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Mirza Fatali Akhundzade (Azerbaijani: Mirzə Fətəli Axundov میرزا فتحعلی آخوندزاده) or Mirza Fath-Ali Akhundzade (Persian: میرزا فتحعلی آخوندزاده‎), also known as Akhundov (12 July 1812 – 9 March 1878), was a celebrated ethnic Azerbaijani[1] author, playwright, philosopher, and founder of modern literary criticism,[2] "who acquired fame primarily as the writer of European-inspired plays in the Azeri Turkic language".[3] Akhundzade singlehandedly opened a new stage of development of Azerbaijani literature. He was also the founder of materialism and atheism movement in Azerbaijan[4] and one of forerunners of modern Iranian nationalism.[5]

Contents

1 Life 2 Iranian nationalism 3 Alphabet Reform 4 Legacy 5 Bibliography 6 References 7 External links

Life[edit] Akhundzade was born in 1812 in Nukha (present-day Shaki, Azerbaijan) to a wealthy land owning family from Iranian Azerbaijan. His parents, and especially his uncle Haji Alaskar, who was Fatali's first teacher, prepared young Fatali for a career in Shi'a clergy, but the young man was attracted to the literature. In 1832, while in Ganja, Akhundzade came into contact with the poet Mirza Shafi Vazeh, who introduced him to a Western secular thought and discouraged him from pursuing a religious career.[6] Later in 1834 Akhundzade moved to Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, Georgia), and spent the rest of his life working as a translator of Oriental languages in the service of the Russian Empire's Viceroyalty. Concurrently, from 1837 onwards he worked as a teacher in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
uezd Armenian school, then in Nersisyan school[1]. In Tiflis
Tiflis
his acquaintance and friendship with the exiled Russian Decembrists Alexander Bestuzhev-Marlinsky, Vladimir Odoyevsky, poet Yakov Polonsky, Armenian writers Khachatur Abovian,[2] Gabriel Sundukyan and others played some part in formation of Akhundzade's Europeanized outlook.

Grave monument of Akhundzade in Tbilisi

Akhundzade's first published work was The Oriental Poem (1837), written to lament the death of the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. But the rise of Akhundzade's literary activity comes in the 1850s. In the first half of the 1850s, Akhundzade wrote six comedies – the first comedies in Azerbaijani literature
Azerbaijani literature
as well as the first samples of the national dramaturgy. The comedies by Akhundzade are unique in their critical pathos, analysis of the realities in Azerbaijan of the first half of the 19th century. These comedies found numerous responses in the Russian other foreign periodical press. The German Magazine of Foreign Literature called Akhundzade "dramatic genius", "the Azerbaijani Molière" 1. Akhundzade's sharp pen was directed against everything that he believed hindered the advance of the Russian Empire, which for Akhundzadeh was a force for modernisation, in spite of the atrocities it committed in its southern advance against Akhundzadeh's own kin[7]. According to Walter Kolarz:

The greatest Azerbaidzhani poet of the nineteenth century, Mirza Fathali Akhundov (1812-78), who is called the "Molière of the Orient", was so completely devoted to the Russian cause that he urged his compatriots to fight Turkey
Turkey
during the Crimean War.[8]

In 1859 Akhundzade published his short but famous novel The Deceived Stars. In this novel he laid the foundation of Azerbaijani realistic historical prose, giving the models of a new genre in Azerbaijani literature. By his comedies and dramas Akhundzade established realism as the leading trend in Azerbaijani literature. According to Ronald Grigor Suny:

Turkish nationalism, which developed in part as a reaction to the nationalism of the Christian minorities [of the Ottoman Empire], was, like Armenian nationalism, heavily influenced by thinkers who lived and were educated in the Russian Empire. The Crimean Tatar Ismail Bey Gasprinski and the Azerbaijani writer Mirza Fath Ali Akhundzade inspired Turkish intellectuals in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[9]

According to Tadeusz Swietochowski:

In his glorification of the pre-Islamic greatness of Iran, before it was destroyed at the hands of the "hungry, naked and savage Arabs, "Akhundzada was one of the forerunners of modern Iranian nationalism, and of its militant manifestations at that. Nor was he devoid of anti-Ottoman sentiments, and in his spirit of the age-long Iranian Ottoman confrontation he ventured into his writing on the victory of Shah Abbas I over the Turks at Baghdad. Akhundzade is counted as one of the founders of modern Iranian literature, and his formative influence is visible in such major Persian-language writers as Malkum Khan, Mirza Agha Khan and Mirza Abd ul-Rahim Talibov Tabrizi. All of them were advocates of reforms in Iran. If Akhundzade had no doubt that his spiritual homeland was Iran, Azerbaijan was the land he grew up and whose language was his native tongue. His lyrical poetry was written in Persian, but his work that carry messages of social importance as written in the language of the people of his native land, azari. With no indication of split-personality, he combined larger Iranian identity with Azerbaijani – he used the term vatan (fatherland) in reference to both.[5]

Reza Zia-Ebrahimi too considers Akhundzade as the founding-father of what he calls 'dislocative nationalism' in Iran. According to Zia-Ebrahimi, Akhundzade found inspiration in Orientalist templates to construct a vision of ancient Iran, which offered intellectuals disgruntled with the pace of modernist reform in Iran, a self-serving narrative where all of Iran's shortcomings are blamed on a monolithic and otherized 'other': the Arab. For Zia-Ebrahimi, Akhundzade must be credit with the introduction of ethno-racial ideas, particularly the opposition between the Iranian Aryan and the Arab Semite, into Iran's intellectual debates. Zia-Ebrahimi disputes that Akhundzade had any influence on modernist intellectuals such as Malkum Khan (beyond a common project to reform the Alphabet used to write Persian) or Talibov Tabrizi. His real heir was Kermani, and these two intellectuals' legacy is to be found in the ethnic nationalism of the Pahlavi state, rather than the civic nationalism of the Constitutional movement[10]. In the 1920s, the Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre was named after Akhundzade. Iranian nationalism[edit] Akhundzade identified himself as belonging to the nation of Iran (mellat-e Irān) and to the Iranian homeland (waṭan). He corresponded with Jālāl-al-Din Mirzā (a minor Qajar prince, son of Bahman Mirza Qajar,1826–70) and admired this latter's epic Nāmeh-ye Khosrovān ('Book of Sovereigns'), which was an attempt to offer the modern reader a biography of Iran's ancient kings, real and mythical, without recourse to any Arabic loanword. The Nāmeh presented the pre-Islamic past as one of grandeur, and the advent of Islam
Islam
as a radical rupture[11]. For Zia-Ebrahimi, Akhundzade is the founder of what he refers to as 'dislocative nationalism'. Zia-Ebrahimi defines dislocative nationalism as 'an operation that takes place in the realm of the imagination, an operation whereby the Iranian nation is dislodged from its empirical reality as a majority-Muslim society situated - broadly - in the "East". Iran
Iran
is presented as an Aryan nation adrift, by accident, as it were, from the rest of its fellow Aryans (read: Europeans).'[12] Dislocative nationalism is thus predicated on more than a total distinction between supposedly Aryan Iranians and Semitic Arabs, as it is suggested that the two races are incompatible and in opposition to each other. These ideas are directly indebted to nineteenth-century racial thought, particularly the Aryan race hypothesis developed by European comparative philologists (a hypothesis that Zia-Ebrahimi discusses at length [13]). Dislocative nationalism presents the pre-Islamic past as the site of a timeless Iranian essence, dismisses the Islamic period as one of decay, and blames all of Iran's shortcomings in the nineteenth and later twentieth century on Arabs and the adoption of Islam. The advent of Islam
Islam
is thus ethnicised into an 'Arab invasion' and perceived as a case of racial contamination or miscegenation. According to Zia-Ebrahimi, dislocative nationalism does not, in itself, offer a blueprint for reforming the state beyond calls to eliminate what it arbitrarily defines as the legacy of Arabs: Islam and Arabic loanwords. Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani (1854-96) was one of Akhundzades disciples, and three decades later will endeavour to disseminate Akhundzade's thought while also significantly strengthening its racial content (Zia-Ebrahimi argues that Kermani was the first to retrieve the idea of 'the Aryan race' from European texts and refer to it as such, the modern idea of race here being different to the various cognates of the term 'Ariya' that one finds in ancient sources). Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani also followed Jalāl-al-Din Mirzā in producing a national history of Iran, Āʾine-ye sekandari (The Alexandrian Mirror), extending from the mythological past to the Qajar era, again to contrast a mythified and fantasised pre-Islamic past with a present that falls short of nationalist expectations..[14]

Zia-Ebrahimi sees dislocative nationalism as the dominant paradigm of identity in modern Iran, as it became part and parcel of the official ideology of the Pahlavi State (1925-79) and thus disseminated through mass-schooling, propaganda, and the state's symbolic repertoire. Alphabet Reform[edit] Well ahead of his time, Akhundzade was a keen advocate for alphabet reform, recognizing deficiencies of Perso-Arabic script
Perso-Arabic script
with regards to Turkic sounds. He began his work regarding alphabet reform in 1850. His first efforts focused on modifying the Perso-Arabic script
Perso-Arabic script
so that it would more adequately satisfy the phonetic requirements of the Azerbaijani language. First, he insisted that each sound be represented by a separate symbol - no duplications or omissions. The Perso-Arabic script
Perso-Arabic script
expresses only three vowel sounds, whereas Azeri needs to identify nine vowels. Later, he openly advocated the change from Perso-Arabic to a modified Latin alphabet. The Latin script which was used in Azerbaijan between 1922 and 1939, and the Latin script which is used now, were based on Akhundzade's third version. Legacy[edit]

Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater named after Akhundov

Beside of his role in Azerbaijani literature
Azerbaijani literature
and Iranian nationalism, Akhundzadeh was also known for his harsh criticisms of religions (mainly Islam) and stays as the most iconic Azerbaijani atheist.[15] National Library of Azerbaijan
National Library of Azerbaijan
and Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre as well as couple of streets, parks and libraries are also named after Akhundzade in Azerbaijan. A cultural museum in Tbilisi, Georgia that focuses on Georgian-Azerbaijani cultural relations is also named after him. Punik, town in Armenia
Armenia
was also named in the honour of Akhundzade until very recently. TURKSOY
TURKSOY
hosted a groundbreaking ceremony to declare 2012 as year of Mirza Fatali Akhundzade. Bibliography[edit] He published many works on literary criticism:

Qirītīkah ("Criticism") Risālah-i īrād ("Fault-finding treatise") Fann-i kirītīkah ("Art of criticism") Darbārah-i Mullā-yi Rūmī va tasnīf-i ū ("On Rumi
Rumi
and his work") Darbārah-i nazm va nasr ("On verse and prose") Fihrist-i kitāb ("Preface to the book") Maktūb bih Mīrzā Āqā Tabrīzī ("Letter to Mīrzā Āqā Tabrīzī") Uṣūl-i nigārish ("Principles of writing")

References[edit]

^ ĀḴŪNDZĀDA ĀḴŪNDZĀDA (in Soviet usage, AKHUNDOV), MĪRZĀ FATḤ-ʿALĪ (1812-78), Azerbaijani playwright and propagator of alphabet reform; also, one of the earliest and most outspoken atheists to appear in the Islamic world. According to his own autobiographical account (first published in Kaškūl, Baku, 1887, nos. 43-45, and reprinted in M. F. Akhundov, Alefbā-ye ǰadīd va maktūbāt, ed. H. Moḥammadzāda and Ḥ. Ārāslī, Baku, 1963, pp. 349-55), Āḵūndzāda was born in 1812 (other documents give 1811 and 1814) in the town of Nūḵa, in the part of Azerbaijan that was annexed by Russia
Russia
in 1828. His father, Mīrzā Moḥammad-Taqī, had been kadḵodā of Ḵāmena, a small town about fifty kilometers to the west of Tabrīz, but he later turned to trade and, crossing the Aras river, settled in Nūḵa, where in 1811 he took a second wife. One year later, she gave birth to Mīrzā Fatḥ-ʿAlī. Āḵūndzāda’s mother was descended from an African who had been in the service of Nāder Shah, and consciousness of this African element in his ancestry served to give Āḵūndzāda a feeling of affinity with his great Russian contemporary, Pushkin. ^ Parsinejad, Iraj. A History of Literary Criticism in Iran (1866-1951). He lived in the Russian Empire. Bethesda, MD: Ibex, 2003. p. 44. ^ Millar, James R. Encyclopedia of Russian History. MacMillan Reference USA. p. 23. ISBN 0-02-865694-6.  ^ M. Iovchuk (ed.) et el. [The Philosophical and Sociological Thought of the Peoples of the USSR in the 19th Century http://www.biografia.ru/about/filosofia46.html]. Moscow: Mysl, 1971. ^ a b Tadeusz Swietochowski, Russia
Russia
and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition (New York: Columbia University Press), 1995, page 27-28: ^ Shissler, A. Holly (2003). Between Two Empires: Ahmet Agaoglu and the New Turkey. I.B. Tauris. p. 104. ISBN 1-86064-855-X.  ^ Zia-Ebrahimi, Reza (2016). The emergence of Iranian nationalism: Race and the politics of dislocation. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 141-45. ISBN 9780231541114.  ^ Kolarz W. Russian and Her Colonies. London. 1953. pp 244-245 ^ Ronald Grigor Suny Looking Toward Ararat: Armenia
Armenia
in Modern History. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana State University, 1993. page 25 ^ Zia-Ebrahimi, Reza (2016). The emergence of Iranian nationalism: Race and the politics of dislocation. New York: Columbia University Press.  ^ Zia-Ebrahimi, Reza (2016). The emergence of Iranian nationalism: Race and the politics of dislocation. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 36–38.  ^ Zia-Ebrahimi, Reza (2016). The emergence of Iranian nationalism: Race and the politics of dislocation. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 5.  ^ Zia-Ebrahimi, Reza (2011). "Self-Orientalization and dislocation: The uses and abuses of the "Aryan discourse" in Iran". Iranian Studies. 44 (4).  ^ Ashraf, AHMAD. "IRANIAN IDENTITY iv. 19TH-20TH CENTURIES". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ Ахундов М. Ф. - Великие люди - Атеисты

External links[edit]

Biography. Akhundov: Alphabet Reformer Before His Time, Azerbaijan International, Vol 8:1 (Spring 2000). http://mirslovarei.com/content_fil/AXUNDOV-MIRZA-FATALI-2072.html Rebecca Gould, “The Critique of Religion as Political Critique: Mīrzā Fatḥ ʿAlī Ākhūndzāda’s Pre-Islamic Xenology,” Intellectual History Review 26.2 (2016): 171-184. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17496977.2016.1144420

v t e

Azerbaijani literature

Epic and legends

Köroğlu Book of Dede Korkut Ashik

Genres

Medieval

Izzeddin Hasanoglu Nasir Bakuvi Kadi Burhan al-Din Darir of Arzurum Jahan Shah
Jahan Shah
Haqiqi Habibi Qasem-e Anvar Khasta Qasim Imadaddin Nasimi Yaqub bin Uzun Hasan Shah Ismail I Hagiri Tabrizi Kishvari Muhammad Fuzuli Shah Tahmasp I Mahammad Amani Saib Tabrizi Qovsi Tabrizi Roohi Bagdadi Masihi Tarzi Afshar Fatma Khanum Ani

Modern

Molla Panah Vagif Molla Vali Vidadi Mirza Shafi Vazeh Firidun bey Kocharli Khurshidbanu Natavan Abbasgulu Bakikhanov Mirza Fatali Akhundov Gasim bey Zakir Ali bey Huseynzade Seyid Azim Shirvani Hasan bey Zardabi Mirza Alakbar Sabir Seyid Abulgasim Nabati Zeynalabdin Shirvani Heyran Khanim Ali Mojuz Fazil Khan Sheyda Jalil Mammadguluzadeh Nariman Narimanov Jafargulu agha Javanshir Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev Ismayil bey Gutgashynly Sakina Akhundzadeh Hashim bey Vazirov Mehdigulu Khan Vafa Suleyman Sani Akhundov Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli Mammed Said Ordubadi Najaf bey Vazirov Ashig Alasgar Mahammad Hadi Abbas Sahhat Abdulla Shaig Huseyn Javid Jafar Jabbarly Ali Nazmi Mikayil Mushfig Samad Vurgun Aliagha Vahid Mirza Khazar Mir Jalal Pashayev Ahmad Javad Habib Saher

Contemporary

Suleyman Rustam Ali Nazem Ganjali Sabahi Ilyas Afandiyev Rasul Rza Nigar Rafibeyli Mirza Ibrahimov Almas Ildyrym Mirvarid Dilbazi Ismayil Shykhly Manaf Suleymanov Baba Punhan Anar Rzayev Fikrat Goja Bahar Shirvani Nusrat Kasamanli Elchin Afandiyev Khalil Rza Uluturk Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi Mammad Araz Magsud Ibrahimbeyov Rustam Ibragimbekov Chingiz Abdullayev Natig Rasulzadeh Afag Masud Farhad Ebrahimi Akram Aylisli Ramiz Rovshan Naser Manzuri Samad Behrangi Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar Madina Gulgun Samin Baghtcheban Jabbar Baghtcheban Sahand Yadollah Maftun Amini Mehdi Huseyn Isa Mughanna Vagif Samadoghlu Heidar Abbasi Qilman Ilkin Vidadi Babanli Elchin Safarli Hamid Notghi Gholamhossein Bigdeli Rasoul Yunan Hidayet Lala Hasanova Gasham Najafzadeh Ali Akbar Seymur Baycan

Notes

Azerbaijani is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan
and one of the official languages of the Republic of Dagestan. It is also widely spoken in Iran, particularly in Iranian Azerbaijan. It is also spoken in some parts of Turkey, Russia
Russia
and Georgia.

v t e

Persian literature

Old

Behistun Inscription Old Persian inscriptions Ganjnameh Inscription of Xerxes the Great in Van Fortress Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg Island

Middle

Ayadgar-i Zariran Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan Dēnkard Book of Jamasp Book of Arda Viraf Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan Cube of Zoroaster Dana-i Menog Khrat Shabuhragan
Shabuhragan
of Mani Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr Bundahishn Menog-i Khrad Jamasp Namag Dadestan-i Denig Anthology of Zadspram Warshtmansr Zand-i Wahman yasn Drakht-i Asurig Shikand-gumanig Vizar

Classical

900s

Rudaki Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(Shahnameh) Abu Shakur Balkhi Abu Tahir Khosrovani Shahid Balkhi Bal'ami Rabia Balkhi Abusaeid Abolkheir
Abusaeid Abolkheir
(967–1049) Avicenna
Avicenna
(980–1037) Unsuri Asjadi Kisai Marvazi Ayyuqi

1000s

Bābā Tāher Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
(1004–1088) Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111) Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
(1006–1088) Asadi Tusi Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072) Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
(1018–1092) Masud Sa'd Salman (1046–1121) Moezi Neyshapuri Omar Khayyām (1048–1131) Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani Ahmad Ghazali Hujwiri Manuchehri Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131) Uthman Mukhtari Abu-al-Faraj Runi Sanai Banu Goshasp Borzu-Nama Afdal al-Din Kashani Abu'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami Mu'izzi Mahsati
Mahsati
Ganjavi

1100s

Hakim Iranshah Suzani Samarqandi Hassan Ghaznavi Faramarz Nama Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
(1155–1191) Adib Sabir Falaki Shirvani Am'aq Najm al-Din Razi Attār (1142–c.1220) Khaghani
Khaghani
(1120–1190) Anvari (1126–1189) Faramarz-e Khodadad Nizami Ganjavi
Nizami Ganjavi
(1141–1209) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Kamal al-din Esfahani Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
(d.1248)

1200s

Abu Tahir Tarsusi Awhadi Maraghai Shams al-Din Qays Razi Sultan Walad Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī Afdal al-Din Kashani Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi Mahmud Shabistari
Mahmud Shabistari
(1288–1320s) Abu'l Majd Tabrizi Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325) Saadi (Bustan / Golestān) Bahram-e-Pazhdo Pur-Baha Jami Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo Rumi Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314) Nozhat al-Majales Khwaju Kermani Sultan Walad

1300s

Ibn Yamin Shah Ni'matullah Wali Hafez Abu Ali Qalandar Fazlallah Astarabadi Nasimi Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani

1400s

Ubayd Zakani Salman Sawaji Hatefi Jami Kamal Khujandi Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535) Fuzûlî
Fuzûlî
(1483–1556) Ismail I
Ismail I
(1487–1524) Baba Faghani Shirzani

1500s

Faizi (1547–1595) Abu'l-Fazl (1551–1602) Vahshi Bafqi (1523–1583) 'Orfi Shirazi

1600s

Taleb Amoli Saib Tabrizi (1607–1670) Kalim Kashani Hazin Lāhiji (1692–1766) Saba Kashani Bēdil Dehlavi (1642–1720) Naw'i Khabushani

1700s

Neshat Esfahani Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)

1800s

Ghalib
Ghalib
(1797–1869) Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)

Contemporary

Poetry

Iran

Ahmadreza Ahmadi Mehdi Akhavan-Sales Hormoz Alipour Qeysar Aminpour Aref Qazvini Manouchehr Atashi Mahmoud Mosharraf Azad Tehrani Mohammad-Taqi Bahar Reza Baraheni Simin Behbahani Dehkhoda Hushang Ebtehaj Bijan Elahi Parviz Eslampour Parvin E'tesami Forough Farrokhzad Hossein Monzavi Hushang Irani Iraj Mirza Bijan Jalali Siavash Kasraie Esmail Khoi Shams Langeroodi Mohammad Mokhtari Nosrat Rahmani Yadollah Royaee Tahereh Saffarzadeh Sohrab Sepehri Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar Ahmad Shamlou Manouchehr Sheybani Nima Yooshij Fereydoon Moshiri Rasoul Yunan

Armenia

Edward Haghverdian

Afghanistan

Nadia Anjuman Wasef Bakhtari Raziq Faani Khalilullah Khalili Youssof Kohzad Massoud Nawabi Abdul Ali Mustaghni

Tajikistan

Sadriddin Ayni Farzona Iskandar Khatloni Abolqasem Lahouti Gulrukhsor Safieva Loiq Sher-Ali Payrav Sulaymoni Mirzo Tursunzoda

Uzbekistan

Asad Gulzoda

Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal

Novels

Ali Mohammad Afghani Ghazaleh Alizadeh Bozorg Alavi Reza Amirkhani Mahshid Amirshahi Reza Baraheni Simin Daneshvar Mahmoud Dowlatabadi Reza Ghassemi Houshang Golshiri Aboutorab Khosravi Ahmad Mahmoud Shahriyar Mandanipour Abbas Maroufi Iraj Pezeshkzad

Short stories

Jalal Al-e-Ahmad Shamim Bahar Sadeq Chubak Simin Daneshvar Nader Ebrahimi Ebrahim Golestan Houshang Golshiri Sadegh Hedayat Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh Aboutorab Khosravi Mostafa Mastoor Jaafar Modarres-Sadeghi Houshang Moradi Kermani Bijan Najdi Shahrnush Parsipur Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi Bahram Sadeghi Goli Taraqqi

Plays

Reza Abdoh Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh Hamid Amjad Bahram Beyzai Mohammad Charmshir Alireza Koushk Jalali Hadi Marzban Bijan Mofid Hengameh Mofid Abbas Nalbandian Akbar Radi Pari Saberi Mohammad Yaghoubi

Screenplays

Saeed Aghighi Rakhshan Bani-E'temad Bahram Beyzai Hajir Darioush Pouran Derakhshandeh Asghar Farhadi Bahman Farmanara Farrokh Ghaffari Behrouz Gharibpour Bahman Ghobadi Fereydun Gole Ebrahim Golestan Ali Hatami Abolfazl Jalili Ebrahim Hatamikia Abdolreza Kahani Varuzh Karim-Masihi Samuel Khachikian Abbas Kiarostami David Mahmoudieh Majid Majidi Mohsen Makhmalbaf Dariush Mehrjui Reza Mirkarimi Rasoul Mollagholipour Amir Naderi Jafar Panahi Kambuzia Partovi Rasul Sadr Ameli Mohammad Sadri Parviz Shahbazi Sohrab Shahid-Saless

Translators

Amrollah Abjadian Jaleh Amouzgar Najaf Daryabandari Behzad Ghaderi Sohi Mohammad Ghazi Lili Golestan Sadegh Hedayat Saleh Hosseini Ahmad Kamyabi Mask Mohammad Moin Ebrahim Pourdavoud Hamid Samandarian Jalal Sattari Jafar Shahidi Ahmad Shamlou Ahmad Tafazzoli Abbas Zaryab

Essayists

Aydin Aghdashloo Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi Ehsan Yarshater

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 180320264 LCCN: n80149346 ISNI: 0000 0001 1312 7375 GND: 118646737 SUDOC: 080638937 BNF:

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