A MINISTER WITHOUT PORTFOLIO is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry . The sinecure is particularly common in countries ruled by coalition governments and a cabinet with decision-making authority wherein a minister without portfolio, while he or she may not head any particular office or ministry, still receives a ministerial salary and has the right to cast a vote in cabinet decisions. In some countries where the executive branch is not composed of a coalition of parties and, more often, in countries with purely presidential systems of government, such as the United States, the position (or an equivalent position) of minister without portfolio is uncommon.
* 1 Australia * 2 Bangladesh * 3 Bulgaria * 4 Canada
* 5 Croatia
* 5.1 Deputy Prime Ministers without portfolio
* 6 Denmark * 7 Germany * 8 Hungary * 9 India
* 10 Indonesia
* 10.1 Presidential Cabinet (19 August 1945-14 November 1945) * 10.2 First Sjahrir Cabinet (11 November 1945-28 February 1946) * 10.3 Second Sjahrir Cabinet (12 March 1946-2 October 1946) * 10.4 Third Sjahrir Cabinet (5 October 1946-27 July 1947)
* 11 Ireland * 12 Israel * 13 Italy * 14 Macedonia * 15 Malta * 16 Nepal * 17 Netherlands * 18 New Zealand * 19 Norway * 20 Philippines * 21 Portugal * 22 Serbia * 23 Taiwan * 24 Sweden * 25 Tanzania
* 26 United Kingdom
* 26.1 19th century * 26.2 Edwardian and wartime * 26.3 Post-war * 26.4 21st century
* 27 United States * 28 Uganda * 29 References * 30 External links
Stanley Bruce was given the title of Minister without Portfolio when he took up his position in 1932 as the Commonwealth Minister in London. He was given the title by Lyon's Cabinet so that he could better represent the PM and his colleagues free from the limitations of a portfolio. In this case the title was a promotion and carried considerable responsibilities.
Bangladesh appoints ministers without portfolio during cabinet reshuffles or fresh appointments. Ministers are not usually appointed without portfolio as a coalition negotiation – all long run ministers end up with a portfolio. Suranjit Sengupta was a minister without portfolio in Sheikh Hasina's second government.
While minister without portfolio is seen by some as a mere sinecure appointment, it has been a role that numerous political notables have played over time, including former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien , who filled the role in a Pearson cabinet in the 1960s; John Turner also "kept a seat warm" in a Pearson cabinet. Notable Conservatives who filled the role include R. B. Bennett , and Arthur Meighen ; however, Meighen served this role after he had been prime minister.
The title of minister without portfolio has been used off and on; in recent times, though, the title has fallen out of favour, and the last minister without portfolio, Gilles Lamontagne , was promoted to postmaster general in 1978. The practice has continued under the guise of ministers of state without responsibilities in the ministers' titles.
The position has also been filled on the federal or provincial level by experienced politicians near the end of their careers as a way of allowing them to counsel the government and take on projects without the burdens associated with administering a government department.
* Dragutin Kalogjera (1990) * Zvonimir Medvedović (1990) * Gojko Šušak (1990–1991) * Zdravko Mršić (1990–1991) * Dražen Budiša (1991–1992) * Ivan Cesar (1991–1992) * Ivica Crnić (1992) * Darko Čargonja (1992) * Živko Juzbašić (1991–1992) * Mladen Vedriš (1992) * Vladimir Veselica (1991) * Muhamed Zulić (1991–1992) * Zvonimir Baletić (1991–1992) * Slavko Degoricija (1991) * Stjepan Zdunić (1991) * Čedomir Pavlović (1992–1993) * Smiljko Sokol (1992–1993) * Zlatko Mateša (1993–1995) – Prime Minister (1995–2000) * Juraj Njavro (1993–1997) * Ivan Majdak (1993–1995) * Marijan Petrović (1995) * Adalbert Rebić (1995) * Davor Štern (1995) * Branko Močibob (1995–1997) * Gordana Sobol (2002–2003) * Bianca Matković (2009–2011) * Goran Marić (2016)
DEPUTY PRIME MINISTERS WITHOUT PORTFOLIO
* Bernardo Jurlina (1990–1991) * Mate Babić (1990) * Milan Ramljak (1990–1992) * Franjo Gregurić (1990–1991) – Prime Minister (1991–1992) * Mate Granić (1991–1993) – Minister of Foreign Affairs (1993–2000) * Jurica Pavelić (1991–1992) * Zdravko Tomac (1991–1992) * Ivan Milas (1992–1993) * Vladimir Šeks (1992–1994) * Mladen Vedriš (1992–1993) * Ivica Kostović (1993–1995) * Bosiljko Mišetić (1995) * Borislav Škegro (1993–1997) * Ljerka Mintas Hodak (1995–1998) * Željka Antunović (2000–2002) * Slavko Linić (2000–2003) * Goran Granić (2000–2002) * Ante Simonić (2002–2003) * Damir Polančec (2005–2008) * Đurđa Adlešić (2008–2010) * Slobodan Uzelac (2008–2011) * Domagoj Ivan Milošević (2010–2011) * Tomislav Karamarko (2016) * Božo Petrov (2016) – Speaker of Parliament (2016–2017)
Three "control ministers" served as ministers without portfolio during World War I .
After the Liberation of Denmark in May 1945, the first Danish cabinet included four ministers without portfolio. Among these were Danish ambassador to the U.S. Henrik Kauffmann , who had conducted his own foreign policy throughout the war and refused to follow orders from Copenhagen as long as Denmark remained occupied by a foreign power. Kauffmann served in this capacity from 12 May to 7 November 1945. The three other holders of this title had joined the cabinet a few days before – Aksel Larsen ( Communist Party of Denmark ), Kr. Juul Christensen ( Danish Unity ) and Frode Jakobsen (Social Democrats ).
Anders Fogh Rasmussen appointed Bertel Haarder to Minister without Portfolio, but effectively Minister for European Affairs . Haarder served in this capacity from 27 November 2001 to 18 February 2005. The reason for appointing a minister without a ministry was the Danish European Union Presidency of 2002. Haarder was considered the most experienced Danish politician on European affairs.
Since 1949, a Federal Minister for Special Affairs (_Bundesminister für besondere Aufgaben_) is a member of the Federal Government that does not have charge of a Federal Ministry, although some have simultaneously been Chief of the Federal Chancellor's Office.
Since the inception of the state, Indonesia had ministers without portfolio, usually given the title _Menteri Negara_ ('State Minister'). The number was not fixed, entirely depended on the behest of the President. Below is the list of Ministers without Portfolio in each Cabinet.
PRESIDENTIAL CABINET (19 AUGUST 1945-14 NOVEMBER 1945)
FIRST SJAHRIR CABINET (11 NOVEMBER 1945-28 FEBRUARY 1946)
SECOND SJAHRIR CABINET (12 MARCH 1946-2 OCTOBER 1946)
THIRD SJAHRIR CABINET (5 OCTOBER 1946-27 JULY 1947)
The Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1939 (Section 4) allows a member of the Government of Ireland not to have charge of a Department of State ; such a person is referred to as a "Minister without portfolio" (Irish : _Aire gan Cúram Roinne_ ). Such a minister may nevertheless be given a specific title. The only substantive minister without portfolio has been Frank Aiken , the Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures during World War II . By the Emergency Powers Act 1939 then in force, the Minister for Defence was able to delegate some competences to him. Such delegation is now done instead with Ministers of State : "junior ministers" who are not members of the government. Junior ministers can be given a right to sit at cabinet; they are often known colloquially as "super-juniors." This allows the Government to circumvent the Constitutional limit on the number of Senior Ministers.
On several occasions a minister has been appointed to an incoming government with the title of a new Department of State. Between the date of appointment and the date of creation of the department, such a minister was technically a minister without portfolio. Examples include:
TITLE GOVT MINISTER APPT TO GOVT DEPT CREATED DEPT
Minister of Economic Planning and Development 21st Dáil Martin O\'Donoghue 8 July 1977 13 December 1977 Department of Economic Planning and Development
It is common practice in Israel to appoint ministers without portfolio as part of the coalition negotiations. All cabinets in recent years have had at least some such appointment. The Governance Law passed in 2013 forbade Ministers Without Portfolio effectively ending the practice, however in spite of some objections, after the 2015 elections this issue was revisited in the Knesset and it was allowed for the practice to resume. The full alphabetical list of Ministers without Portfolio since 1949 is:
* Ofir Akunis (2015) * Yosef Almogi (1961–62) * Shulamit Aloni (1974, 1993) * Yehuda Amital (1995–96) * Shaul Amor (1999) * Zalman Aran (1954–55) * Moshe Arens (1984–86, 1987–88) * Ruhama Avraham (2007–08) * Ami Ayalon (2007–08) * Yisrael Barzilai (1969–70) * Benny Begin (2009–13, 2015) * Menachem Begin (1967–70) * Mordechai Ben-Porat (1982–84) * Yosef Burg (1984) * Eitan Cabel (2006–07) * Ra\'anan Cohen (2001–02) * Yitzhak Cohen (2006–08) * Aryeh Deri (1993) * Aryeh Dolchin (1969–70) * Sarah Doron (1983–84)
* Abba Eban (1959–60) * Rafael Edri (1988–90) * Yaakov Edri (2006–07) * Effi Eitam (2002) * Yisrael Galili (1966–67, 1969–77) * Akiva Govrin (1963–64) * Mordechai Gur (1988–90) * Gideon Hausner (1974–77) * Yigal Hurvitz (1984–88) * Haim Landau (1978–79) * Pinhas Lavon (1952–54) * David Levy (2002) * Yitzhak Levy (2002) * Tzipi Livni (2001–02) * David Magen (1990) * Raleb Majadele (2007) * Dan Meridor (2001–03) * Yitzhak Moda\'i (1981–82, 1986–88) * Shaul Mofaz (2012)
* Peretz Naftali (1951–52, 1955–59) * Meshulam Nahari (since 2006) * Dan Naveh (2001–03) * Moshe Nissim (1978–80, 1988–90) * Ehud Olmert (1988–90) * Yossi Peled (2009) * Shimon Peres (1969) * Yitzhak Peretz (1984, 1987–88) * Haim Ramon (2005) * Pinchas Sapir (1968–69) * Yosef Sapir (1967–69) * Avner Shaki (1988–90) * Yosef Shapira (1984–88) * Ariel Sharon (1983–84) * Victor Shem-Tov (1969–70) * Salah Tarif (2001–02) * Ezer Weizman (1984–88) * Dov Yosef (1952–53) * Rehavam Ze\'evi (1991–92)
In the Italian government, Ministers without Portfolio are nominated by the President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) and formally appointed by the President of the Republic to lead particular departments directly under the Presidency (or Presidium) of the Council of Ministers. Unlike the office of State Undersecretary to the Presidency, who fulfils duties in the Prime Minister's remit, Ministers without Portfolio enjoy the full status of ministers but do not lead an independent ministry. Departments on equalities, European affairs and relations with regions, for example, are usually led by ministers without portfolio.
The Monti Cabinet had 6 ministers without portfolio:
* Dino Piero Giarda (Relations with Parliament) * Fabrizio Barca (Territorial cohesion) * Piero Gnudi (Regional affairs, Tourism and Sport) * Enzo Moavero Milanesi (European affairs) * Andrea Riccardi (Integration and International cooperation) * Filippo Patroni Griffi (Public Administration and Law simplification)
The Letta Cabinet had 8 ministers without portfolio:
* Josefa Idem (Equal opportunities, Sport and Youth policy; resigned in June) * Cécile Kyenge (Integration and Youth Policy) * Giampiero D\'Alia (Public Administration) * Dario Franceschini (Relations with Parliament) * Enzo Moavero Milanesi (European affairs) * Graziano Delrio (Regional affairs and Sport) * Carlo Triglia (Territorial cohesion) * Gaetano Quagliariello (Constitutional reforms)
The Renzi Cabinet had 3 ministers without portfolio:
As of 2017, ministers without portfolio (министер без ресор) are:
* Ramiz Merko * Edmond Ademi * Robert Popovski * Zoran Sapurik * Zorica Apostolovska * Adnan Kahil * Samka Ibraimovski
* Joe Mizzi (1996–1998) * Konrad Mizzi (2016-2017) On April 28, 2016, following the appearance of his name in the Panama Papers leaks, Prime Minister Joseph Muscat announced in a press conference at the Auberge de Castille that Konrad Mizzi was to be removed from the position of Health and Energy Minister. Mizzi would however retain the title of Minister without portfolio, working within the Office of the Prime Minister.
Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat .
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A minister without portfolio in the Netherlands is a minister that does not head a specific ministry , but assumes the same power and responsibilities as a minister that does. The minister is responsible for a specific part of another minister's policy field. In that sense, a minister without portfolio is comparable to a _staatssecretaris _ (state secretary or junior minister) in Dutch politics, who also falls under another ministry and is responsible for a specific part of that minister's policy field. However, one distinct difference is that a minister without portfolio is a member of the council of ministers and can vote in it, whereas a state secretary is not. The minister for development cooperation has always been a minister without portfolio.
In the second Balkenende cabinet there were three ministers without portfolio: Agnes van Ardenne (Development Cooperation), Rita Verdonk (Integration and Immigration) and Alexander Pechtold (Government Reform and Kingdom Relations).
In the fourth Balkenende cabinet there were three ministers without portfolio: Eberhard van der Laan (Housing, Neighbourhoods and Integration), Bert Koenders (Development Cooperation) and André Rouvoet , Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Youth and Family.
The second Rutte cabinet has two ministers without portfolio: Stef Blok (Housing and the Central Government Sector) and Lilianne Ploumen (Development Cooperation).
In the First Labour Government from 1935 the Hon. Mark Fagan was a "Minister without Portfolio" from 1935 to 1939, as was the Hon. David Wilson from 1939 to 1949. They were appointed to the upper house and made a "minister without portfolio" to add them to the cabinet although neither were elected to a seat in Parliament.
In the Third National Government , Keith Holyoake was made a Minister of State 1975–77 after he had retired as party leader, and in the Fourth National Government Robin Gray was made a Minister of State 1993–96 after he had retired as Speaker (though he was also Associate Minister of Foreign Affairs). Both appointments were considered sinecures to avoid their return as 'backbenchers '.
From 2009 to 2013 Karl Eirik Schjøtt-Pedersen (Labour) was a Minister without Portfolio and Chief of Staff in the Prime Ministers Office, where his job was to co-ordinate within government.
During the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines , then-Senate President Manuel Roxas was appointed Minister without Portfolio by the Japanese Government.
Following the Carnation revolution , several politicians were made ministers without portfolio:
* Álvaro Cunhal (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th provisional government) * Ernesto Melo Antunes (2nd, 3rd provisional government) * Francisco Pereira de Moura (1st, 4th provisional government) * Francisco Sá Carneiro (1st provisional government) * Joaquim Magalhães Mota (2nd, 3rd, 4th provisional government) * Jorge Campinos (1st constitutional government) * Mário Soares (4th provisional government) * Vítor Alves (2nd, 3rd provisional government)
Main article: Minister without portfolio (Serbia)
From 2007 to 2008, Dragan Đilas was a "minister without portfolio" in charge of the National Investment Plan .
* Audrey Tang * Chang Ching-sen , also serving as Governor of Fujian Province * Chen Tain-jy , also serving as Minister of National Development Council * Hsu Jan-yau , also serving as Governor of Taiwan Province and Minister of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission * John Deng * Lin Wan-i * Wu Hong-mo , also serving as Minister of Public Construction Commission * Wu Tsung-tsong
In the United Kingdom , it is often a cabinet position, and is sometimes used to get people such as the Chairman of the Conservative Party or the Labour Party Chairman into cabinet meetings (if so, they hold the title of "Party Chairman "). The sinecure positions of Lord Privy Seal and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster which have few responsibilities and have a higher rank in the Order of Precedence than Minister without Portfolio can also be used for similar effect. The position has been referred to humorously as The Minister for Ministerial Affairs.
NAME PORTRAIT CONCURRENT OFFICE(S) TENURE POLITICAL PARTY PRIME MINISTER
January 1805 – February 1806 Whig
October 1806 – March 1807
William Grenville ( Ministry of All the Talents )
William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland
4 – 30 October 1809 Tory
November 1809 – June 1812 Tory (Pittite)
John Pratt, 2nd Earl Camden (created 1st Marquess Camden, August 1812)
8 April – December 1812 Tory
January 1819 – May 1820
April – July 1827 Whig
July – September 1827 Tory (Canningite)
22 November 1830 – 5 June 1834 Whig
3 September 1841 – July 1846 Conservative
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne
28 December 1852 – 21 February 1858 Whig
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen (until February 1855)
Lord John Russell
February 1853 – June 1854
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen
May 1867 – February 1868 Conservative
Michael Hicks Beach
7 March 1887 – 20 February 1888
EDWARDIAN AND WARTIME
NAME PORTRAIT CONCURRENT OFFICE(S) TENURE POLITICAL PARTY PRIME MINISTER
25 May 1915 – December 1916 Liberal Unionist
Member of the War Cabinet 10 December 1916 – 12 August 1917 Labour
10 December 1916 – 18 April 1918 Conservative
22 June 1917 – 10 January 1919 South African Party
17 July 1917 – 21 January 1918 Ulster Unionist Party (Irish Unionist)
Member of the War Cabinet (until October 1919) 13 August 1917 – 27 January 1920 Labour
Member of the War Cabinet 18 April 1918 – 10 January 1919 Conservative
10 January – 31 October 1919
Member of the War Cabinet (until October 1919) 10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921
1 April – 14 July 1921 Liberal
Minister for League of Nations affairs 7 June – 22 December 1935 Conservative
7 June 1935 – 31 March 1936
Minister of Supply -designate 21 April – 14 July 1939 National Liberal Party
Maurice Hankey _ Member of the War Cabinet September 1939 – 10 May 1940 no party_
Neville Chamberlain ( Coalition )
11 May 1940 – 22 February 1942 Labour
30 December 1942 – 8 October 1944
NAME PORTRAIT CONCURRENT OFFICE(S) TENURE POLITICAL PARTY PRIME MINISTER
4 October – 20 December 1946 Labour Co-operative
17 April – 29 September 1947 Labour
18 October 1954 – 1957 Conservative
11 June 1957 – 1958
23 October 1958 – 1961 Unionist
Deputy Leader of the House of Lords 9 October 1961 – 14 July 1962 Conservative
13 July 1962 – 16 October 1964
Leader of the House of Lords 20 October 1963 – 16 October 1964
19 October 1964 – 6 April 1966 Labour
Deputy Leader of the House of Lords 21 October 1964 – 7 January 1967
6 April 1966 – 7 January 1967
Deputy Leader of the House of Lords 7 January 1967 – 16 January 1968
7 January – 21 August 1967
17 October 1968 – 6 October 1969
6 October 1969 – 19 June 1970
15 October 1970 – 1974 Unionist
8 January – March 1974 Conservative
advising on unemployment_ 11 September 1984 – 3 September 1985
5 July 1995 – 2 May 1997
Peter Mandelson _ called the "Dome Secretary"_ 2 May 1997 – 27 July 1998 Labour
NAME PORTRAIT CONCURRENT OFFICE(S) TENURE POLITICAL PARTY PRIME MINISTER
24 October 2002 – April 2003
4 April 2003 – May 2006
5 May 2006 – June 2007
no appointment_ 28 June 2007 – May 2010
Co- Chairman of the Conservative Party 12 May 2010 – September 2012 Conservative
4 September 2012 – May 2015
trade envoy 4 September 2012 – July 2014
Senior Parliamentary Adviser to the Prime Minister (Cabinet Office) 28 March 2013 – July 2014
Deputy Chairman of the Conservative Party 11 May 2015 – 17 July 2016
There is at present no appointed _minister without portfolio_ in the British government, under the Premiership of Theresa May .
In the United States, an individual who has great influence on government affairs without holding formal office might be described as a "minister without portfolio". Such an appellation is completely unofficial (possibly intended jokingly or disparagingly) and merely serves to underscore the extent of the individual's already-existing influence; it does not grant any new influence or power. Examples include Bernard Baruch and Arthur Burns .
As the Vice President of the United States has little formal power but can influence policy insofar as the president allows, the role of vice president is similar to that of a minister without portfolio.
Since 2015, the cabinet list has included a minister without portfolio:
* ^ "Mr Bruce to be Minister without Portfolio". Retrieved 24 January 2017. * ^ "Bangladesh\'s PM Sheikh Hasina keeps Home, Foreign Affairs, Defence portfolios". _economictimes.indiatimes.com_. PTI. Retrieved 2 February 2016. * ^ "Minister without Portfolio". _Focal _. Foras na Gaeilge. Retrieved 8 May 2012. * ^ Chubb, Basil (1982). _Government & Politics of Ireland_ (2nd ed.). Stanford University Press . p. 170. ISBN 0-8047-1115-1 . * ^ "Emergency Powers Act, 1939; §6 Delegation of statutory powers and duties". Irishstatutebook.ie. Retrieved 2016-07-27. * ^ "S.I. No. 157/1944 — Air-Raid Precautions (Approval of Expenditure by Essential Undertakers) (Amendment) (No. 2) Regulations, 1944". Irishstatutebook.ie. Retrieved 2016-07-27. * ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Bill, 1977: Fifth Stage.". _Dáil debates_. Oireachtas. 10 November 1977. Retrieved 8 May 2012. The Minister for Economic Planning and Development is a member of the Government not having charge of a Department of State, who is therefore, under section 4 (2) of the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 1939 a Minister without portfolio. His title is not derived from the title of a Department of which he is head, because it does not exist, but it is a title that has been assigned to him by the Government pursuant to section 4 (3) of the 1939 Act. * ^ "Appointment of Taoiseach and Nomination of Members of Government.". _Dáil debates_. Oireachtas. 5 July 1977. Retrieved 8 May 2012. * ^ "Mr. Martin O\'Donoghue". _Dáil Éireann Members Database_. Oireachtas. Retrieved 8 May 2012. * ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1977 Section 2". _ Irish Statute Book _. Attorney General. 6 December 1977. Retrieved 8 May 2012. * ^ "S.I. No. 377/1977 — Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1977 (Appointed Day) Order, 1977.". _Irish Statute Book_. Attorney General. 9 December 1977. Retrieved 8 May 2012. * ^ "Appointment of Ministers and Ministers of State". _Dáil debates_. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2012. * ^ "Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 2011, Section 7". _Irish Statute Book_. Dublin: Attorney General. 4 July 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2012. * ^ "S.I. No. 401/2011 — Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 2011 (Appointed Day) Order 2011.". _Irish Statute Book_. Dublin: Attorney General. Retrieved 8 May 2012. * ^ "Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 30 gennaio 2015 – Accettazione delle dimissioni della dott.ssa Maria Carmela LANZETTA dalla carica di Ministro senza portafoglio. (15A00810) (GU Serie Generale n.27 del 3-2-2015)". The official website of the Gazzetta Ufficiale . * ^ "Updated (3): Konrad Mizzi, Keith Schembri to remain at Castille; Mallia returns to Cabinet - The Malta Independent". _www.independent.com.mt_. Retrieved 2017-04-27. * ^ "Parlament Ta\' Malta". _parlament.mt_. Archived from the original on 2017-03-26. Retrieved 2017-04-27. * ^ "Congress leader Mahat to join cabinet". Setopati.net. 2014-02-11. Retrieved 2016-07-27. * ^ "Premier-designate finalizes his Cabinet lineup". Focustaiwan.tw. 2016-04-28. Retrieved 2016-07-27. * ^ http://focustaiwan.tw/news/aipl/201608090034.aspx * ^ "Olof Palme". _Government Offices of Sweden_. 27 February 2016. he was a minister without portfolio from 1963 to 1965 * ^ Bauman, Michael (1984-06-27). "Mysterious Baruch". _Milwaukee Journal_. p. 18. Retrieved 31 March 2012. * ^ "The Administration: Minister Without Portfolio". _Time_. 1969-02-07. Retrieved 31 March 2012. * ^ Baumgartner, Jody C. (1 Jan 2006). _The American Vice Presidency Reconsidered_. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 127. ISBN 9780275988906 .
* List of Canadian Ministers Without Portfolio and Ministers of State (Parliament of Canada Website) * Taiwanese Ministers Without Portfolio
* v * t * e
Common types of government ministers and ministries
* Prime Minister * Deputy Prime Minister * Cabinet department
* Defence (list ) * Foreign / External Affairs (list ) * Immigration *