HOME
The Info List - Mishnaic Hebrew


--- Advertisement ---



Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
is one of the few Hebrew
Hebrew
dialects found in the Talmud, except for direct quotations from the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible. The dialects can be further sub-divided into Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
proper (also called Tannaitic Hebrew, Early Rabbinic Hebrew, or Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
I), which was a spoken language, and Amoraic Hebrew
Hebrew
(also called Late Rabbinic Hebrew
Hebrew
or Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
II), which was a literary language only. The Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
language or Early Rabbinic Hebrew
Hebrew
language is one of the direct ancient descendants of Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
as preserved by the Jews after the Babylonian captivity, and definitively recorded by Jewish sages in writing the Mishnah
Mishnah
and other contemporary documents. It was not used by the Samaritans, who preserved their own dialect, Samaritan
Samaritan
Hebrew. A transitional form of the language occurs in the other works of Tannaitic literature dating from the century beginning with the completion of the Mishnah. These include the halachic Midrashim (Sifra, Sifre, Mechilta etc.) and the expanded collection of Mishnah-related material known as the Tosefta
Tosefta
(תוספתא). The Talmud
Talmud
contains excerpts from these works, as well as further Tannaitic material not attested elsewhere; the generic term for these passages is Baraitot. The dialect of all these works is very similar to Mishnaic Hebrew.

Contents

1 Historical occurrence 2 Phonology 3 Morphology 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External links

Historical occurrence[edit] Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
is found primarily from the 1st to the 4th centuries of the Common Era, corresponding to the Roman period after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. It developed under the profound influence of spoken Aramaic.[1]Also called Tannaitic Hebrew or Early Rabbinic Hebrew, the dialect is represented by the bulk of the Mishnah
Mishnah
(משנה, published around 200) and the Tosefta
Tosefta
within the Talmud, and by some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, notably the Copper Scroll and the Bar Kokhba Letters. Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
archaeologist Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin
mentions that three Bar Kokhba documents he and his team found at Nahal Hever
Nahal Hever
are written in Mishnaic Hebrew,[2] and that it was Bar Kokhba who revived the Hebrew language and made Hebrew
Hebrew
the official language of the state during the Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt
(132-135 AD). Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin
also notes the shift from Aramaic
Aramaic
to Hebrew
Hebrew
during the time of Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt
in his book "Bar Kokhba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Last Jewish Revolt Against Imperial Rome,"[3] Yadin notes, "It is interesting that the earlier documents are written in Aramaic
Aramaic
while the later ones are in Hebrew. Possibly the change was made by a special decree of Bar-Kokhba who wanted to restore Hebrew
Hebrew
as the official language of the state" (page 181). In the book "A Roadmap to the Heavens: An Anthropological Study of Hegemony among Priests, Sages, and Laymen ( Judaism
Judaism
and Jewish Life)" by Sigalit Ben-Zion (Page 155), Yadin remarks: "it seems that this change came as a result of the order that was given by Bar Kokhba, who wanted to revive the Hebrew
Hebrew
language and make it the official language of the state." However within a century after the publication of the Mishnah, Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
began to fall into disuse as a spoken language. The Babylonian Gemara
Gemara
(גמרא, circa 500), as well as the earlier Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
published between 350 and 400, generally comment on the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Baraitot in Aramaic. Nevertheless, Hebrew
Hebrew
survived as a liturgical and literary language in the form of later Amoraic Hebrew, which sometimes occurs in the Gemara
Gemara
text.[4] Phonology[edit] Many of the characteristic features of Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
pronunciation may well have been found already in the period of Late Biblical Hebrew. A notable characteristic distinguishing it from Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
of the classical period is the spirantization of post-vocalic stops (b, g, d, p, t, k), which it has in common with Aramaic.[5] A new characteristic is that final /m/ is often replaced with final /n/ in the Mishna (see Bava Kama 1:4, "מועדין"), but only in agreement morphemes. Perhaps the final nasal consonant in the morphemes was not pronounced, and the vowel previous to it was nasalized. Alternatively, the agreement morphemes may have changed under the influence of Aramaic. Also, some surviving manuscripts of the Mishna confuse guttural consonants, especially ʾaleph (א‬) (a glottal stop) and ʿayin (ע‬) (a voiced pharyngeal fricative). That could be a sign that they were pronounced the same in Mishnaic Hebrew. Morphology[edit] Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
displays various changes from Biblical Hebrew, some appear alreadying in the Hebrew
Hebrew
of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Some, but not all, are retained in Modern Hebrew. For the expression of possession, Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
mostly replaces the Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
status constructus with analytic constructions involving של 'of'.[5] Missing in Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
is the waw-consecutive. The past is expressed by using the same form as in Modern Hebrew. For example, ( Pirkei Avoth
Pirkei Avoth
1:1): "משה קיבל תורה מסיני". ("Moses received the Torah from Sinai".) Continuous past is expressed using the present tense of to be unlike Biblical but like Modern Hebrew. For example, ( Pirkei Avoth
Pirkei Avoth
1:2): "הוא היה אומר" ("He often said".) Present is expressed using the same form as in Modern Hebrew, by using the participle (בינוני). For example, ( Pirkei Avoth
Pirkei Avoth
1:2): "על שלושה דברים העולם עומד". ("The world is sustained by three things", lit. "On three things the world stands") Future can be expressed using עתיד + infinitive. For example, ( Pirkei Avoth
Pirkei Avoth
3:1): "ולפני מי אתה עתיד ליתן דין וחשבון". However, unlike Modern Hebrew
Hebrew
but like contemporary Aramaic, the present active participle can also express the future.[5] It mostly replaces the imperfect (prefixed) form in that function. The imperfect (prefixed) form, which is used for the future in modern Hebrew, expresses an imperative (order), volition or similar meanings in Mishnaic Hebrew. For example, ( Pirkei Avoth
Pirkei Avoth
1:3): "הוא היה אומר, אל תהיו כעבדים המשמשין את הרב" ("He would say, don't be like slaves serving the master...", lit. "...you will not be..."). In a sense, one could say that the form pertains to the future in Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
as well, but it invariably has a modal (imperative, volitional, etc.) aspect in the main clause. See also[edit]

Tiberian Hebrew
Hebrew
(liturgical) Yemenite Hebrew
Hebrew
(liturgical)

Sanaani Hebrew
Hebrew
(liturgical)

Sephardi Hebrew
Hebrew
(liturgical) Ashkenazi Hebrew
Hebrew
(liturgical) Mizrahi Hebrew
Hebrew
(liturgical) Modern Hebrew
Hebrew
(State of Israel)

Further reading[edit]

Bar-Asher, Moshe, Mishnaic Hebrew: An Introductory Survey, Hebrew Studies 40 (1999) 115-151. Kutscher, E.Y. A Short History of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language, Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1982 pp. 115–146. Pérez Fernández, Miguel, An Introductory Grammar of Rabbinic Hebrew (trans. John Elwolde), Leiden: E.J. Brill 1997. Sáenz-Badillos, Angel, A History of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language (ISBN 0-521-55634-1) (trans. John Elwolde), Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993. M. H. Segal, Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
and its Relation to Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
and to Aramaic, JQR 20 (1908): 647–73

References[edit]

^ David Steinberg, History of the Ancient and Modern Hebrew
Hebrew
Language ^ The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Sep., 1961), Pg. 93 ^ Yadin, Yigael. Bar-Kokhba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome. New York: Random House, 1971 (hardcover, ISBN 0-394-47184-9); London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971 (hardcover, ISBN 0-297-00345-3). ^ Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde. 1996. A history of the Hebrew
Hebrew
language. P.170-171: "There is general agreement that two main periods of Rabbinical Hebrew
Hebrew
(RH) can be distinguished. The first, which lasted until the close of the Tannaitic era (around the year 200), is characterized by RH as a spoken language gradually developing into a literary medium, in which the Mishnah, Tosefta, baraitot and Tannaitic midrashim would be composed. The second stage begins with the Amoraim, and sees RH being replaced by Aramaic
Aramaic
as the spoken vernacular, surviving only as a literary language. ^ a b c "History of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language by David Steinberg". 

External links[edit]

History of the Ancient and Modern Hebrew
Hebrew
Language, David Steinberg Short History of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language, Chaim Rabin

v t e

Hebrew
Hebrew
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Transliteration to English / from English Numerology

Eras

Biblical (northern dialect) Mishnaic Medieval Modern

Reading traditions

Ashkenazi Sephardi Italian Mizrahi (Syrian) Yemenite Samaritan Tiberian (extinct) Palestinian (extinct) Babylonian (extinct)

Orthography

Eras

Biblical

Scripts

Rashi Braille Ashuri Cursive Crowning Paleo-Hebrew

Alphabet

Alef Bet Gimel Dalet Hei Vav Zayin Het Tet Yud Kaf Lamed Mem Nun Samech Ayin Pei Tsadi Kuf Reish Shin Taw

Niqqud

Tiberian Babylonian Palestinian Samaritan

Shva Hiriq Tzere Segol Patach Kamatz Holam Kubutz and Shuruk Dagesh Mappiq Maqaf Rafe Sin/Shin Dot

Spelling

with Niqqud
Niqqud
/ missing / full Mater lectionis Abbreviations

Punctuation

Diacritics Meteg Cantillation Geresh Gershayim Inverted nun Shekel sign Numerals

Phonology

Biblical Hebrew Modern Hebrew Philippi's law

Law of attenuation

Grammar

Biblical Modern

Verbal morphology Semitic roots Prefixes Suffixes Segolate Waw-consecutive

Academic

Revival Academy Study Ulpan Keyboard Hebrew
Hebrew
/ ancient / modern Israeli literature Names Surnames Unicode and HTML

Reference works

Brown–Driver–Briggs Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic
Aramaic
Lexicon of the Old Testament

v t e

Jewish languages

Afro-Asiatic

Hebrew

Eras

Biblical Mishnaic Medieval Modern

Dialects

Ashkenazi Sephardi Mizrahi Yemenite Tiberian Samaritan
Samaritan
Hebrew

Judeo-Aramaic

Aramaic

Biblical Targum Talmudic Barzani Hulaulá Lishana Deni Lishán Didán Lishanid Noshan Betanure Jewish Neo-Aramaic Samaritan
Samaritan
Aramaic

Judeo-Arabic

Arabic

Judaeo-Iraqi Judaeo-Moroccan Judaeo-Tripolitanian Judaeo-Tunisian Judaeo-Yemeni

Others

Kayla / Qwara (Cushitic) Judaeo-Berber (Berber)

Indo-European

Germanic

Yiddish

Dialects / Argots

Eastern Western Litvish Poylish Ukrainish Galitzish Yiddish
Yiddish
Dutch Scots Yiddish Alsatian Yiddish Klezmer-loshn ganovim-loshn balagole-loshn katsoves-loshn Sabesdiker losn Judendeutsch Yiddish
Yiddish
sign language Lachoudisch

Jewish English

Yeshivish Yinglish Heblish

Romance

Judaeo-Romance

Judaeo-Catalan Judaeo-Italian Judaeo-Piedmontese Judaeo-Spanish Haketia Tetuani Judeo-Latin Judaeo-Occitan Judaeo-French Judaeo-Portuguese Judaeo-Aragonese

Indo-Iranian

Judaeo-Iranian

Bukhori Juhuri Dzhidi Judaeo-Hamedani Judaeo-Shirazi Judaeo-Esfahani Judaeo-Kurdish Judaeo-Yazdi Judaeo-Kermani Judaeo-Kashani Judaeo-Borujerdi Judaeo-Khunsari Judaeo-Golpaygani Judaeo-Nehevandi

Others

Yevanic (Hellenic) Knaanic (Slavic) Judaeo-Marathi (Indo-Aryan)

Other

Krymchak / Karaim (Turkic) Judaeo-Malayalam (Dravidian) Judaeo-Georgian

.