2.1 1921–1967 2.2 1968–2016 2.3 2017–present

3 Winners

3.1 Recent titleholders

4 Hosts

4.1 Present 4.2 Past

5 See also 6 Further reading and viewing

6.1 Archives and collections 6.2 Books 6.3 Documentaries

7 References 8 External links

Overview[edit] On February 1, 1919, there was a beauty pageant held in the Chu Chin Chow Ball at the Hotel des Artistes in New York City. The winner, Edith Hyde Robbins Macartney, was called "Miss America." Neither the title nor this pageant were related to the current "Miss American Pageant" which would develop a year later in Atlantic City, New Jersey.[4][5][6][7][8] Rather, the origins of the "Miss America Pageant" lie in an event entitled The Fall Frolic which was held on September 25, 1920, in Atlantic City. This event was designed to bring business to the Boardwalk: "three hundred and fifty gaily decorated rolling wicker chairs were pushed along the parade route. Three hundred and fifty men pushed the chairs. However, the main attractions were the young 'maidens' who sat in the rolling chairs, headed by a Miss Ernestine Cremona, who was dressed in a flowing white robe and represented 'Peace.'"[9] The event was so successful that The Businessmen's League planned to repeat it the following year as a beauty pageant or a "bather's revue"[9] (to capitalize on the popularity of newspaper-based beauty contests that used photo submissions).[9] Thus, "newspapers as far west as Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
and as far south as Washington, D.C., were asked to sponsor local beauty contests. The winners would participate in the Atlantic City contest. If the local newspaper would pay for the winner's wardrobe, the Atlantic City Businessmen's League would pay for the contestant's travel to compete in the Inter-City Beauty Contest."[9] Herb Test, a "newspaperman", coined the term for the winner: "Miss America."[9] On September 8, 1921, 100,000 people gathered at the Boardwalk to watch the contestants from Washington, D.C., Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, Ocean City, Camden, Newark, New York, and Philadelphia.[9] The 16-year-old winner from Washington, D.C., Margaret Gorman, was crowned the "Golden Mermaid" and won $100.[9] The pageant continued consistently over the next eight decades except for the years 1928–1932, when it was temporarily shut down due to financial problems associated with the Great Depression
Great Depression
and suggestions that it promoted "loose morals."[10] With its revival in 1933, 15-year-old Marian Bergeron
Marian Bergeron
won, prompting future contestants to be between the ages of 18 and 26.[10] In 1935, Lenora Slaughter was hired to "re-invent" the pageant and served for 32 years as its Director.[10] By 1938, a talent section was added to the competition, and contestants were required to have a chaperone.[10] In 1940, the title officially became "The Miss America
Miss America
Pageant" and the pageant was held in Atlantic City's Convention Hall.[10] In 1944, compensation for "Miss America" switched from "furs and movie contracts" to college scholarships, an idea generally credited to Jean Bartel, Miss America 1943.[10][11] During the early years of the pageant, under the directorship of Lenora Slaughter, it became segregated via rule number seven that stated: "contestants must be of good health and of the white race."[12] Rule number seven was abolished in 1950.[13] Miss New York 1945, Bess Myerson, the only Jewish American winner to date, became Miss America 1945
Miss America 1945
and faced antisemitism during her time as Miss America, leading to a cutback in her official duties.[14][15][16][17][18] Although there were Native American, Latina, and Asian-American contestants, there were no African-American contestants for fifty years (African-Americans appeared in musical numbers as far back as 1923, however, when they were cast as slaves).[12][19][20] In 1970, however, Cheryl Browne, Miss Iowa
Miss Iowa
1970,[21][22][23] competed as the first African-American contestant in the Miss America
Miss America
1971 pageant.[24][25][26] She also participated in one of the last USO-Miss America tours in Vietnam.[25] A decade later in 1983, Miss New York (and Miss Syracuse) 1983, Vanessa Williams
Vanessa Williams
(the first African-American woman to win the competition as Miss America
Miss America
1984), faced discrimination in response to her win and later resigned under pressure due to a scandal involving nude photographs.[27][28] Three decades after these events, Miss New York
Miss New York
(and Miss Syracuse) 2013, Nina Davuluri, the first Indian-American woman to win the crown as Miss America
Miss America
2014, faced xenophobic and racist comments in social media when she won.[27][28] Two years later at the Miss America
Miss America
2016 pageant, former Miss America
Miss America
CEO Sam Haskell apologized to Vanessa Williams (who was serving as head judge) for what was said to her during the events of 1984.[29][30][31] History[edit]

Margaret Gorman
Margaret Gorman
was the first Miss America
Miss America
pageant winner in 1921.

Bess Myerson, Miss America
Miss America
1945

Lee Meriwether, Miss America
Miss America
1955

Phyllis George, Miss America
Miss America
1971

Vanessa Williams, Miss America
Miss America
1984

Erika Harold, Miss America
Miss America
2003

Nina Davuluri, Miss America
Miss America
2014

1921–1967[edit] Margaret Gorman, Miss District of Columbia, was declared "The Most Beautiful Bathing Girl in America" in 1921 at the age of 16 and was recognized as the first "Miss America" when she returned to compete the next year. The contest that year was won by Mary Katherine Campbell (Miss Ohio) and again in 1923.[32] She returned to compete a third time in 1924 but placed as first runner-up that year, and pageant rules were then amended to prevent anyone from winning more than once. Beginning in 1940, Bob Russell served as the first official host of the pageant.[33] In 1941, Mifauny Shunatona, Miss Oklahoma, became the first Native American contestant.[34][35] In 1945, Bess Myerson
Bess Myerson
became the first Jewish-American and the first Miss New York[36] (competing as Miss New York
Miss New York
City, a competition organized by a local radio station[16]) to win the Miss America pageant as Miss America
Miss America
1945.[14][15][16][17] As the only Jewish contestant, Myerson was encouraged by the pageant directors to change her name to "Bess Meredith"[37] or "Beth Merrick",[14] but she refused.[14][37] After winning the title (and as a Jewish Miss America), Myerson received few endorsements[14][15][16][17][37] and later recalled that "I couldn't even stay in certain hotels […] there would be signs that read no coloreds, no Jews, no dogs. I felt so rejected. Here I was chosen to represent American womanhood and then America treated me like this."[37] She thus cut short her Miss America tour and instead traveled with the Anti-Defamation League. In this capacity, she spoke against discrimination in a talk entitled, "You Can't Be Beautiful and Hate."[14][15][16][17][37] In 1948, Irma Nydia Vasquez, the first Miss Puerto Rico, became the first Latina contestant.[34][38][39] In addition, in 1948, Yun Tau Chee, the first Miss Hawaii, was also the first Asian-American contestant.[34] Miss America
Miss America
1949, Jacque Mercer, was married and divorced during her reign; after this, a rule was enacted requiring Miss America
Miss America
contestants to sign a certification that they have never been married or pregnant.[40] Starting in 1950, although the pageant continued to be in September, the Miss America
Miss America
title changed to "post-dated", thus that year's pageant winner became Miss America 1951, and there was no Miss America
Miss America
1950. The pageant was first televised nationally in 1954, hosted by Bob Russell.[33] Future television star Lee Meriwether
Lee Meriwether
was crowned Miss America
Miss America
1955. It would also be the last time Russell served as host. He recommended, and was replaced by, Bert Parks, who served as the host for the second televised pageant in 1955 and stayed as host until 1979.[33][41] Television
Television
viewership peaked during the early 1960s, when it was the highest-rated program on American television.[42] 1968–2016[edit] With the rise of second-wave feminism and the civil rights movement during the 1960s, the Miss America
Miss America
pageant became the subject of a series of protests that attacked it as sexist, racist, and part of U.S. militarism. The first demonstration took place during the Miss America 1969 pageant held on September 7, 1968 (won by Miss Illinois 1968, Judith Ford), when about 200 members of the group New York Radical Women demonstrated as part of the Miss America
Miss America
protest. In addition, a pamphlet distributed at the protest by Robin Morgan, No More Miss America!, became a source for feminist scholarship.[43] The protest was co-sponsored by Florynce Kennedy's Media Workshop, an activist group she founded in 1966 to protest the media's representation of African Americans, along with the feminist Jeanette Rankin Brigade and the ACLU.[44] Morgan later stated that the Miss America pageant "was chosen as a target for a number of reasons: it has always been a lily-white, racist contest; the winner tours Vietnam, entertaining the troops as a 'Murder Mascot'; the whole gimmick is one commercial shillgame to sell the sponsor's products. Where else could one find such a perfect combination of American values—racism, militarism, sexism—all packaged in one ‘ideal symbol,’ a woman."[45] The protesters compared the pageant to a county fair where livestock are judged.[21][46] They thus crowned a sheep as Miss America
Miss America
and symbolically destroyed a number of feminine products, including false eyelashes, high-heeled shoes, curlers, hairspray, makeup, girdles, corsets, and bras.[47] Burning the contents of a trash can was suggested, but a permit was unobtainable; news media seized on the similarity between draft resisters burning draft cards and women burning their bras. In fact, there was no bra burning, nor did anyone remove her bra.[48][49] The Women's Liberation Front later demonstrated at the Miss America 1971
Miss America 1971
pageant.[24] Miss Iowa
Miss Iowa
1970,[23] Cheryl Browne, became the first African American contestant in the competition's history during the Miss America
Miss America
1971 pageant (September 12, 1970).[21][22][24][25][26] Browne drew attention from reporters and from security personnel in Atlantic City who maintained a visible presence during pageant rehearsals.[25] Browne was not a finalist, however,[25] losing to future media personality, Miss Texas
Miss Texas
1970, Phyllis George. In August 1971, Browne traveled to Vietnam with George, Miss Nevada 1970, Vicky Jo Todd, Miss New Jersey
New Jersey
1970, Hela Yungst, Miss Arizona
Miss Arizona
1970, Karen Shields, Miss Arkansas
Arkansas
1970, Donna Connelly, and Miss Texas
Miss Texas
1970 (George's replacement), Belinda Myrick.[50] They participated in a 22-day United Service Organizations tour for American troops that began in Saigon.[25][50][51] Browne later commented that she thought "it was one of the last Miss America
Miss America
groups to go to Vietnam."[25] Miss Arkansas
Arkansas
1980, Lencola Sullivan, finished the Miss America
Miss America
1981 pageant (September 6, 1980) as fourth runner-up, making her the first African American contestant to place in the top five.[34] A few years later, Vanessa Williams
Vanessa Williams
( Miss New York
Miss New York
1983) won the title of Miss America 1984 on September 17, 1983, making her the first African American woman to wear the crown.[52] Williams later commented that she was one of five minority contestants that year, noting that ballet dancer Deneen Graham "had already had a cross burned on her front yard because she was the first black Miss North Carolina [1983]."[53] She also pointed out that " Suzette Charles
Suzette Charles
was the first runner-up, and she was biracial. But when the press started, when I would go out on the – on the tour and do my appearances, and people would come up and say they never thought they'd see the day that it would happen; when people would want to shake my hand, and you'd see tears in their eyes, and they'd say, I never thought I'd see it in my lifetime – that's when, you know, it was definitely a very special honor."[53] Williams' reign as Miss America
Miss America
was not without its challenges and controversies, however. For the first time in pageant history, a reigning Miss America
Miss America
was the target of death threats and hate mail.[34][53] Williams was forced to resign seven weeks prior to the end of her time as Miss America, however, after the unauthorized publication of nude photos in Penthouse.[34][54][55][56] First runner-up, Miss New Jersey
New Jersey
1983, Suzette Charles
Suzette Charles
replaced her for the final weeks of Williams' reign.[57] Thirty-two years after she resigned however, Vanessa Williams
Vanessa Williams
returned to the Miss America
Miss America
stage on September 13, 2015, for the Miss America 2016
Miss America 2016
pageant as head judge (where Miss Georgia 2015, Betty Cantrell, won the crown).[58][59] The pageant began with former Miss America
Miss America
CEO Sam Haskell issuing an apology to Williams, telling her that although "none of us currently in the organization were involved then, on behalf of today's organization, I want to apologize to you and to your mother, Miss Helen Williams. I want to apologize for anything that was said or done that made you feel any less the Miss America
Miss America
you are and the Miss America you always will be."[29][30][31] Suzette Charles
Suzette Charles
(Williams' replacement) said in an interview with Inside Edition that she was perplexed over the apology and suggested that it was given for the purpose of ratings.[60] In 1985, Miss Utah
Miss Utah
1984, Sharlene Wells Hawkes, became the first foreign-born, bilingual Miss America, as she was born in Asunción, Paraguay.[61] Miss Alabama
Miss Alabama
1994, Heather Whitestone, won the 1995 pageant becoming the first deaf Miss America
Miss America
(she lost most of her hearing at the age of 18 months).[62][63] At the Miss America
Miss America
1999 pageant held on September 19, 1998, Nicole Johnson (Miss Virginia 1998) became the first Miss America
Miss America
with diabetes and the first contestant to publicize an insulin pump.[64][65] Around the same time, Miss America
Miss America
officials announced they had lifted the ban on contestants who were divorced or had had an abortion. This rule change, however, was rescinded and Miss America
Miss America
CEO Robert L. Beck, who had suggested it, was fired.[66][67] Angela Perez Baraquio, Miss Hawaii 2000, was crowned Miss America
Miss America
2001, thereby becoming the first Asian-American, the first Filipino-American, as well as the first teacher ever to win the pageant.[68] A few years later, the Miss America 2005
Miss America 2005
pageant held on September 18, 2004, would be the last one televised live on ABC (which dropped the pageant after this broadcast, as it "drew a record-low 9.8 million viewers")[69] and the last one held in Atlantic City for ten years. Miss Alabama
Miss Alabama
2004, Deidre Downs, reigned as Miss America
Miss America
four months longer than usual as the Miss America 2006
Miss America 2006
pageant was moved to a January broadcast at the Las Vegas Strip's Theatre for the Performing Arts (Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino).[70][71] It was also broadcast live on MTV Networks' Country Music Television. After two years, the pageant moved to TLC (the former Learning Channel).[72][73] The Miss America 2011 pageant held on January 15, 2011, showcased Miss New York 2010, Claire Buffie, (the first Miss America
Miss America
contestant to advocate a gay-rights platform)[74][75] and Miss Delaware
Miss Delaware
2010, Kayla Martell, (the first bald contestant).[76][77] ABC also resumed broadcasting the pageant with the 2011 competition.[78] The Miss America 2013 pageant, held on January 12, 2013, was the last one to take place in Las Vegas.[79] Miss New York
Miss New York
2012, Mallory Hagan, won the competition but only served for eight months as the pageant moved back to its former broadcast slot in September 2013[79][80] Miss Montana 2012, Alexis Wineman, ("America's Choice" winner) was the pageant's first autistic contestant.[81][82] With the Miss America 2014
Miss America 2014
pageant, held on September 15, 2013, the competition returned to Boardwalk Hall, Atlantic City, New Jersey.[79] Miss New York
Miss New York
(Nina Davuluri) won the title of Miss America. Davuluri was also the first Indian-American and second Asian-American to win the crown.[83][84] Shortly after her win, however, Davuluri became the target of xenophobic and racist comments in social media[85][86][87] relating the proximity of the event date to the 9/11 anniversary and to anti-Indian sentiment.[85][86][88][89][90] News agencies cited tweets that misidentified her as Muslim or Arab, associated her with groups such as Al-Qaeda, and questioned why she was chosen over Miss Kansas 2013, Theresa Vail,[85][86][88][91][92] (a soldier who won the "America's Choice" award and was the first contestant to display tattoos during the swimsuit competition).[93][94] Davuluri said that she was prepared for this backlash because "as Miss New York, I was called a terrorist and very similar remarks",[95][96] and Vail denounced the social media backlash, offering her support to Davuluri.[97][98] In addition, a torn ACL and MCL forced Miss Florida 2013, Myrrhanda Jones, to perform her baton routine with a decorated leg brace,[99] while Nicole Kelly ( Miss Iowa
Miss Iowa
2013) was the first contestant without a forearm to compete in the pageant.[100] Amanda Longacre, who was crowned Miss Delaware
Miss Delaware
2014 and was preparing to compete in Miss America
Miss America
2015, was stripped of the title and the crown[101][102][103] because she was deemed to be too old.[101][102][103] Longacre filed a $3 million lawsuit,[101][102][103] and Miss America
Miss America
officials later blamed the error on state pageant officials whom, they said, "missed the age discrepancy in Longacre's submitted paperwork."[101][102][103] Miss New York 2014 (Kira Kazantsev) eventually won the title of Miss America 2015, making New York the first state to produce a winner for three consecutive years.[104][105] In September 2014, comedian John Oliver
John Oliver
ran a segment on his show, Last Week Tonight, that investigated the Miss America
Miss America
Organization's claim that it is "the world's largest provider of scholarships for women."[106] Oliver's team, which included four researchers with journalism backgrounds,[107] collected and analyzed the organization's state and federal tax forms to find that the organization's scholarship program only distributes a small fraction of its claimed "$45 million made available annually".[108] Oliver said that at the national level, the Miss America Organization
Miss America Organization
and Miss America Foundation together spent only $482,000 in cash scholarships in 2012.[106] Oliver found that at the state level, the Miss Alabama pageant claimed that it had provided $2,592,000 in scholarships to Troy University
Troy University
despite not actually distributing any such scholarships.[109] The pageant appeared to multiply the value of a single available scholarship by the number of contestants theoretically eligible for it, while using the term "provided" in a way that did not mean "distributed."[110] The Miss America Organization responded by stating that Oliver affirmed that it provides the most scholarships to women and that the $45 million figure was based on all scholarships made available whether or not they are accepted.[111] In February 2015, Sharon Pearce announced that she was stepping down from her role as President of the Miss America Organization. At that time, former CEO Sam Haskell was named Executive Chairman of the Miss America
Miss America
Organization, retained the title of CEO, and assumed all of Pearce's responsibilities.[112] In addition, Miss America 2014, Nina Davuluri, was appointed one of the new trustees to the Miss America
Miss America
Foundation.[113] In September 2015, Miss America officials announced that the organization grants $5.5 million in scholarships,[114] a number which still includes adding together offers of in-kind tuition waivers from multiple schools when a contestant could accept one at most.[115] On March 24, 2016, the Miss America Organization
Miss America Organization
announced a contract renewal with ABC to continue carrying the pageant for the next three years to the 2019 edition.[116] In June 2016, Erin O'Flaherty was crowned Miss Missouri, becoming the first openly lesbian Miss America
Miss America
contestant.[117] 2017–present[edit] In late December 2017, HuffPost
HuffPost
published an article exposing derogatory emails sent and received by CEO Sam Haskell, board members Tammy Haddad and Lynn Weidner, and lead writer Lewis Friedman. The emails, sent between 2014 and 2017, featured instances of expletive name-calling and unprofessional comments. The comments were often sexual or violent in nature and targeted former Miss America
Miss America
winners, notably Mallory Hagan
Mallory Hagan
and Katherine Shindle, both of whom joined 47 other former Miss Americas (including all Miss Americas from 1988 to 2017)[118] in signing a joint open letter calling for the firing or resignation of all involved.[119] On December 22, the Miss America Organization released statements to USA Today, saying that it was made aware of concerns several months prior. They stated that the organization does not "condone the use of inappropriate language" and reported that its investigation had determined that Haskell was under "unreasonable distress resulting from intense attacks on his family from disgruntled stakeholders". The organization also reported that its relationship with Friedman had been terminated. Haskell explained that attacks on his character impaired his judgment when responding to the emails.[120] Miss America's board of directors also suspended Haskell, who released a statement labeling the HuffPost
HuffPost
article "unkind and untrue".[118][121] Hagan and Shindle criticized the decision to suspend Haskell, rather than fire him, as inadequate.[122] The following day, the President of Miss America, Josh Randle; executive chairwoman Lynn Weidner; and Haskell all resigned.[123] The scandal prompted the pageant's producer, Dick Clark Productions, to cut ties, and the Casino Reinvestment Development Authority
Casino Reinvestment Development Authority
(CRDA) announced that it was reconsidering its contract with Miss America, with its executive director Chris Howard describing the scandal as "troubling", and both Frank Gilliam, incoming mayor of Atlantic City, and State Senator Colin Bell called for CRDA to end its relationship with Miss America.[124] On December 24, Haddad also resigned.[125] In January 2018, Gretchen Carlson, who won the Miss America
Miss America
in 1989, was elected as the new chairwoman of the organization, becoming the first former Miss America
Miss America
to serve as its leader. Katherine Shindle, Miss America
Miss America
1998, was also appointed to the board alongside fellow Miss America
Miss America
winners, Heather French Henry
Heather French Henry
(2000) and Laura Kaeppeler (2012).[126] Winners[edit] Recent titleholders[edit] Main article: List of Miss America
Miss America
titleholders

Year Miss America State Represented

Miss America
Miss America
2018 Cara Mund North Dakota

Miss America
Miss America
2017 Savvy Shields Arkansas

Miss America
Miss America
2016 Betty Cantrell Georgia

Miss America
Miss America
2015 Kira Kazantsev New York

Miss America
Miss America
2014 Nina Davuluri

Miss America
Miss America
2013 Mallory Hagan

Miss America
Miss America
2012 Laura Kaeppeler Wisconsin

Miss America
Miss America
2011 Teresa Scanlan Nebraska

Miss America
Miss America
2010 Caressa Cameron Virginia

Hosts[edit] Present[edit]

Chris Harrison: 2004, 2011–present[127][128][129][130] Sage Steele: 2017–present[130]

Past[edit]

Brooke Burke: 2011–2013, 2016[127][131] Lara Spencer: 2014–2015[128][129] Mario Lopez: 2007, 2009–2010[132][133] Mark Steines: 2008[134] James Denton: 2006[134] Tom Bergeron: 2003[134] Wayne Brady: 2002[134] Tony Danza: 2001[134] Donny and Marie Osmond: 1999–2000[134](known collectively as "Donny & Marie") Boomer Esiason
Boomer Esiason
and Meredith Vieira: 1998[134] Eva LaRue
Eva LaRue
and John Callahan: 1997[134] Regis Philbin: 1996[134] Regis Philbin
Regis Philbin
and Kathie Lee Gifford: 1991–1995[134](known collectively as "Regis and Kathie Lee") Phyllis George: 1989–1990[134] Gary Collins: 1982–1990[134] Ron Ely: 1980–1981[134] Bert Parks: 1955–1980[41] Bob Russell: 1940–1954[33]

See also[edit]

Miss America
Miss America
award winners Miss America's Outstanding Teen

Further reading and viewing[edit] Archives and collections[edit]

Finding Aid to Beauty Pageant Collection at Browne Popular Culture Library, University Libraries, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. What Beauty Pageant Queens Looked Like the Year You Were Born. Cosmopolitan, May 31, 2016. It Happened Here in New Jersey: Miss America
Miss America
– Photographs of various Miss America
Miss America
pageants. It Happened Here in New Jersey- Here She is: Miss America
Miss America
and the Protest of 1968

Books[edit]

Banet-Weiser, Sarah. The Most Beautiful Girl in the World:Beauty Pageants and National Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. Carlson, Gretchen ( Miss America
Miss America
1989). Getting Real. New York: Viking Press, 2015. Riverol, A.R. Live from Atlantic City: A History of the Miss America Pageant. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University
Bowling Green State University
Popular Press, 1992. Shindle, Kate ( Miss America
Miss America
1998). Being Miss America: Behind the Rhinestone Curtain. University of Texas Press, 2014. Wiliams, Vanessa ( Miss America
Miss America
1984) and Helen Williams. You Have No Idea: A Famous Daughter, Her No-nonsense Mother, and How They Survived Pageants, Hollywood, Love, Loss (and Each Other). New York: Gotham/Penguin Group, 2012.

Documentaries[edit]

The American Experience: Miss America
Miss America
– American Experience, PBS (2001, 90 min)

References[edit]

^ Gretchen Carlson
Gretchen Carlson
elected as Miss America
Miss America
chair after sexist email scandal ^ Associated Press
Associated Press
(7 January 2018). " Miss America
Miss America
raises maximum age of competitors to 25". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2018-01-21. Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ Watson, Ellwood; Martin, Darcy (2000). "The Miss America
Miss America
Pageant: Pluralism, Femininity, and Cinderella All in One". Journal of Popular Culture. Wiley. 1 (34): 105–126.  ^ "Deaths: Macartney—Edith Hyde". New York Times, April 28, 1978. ^ "Miss Acheson Weds Canadian Captain" New York Times, Jan. 25, 1920. ^ Anderson, Susan Heller, and David W. Dunlap. "See-Through Pantaloons, Circa 1919". New York Times, Dec. 6, 1984. ^ "The First Real Miss America". Greatreporter.com, Feb. 2, 2006 ^ Senn, Bryan. Golden Horrors: An Illustrated Critical Filmography of Terror Cinema, 1931-1939, p. 67. ^ a b c d e f g "People & Events: The First Miss America
Miss America
Beauty Pageant, 1921". PBS.  ^ a b c d e f " Miss America
Miss America
Timeline: 1901–1950". PBS.  ^ Shindle, Kate (2014). Being Miss America: Behind the Rhinestone Curtain. Discovering America. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-292-73921-5.  ^ a b "Miss America, People & Events: Breaking the Color Line at the Pageant". PBS.  ^ Daniel, G. Reginald (2006). Race and Multiraciality in Brazil and the United States: Converging Paths?. Pennsylvania State University. ISBN 978-0-271-04554-2. Retrieved September 22, 2013.  ^ a b c d e f " PBS
PBS
American Experience: Miss America
Miss America
Transcript". PBS American Experience. 2002.  ^ a b c d Nemy, Enid (January 5, 2015). "Bess Myerson, New Yorker of Beauty, Wit, Service and Scandal, Dies at 90". New York Times.  ^ a b c d e Woo, Elaine (January 5, 2015). "Bess Myerson, Miss America who rose in politics and fell in scandal, dies at 90". Los Angeles Times.  ^ a b c d Hollander, Sophia (January 5, 2015). "Bess Myerson, Beauty Queen Turned NYC Public Servant, Dies at 90". Wall Street Journal.  ^ Green, Michelle (June 29, 1987). "Downfall of An American Idol". People Magazine.  ^ Shirley Jennifer Lim (2007). A Feeling of Belonging: Asian-American Women's Popular Culture, 1930–1960. NYU Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 0-8147-5193-8.  ^ Sarah Banet-Weiser
Sarah Banet-Weiser
(September 30, 1999). The Most Beautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity. University of California Press. pp. 153–166. ISBN 0-520-21791-8.  ^ a b c "It Happened Here in New Jersey: Miss America" (PDF). Kean University and the New Jersey
New Jersey
Historical Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 28, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.  ^ a b "Miss America, People & Events: Transcript". PBS.  ^ a b "Former Miss Iowa
Miss Iowa
Titleholders".  ^ a b c Musel, Robert (1970-08-26). " Television
Television
in Review". The Bryan Times p. 16 (United Press International).  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ a b c d e f g Davis, Shirley (2000-10-19). "History follows former Miss Iowa
Miss Iowa
First black pageant winner recalls her crowning moment". Quad-City Times.  ^ a b "Black New Yorker chosen Miss Iowa". The Register-Guard. 1970-07-05.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ a b Stern, Marlow (September 21, 2013). "Vanessa Williams, the First Black Miss America, On Nina Davuluri
Nina Davuluri
and Racism". The Daily Beast.  ^ a b "Vanessa on Valentine's Day:The most successful Miss America
Miss America
in the entertainment world, Vanessa Williams
Vanessa Williams
brings her love of the stage to Caesars on Feb. 14". Atlantic City Weekly. 2014-02-12.  ^ a b Fitz-Gerald, Sean (2015-09-14). " Vanessa Williams
Vanessa Williams
Finally Got Her Miss America
Miss America
Apology". New York Magazine. Retrieved 2015-09-17.  ^ a b Rogers, Katie (2015-09-14). " Vanessa Williams
Vanessa Williams
Returns to Miss America and Receives an Apology". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-14.  ^ a b Robinson, Joanna (2015-09-14). "Watch Vanessa Williams
Vanessa Williams
Finally Receive an Apology at the Miss America 2016
Miss America 2016
Pageant". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2015-09-13.  ^ Mary Katherine Campbell ^ a b c d "Bob Russell, Entertainer, Is Dead at 90". The New York Times. 2 February 1998.  ^ a b c d e f "People & Events: Breaking the Color Line at the Pageant". PBS.  ^ Woo, Elaine (September 4, 1987). "Yun Tau Chee, 73; Miss Hawaii
Miss Hawaii
of 1948, First Asian in Miss America Pageant
Miss America Pageant
– Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved September 22, 2013.  ^ " Bess Myerson
Bess Myerson
Biography ( Miss America
Miss America
1945)". Miss America Organization. Archived from the original on 2015-02-13. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b c d e Morrisroe, Patricia (March 30, 1987). "Bess and the Mess: Myerson's Slide Into Scandal (pp. 34–35)" (PDF). New York. [permanent dead link] ^ " Cheryl Browne was the first African-American contestant as Miss Iowa in 1970".  ^ " Miss America Pageant
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News". Pageantcenter.com. January 30, 2010. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2013.  ^ "Pageant tightens grip on its ideals".  ^ a b " American Experience
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(1971-08-11). "People in News". Kentucky New Era p. 23.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Cauley, Paul (1971). "Photographs by Paul Cauley, 1971 Door Gunner, A Co 101st Avn (Text by Belinda Myrick-Barnett)". Paul Cauley.  ^ Singleton, Don (1983-09-18). " Vanessa Williams
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Vanessa Williams
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Miss America
Finds A Ceo Down By The Boardwalk After 1999's Furor Over Rules Changes, The Former Claridge Official Says He Will Rebuild Bridges To State Pageants".  ^ Miss America 2001 Archived 2013-10-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ de Moraes, Lisa (October 21, 2004). "No More Miss America
Miss America
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Miss America
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Miss America
photos: Four contestants stand out among field – Las Vegas Sun News". Lasvegassun.com. Retrieved September 22, 2013.  ^ "Miss Delaware, Bald and Bold". CBS News. June 28, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  ^ " Miss America
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Miss America
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Miss America
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Miss America
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Vanessa Williams
and more". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2013.  ^ "Alexis Wineman, Miss Montana, First Miss America
Miss America
Contestant Diagnosed With Autism". ABC News. Retrieved January 12, 2013.  ^ Cavaliere, Victoria (September 16, 2013). " Miss New York
Miss New York
is first Indian-American to win Miss America". Reuters. Retrieved September 23, 2013.  ^ Mascarenhas, Roland (October 4, 2013). "Opinion: Why Nina Davuluri matters". The Vancouver Sun.  ^ a b c Hafiz, Yasmine (September 16, 2013). "Nina Davuluri's Miss America 2014 Win Prompts Twitter Backlash Against Indians, Muslims". Huffington Post.  ^ a b c Abad-Santos, Alex (September 16, 2013). "The First Indian-American Miss America
Miss America
Has Racists Very, Very Confused". The Atlantic.  ^ Wischhover, Cheryl (September 26, 2013). "Is Bollywood the New Zumba?". ELLE.  ^ a b Broderick, Ryan (September 16, 2013). "A Lot Of People Are Very Upset That An Indian-American Woman Won The Miss America
Miss America
Pageant". BuzzFeed.  ^ Judkis, Maura (September 22, 2013). " Miss America
Miss America
fights post-pageant racism with a beauty queen's poise". Wall Street Journal.  ^ Greenhouse, Emily (September 20, 2013). "COMBATTING TWITTER HATE WITH TWITTER HATE". The New Yorker.  ^ Editorial (September 19, 2013). "Pigment of our imagination". Chennai, India: The Hindu.  ^ Stuart, Tessa (September 16, 2013). "Fox Host Todd Starnes Outraged That Indian-American Nina Davuluri
Nina Davuluri
Won Miss America". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013.  ^ Vail, Theresa (August 22, 2013). "God, Grant Me the Courage to Change the Things I Can". Miss Kansas Blog.  ^ Linton, Caroline (September 14, 2013). " Miss Kansas Bares Her Tattoos". The Daily Beast.  ^ Khemlani, Anjalee (November 16, 2013). " Miss America
Miss America
promotes cultural dialogue amid racist stereotypes". The Press of Atlantic City.  ^ Keeler in the Morning (October 2, 2013). "[AUDIO] Miss America
Miss America
on Keeler in the Morning". WIBX950 AM. Retrieved October 2, 2013.  ^ Vail, Theresa (September 2013). "Theresa's September Blog". Miss Kansas.  ^ Brady, Dani (September 29, 2013). "The story behind the crown: an interview with Miss Kansas 2013". University Daily Kansan.  ^ "Miss Florida, Despite Knee Injury, Wins Miss America
Miss America
Talent Competition". ABC News. September 13, 2013. Retrieved 2014-06-12.  ^ Parry, Wayne. " Miss America
Miss America
contestant born without forearm: 'I'm just like you'".  ^ a b c d "Dethroned Miss Delaware
Miss Delaware
Amanda Longacre Files $3 Million Lawsuit". ABC News. 2014-07-17.  ^ a b c d Brown, Robin (2014-07-17). "Ousted beauty queen sues Miss Del. pageant". The News Journal.  ^ a b c d Burns, Francis (2014-07-17). " Miss Delaware
Miss Delaware
ousted for being too old sues pageant". United Press International.  ^ Ashleigh Schmitz. " Miss America
Miss America
2015: 5 Things to Know About Kira Kazantsev". Parade.condenast.com. Retrieved 2015-05-08.  ^ Friedman, Molly (September 15, 2014). "The secrets behind New York's stunning three Miss America
Miss America
wins in a row". New York Daily News.  ^ a b Rupar, Aaron (24 September 2014). "John Oliver's Devastating Takedown of Miss America
Miss America
Has a Local Angle". City Pages. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ Blake, Meredith (4 February 2015). "Seven things we learned at breakfast with John Oliver". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ Chung, Jen (22 September 2014). "Video: John Oliver
John Oliver
Shreds Miss America's Claim To Be "Leading Provider" Of Scholarships To Women". Gothamist. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ Herman, Barbara (22 September 2014). " John Oliver
John Oliver
Takes On Miss America Pageant's 'Unbelievable' Scholarship Claims". International Business Times. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ "Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Miss America Pageant
Miss America Pageant
(HBO)". YouTube. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ Remnick, Alex (September 22, 2014). " Miss America
Miss America
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Miss America Organization
Announces New Leadership Team: Sam Haskell Elevated to Executive Chairman". Miss America
Miss America
Organization. February 27, 2015. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Two Elected to Miss America
Miss America
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Vanessa Williams
and the Miss America song return to the pageant". Reuters.  ^ " Miss America Organization
Miss America Organization
Scholarship Overview" (PDF). Retrieved September 11, 2016.  ^ "THE 96TH MISS AMERICA COMPETITION TO AIR ON SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 11TH AT 9:00 PM ET/PT ON ABC; "The 2017 Miss America
Miss America
Competition" To Broadcast Live From Historic Boardwalk Hall
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In Atlantic City" (Press release). Miss America
Miss America
Organization. 24 March 2016. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.  ^ CNN. "First openly gay Miss America
Miss America
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Miss America
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Miss America
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Mallory Hagan
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To Serve As Board Chair Of Miss America
Miss America
Organization". HuffPost. Retrieved 2018-2-1.  Check date values in: access-date=, date= (help) ^ a b Bobbin, Jay (2011-01-06). "There she is again: Brooke Burke, Chris Harrison
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Miss America
Competition with First-Time Host Sage Steele
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Miss America
pageant again". 1 December 2008.  ^ "WHAT TO WATCH".  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Miss America: FAQ

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Miss America.

Miss America
Miss America
Organization Miss America
Miss America
Foundation

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Miss America

1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

Titleholders Award winners

Outstanding Teen MAOT State pageants

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Miss America
Miss America
state pageants

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Virgin Islands Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

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Miss America
Miss America
titleholders

1921–1939

Margaret Gorman
Margaret Gorman
(1921) Mary Campbell (1922) Mary Campbell (1923) Ruth Malcomson
Ruth Malcomson
(1924) Fay Lanphier
Fay Lanphier
(1925) Norma Smallwood
Norma Smallwood
(1926) Lois Delander
Lois Delander
(1927) Marian Bergeron
Marian Bergeron
(1933) Henrietta Leaver (1935) Rose Coyle (1936) Bette Cooper (1937) Marilyn Meseke (1938) Patricia Donnelly (1939)

1940–1959

Frances Marie Burke (1940) Rosemary LaPlanche
Rosemary LaPlanche
(1941) Jo-Carroll Dennison (1942) Jean Bartel (1943) Venus Ramey
Venus Ramey
(1944) Bess Myerson
Bess Myerson
(1945) Marilyn Buferd
Marilyn Buferd
(1946) Barbara Jo Walker (1947) BeBe Shopp (1948) Jacque Mercer (1949) Yolande Betbeze (1951) Colleen Kay Hutchins (1952) Neva Jane Langley
Neva Jane Langley
(1953) Evelyn Margaret Ay (1954) Lee Meriwether
Lee Meriwether
(1955) Sharon Ritchie (1956) Marian McKnight (1957) Marilyn Van Derbur
Marilyn Van Derbur
(1958) Mary Ann Mobley
Mary Ann Mobley
(1959)

1960–1979

Lynda Lee Mead
Lynda Lee Mead
(1960) Nancy Fleming (1961) Maria Fletcher (1962) Jacquelyn Mayer (1963) Donna Axum (1964) Vonda Kay Van Dyke
Vonda Kay Van Dyke
(1965) Deborah Bryant (1966) Jane Anne Jayroe
Jane Anne Jayroe
(1967) Debra Dene Barnes (1968) Judith Anne Ford (1969) Pamela Eldred (1970) Phyllis Ann George (1971) Laurie Lea Schaefer (1972) Terry Meeuwsen (1973) Rebecca Ann King (1974) Shirley Cothran
Shirley Cothran
(1975) Tawny Elaine Godin (1976) Dorothy Benham
Dorothy Benham
(1977) Susan Perkins (1978) Kylene Barker (1979)

1980–1999

Cheryl Prewitt (1980) Susan Powell (1981) Elizabeth Ward (1982) Debra Maffett
Debra Maffett
(1983) Vanessa Williams
Vanessa Williams
/ Suzette Charles
Suzette Charles
(1984) Sharlene Wells (1985) Susan Akin (1986) Kellye Cash (1987) Kaye Lani Rae Rafko
Kaye Lani Rae Rafko
(1988) Gretchen Carlson
Gretchen Carlson
(1989) Debbye Turner
Debbye Turner
(1990) Marjorie Judith Vincent (1991) Carolyn Suzanne Sapp (1992) Leanza Cornett
Leanza Cornett
(1993) Kimberly Clarice Aiken (1994) Heather Whitestone
Heather Whitestone
(1995) Shawntel Smith
Shawntel Smith
(1996) Tara Dawn Holland (1997) Katherine Shindle
Katherine Shindle
(1998) Nicole Johnson (1999)

2000–2019

Heather French (2000) Angela Perez Baraquio (2001) Katie Harman
Katie Harman
(2002) Erika Harold
Erika Harold
(2003) Ericka Dunlap
Ericka Dunlap
(2004) Deidre Downs
Deidre Downs
(2005) Jennifer Berry
Jennifer Berry
(2006) Lauren Nelson
Lauren Nelson
(2007) Kirsten Haglund
Kirsten Haglund
(2008) Katie Stam
Katie Stam
(2009) Caressa Cameron
Caressa Cameron
(2010) Teresa Scanlan
Teresa Scanlan
(2011) Laura Kaeppeler
Laura Kaeppeler
(2012) Mallory Hagan
Mallory Hagan
(2013) Nina Davuluri
Nina Davuluri
(2014) Kira Kazantsev
Kira Kazantsev
(2015) Betty Cantrell
Betty Cantrell
(2016) Savvy Shields
Savvy Shields
(2017) Cara Mund
Cara Mund
(2018)

v t e

Former TLC original programming

19 Kids and Counting Abby & Brittany The Adam Carolla Project Addicted Alaskan Women Looking for Love All-American Muslim Amazing Vacation Homes American Chopper American Hot Rod A Baby Story BBQ Pitmasters Ballroom Bootcamp Best Funeral Ever The Big Garage Big Hair Alaska Big Sexy Cheer Perfection Clean Sweep The Day the Universe Changed DC Cupcakes Everyday Exotic Extreme Couponing Extreme Machines Freaky Eaters The Good Buy Girls Great Books Here Comes Honey Boo Boo Hoarding: Buried Alive Home Made Simple Homemade Millionaire Hometime Honey, We're Killing the Kids I Didn't Know I Was Pregnant In a Fix Inedible to Incredible Kids by the Dozen LA Ink Little Chocolatiers Little Parents, Big Pregnancy Little Parents, First Baby Livin' for the Apocalypse Mall Cops: Mall of America A Makeover Story Miami Ink Miss America
Miss America
Pageant A Model Life Mostly True Stories?: Urban Legends Revealed Moving Up My Five Wives NY Ink One Big Happy Family On the Fly Overhaulin' Paleoworld Pete Rose: Hits & Mrs. Police Women of Broward County Police Women of Cincinnati Police Women of Dallas Police Women of Maricopa County Police Women of Memphis Property Ladder Quints by Surprise Ready Set Learn Sarah Palin's Alaska Sex in Public Sextuplets Take New York Sin City Rules The Sisterhood Skinnamarink TV Strange Sex Starter Wives Confidential Street Customs Table for 12 Take Home Chef Toddlers & Tiaras Totally T-Boz Trading Spaces: Family Trading Spouses Tuckerville Ultimate Cake Off Undercover Boss Urban Legends Welcome to Myrtle Manor What Not to Wear While You Were Out

See also Templa

.