Decisive Ming victory
Ming conquest of Đại Ngu
Collapse of the Hồ dynasty
Start of revolts by the Later Trần dynasty
Commanders and leaders
Hồ Quý Ly (POW)
Hồ Hán Thương (POW)
Wars of the Yongle Emperor
Ming–Hồ War was a military campaign by the Ming Empire of
China to invade
Đại Ngu (present-day north Vietnam) ruled by the
Hồ dynasty. The campaign began with Ming intervention in support of
a rival faction to the Hồ, but ended with incorporation of Vietnam
into China, marking the start of the Ming province of Jiaozhi.
A few years earlier,
Hồ Quý Ly had violently taken the Trần
throne, which ultimately led to the intercession of the Ming
government to reestablish the Trần dynasty. However, Hồ's forces
attacked a Ming convoy escorting a Trần pretender, who was killed
during the attack. After this hostile event, the
Yongle Emperor of the
Ming Empire appointed Marquises Zhang Fu and Mu Sheng to prepare and
lead the Ming armies for the invasion of Đại Ngu. The war lasted
from 1406 to 1407, resulting in the Ming conquest of
Đại Ngu and
the capture of the members of the Hồ dynasty.
The former ruling dynasty of Đại Việt, the Trần, had relations
with the Ming Empire as a tributary. However, in 1400, Hồ Quý Ly
deposed and massacred the Tran house before usurping the throne.
After taking the throne, Hồ renamed the country from Dai Viet to Dai
Ngu. In 1402, he abdicated the throne in favor of his son, Hồ
Hán Thương (胡漢蒼). Eventually, in May 1403, he requested
the investiture of his son from the Ming government on the account
that the Trần lineage had died out and that his son was a royal
nephew. Unaware of the deeds that Hồ had committed against the
Tran, the Ming government granted him this request. In October
1404, Trần Thiên Bính (陳添平) arrived at the Ming imperial
court in Nanjing, claiming to be a Trần prince. He notified the
court of the treacherous events that had taken place and appealed to
the court for the restoration of his throne. No action was taken by
them until early 1405, when his story was confirmed by a Vietnamese
Yongle Emperor of the Ming Empire issued an edict
reprimanding the usurper and demanding the restoration of the Tran
Hồ Quý Ly had doubts about the pretender's claims,
but nevertheless acknowledged his crimes and agreed to receive the
pretender as king. Thus, the nominal king was escorted back by a
Ming envoy in a military convoy. On 4 April 1406, as the party
crossed the border into Lạng Sơn, Hồ's forces ambushed them
and killed the Trần prince that the Ming convoy were escorting
Hồ Quý Ly expected the Ming Empire to retaliate, he
prepared the military for the imminent Ming invasion. The Ming also
accused him for taking on a hostile foreign policy, which included
harassing the southern border of the Ming Empire.
On 11 May (according to Chan 1990) or in the month July (according to
Tsai 2001) 1406, the
Yongle Emperor appointed Duke Zhu Neng (Duke of
Cheng) to lead an invasion with Marquises Zhang Fu and Mu Sheng as
second-in-command. Chen Qia was appointed to oversee the
supplies, while Huang Fu was appointed to handle political and
administrative affairs. On the eve of departure, the Yongle Emperor
gave a banquet at the Longjiang naval arsenal, located at the Qinhuai
River in Nanjing.
Huang Fu kept a log to document the military campaign. Sixteen days
Yongle Emperor gave the banquet at Longjiang, Huang Fu had
Nanjing and spend a night at Longjiang, before sailing
west on the Yangtze River. After eight days, he reached Poyang
Lake; after another week, he reached Dongting Lake. Thereafter,
Huang traveled through the
Xiang River southwards, passing Xiangtan
and Guilin, heading towards
Nanning in Guangxi. Three months had
passed after his departure from Nanjing, when Huang arrived at
Longzhou in Guangxi, where he joined the main body of the Ming
forces. Zhu Neng and Zhang Fu would cross the border from Guangxi,
while Mu Sheng would invade the
Red River Delta from Yunnan.
However, Zhu Neng died, aged 36, at
Longzhou in Guangxi. Thus,
Zhang Fu took over the command of the Ming army stationed there.
The military expedition would now be commanded by Zhang Fu and Mu
In the winter of 1406, the Ming armies began their invasion. Zhang
Fu and Mu Sheng departed from
Yunnan respectively to
launch a pincer attack into enemy territory. On 19 November 1406,
they captured the two capitals and other important cities in the Red
River Delta. On 24 November 1406, Zhang Fu's forces had conquered
Can Tram and several other strongholds. Mu Sheng's forces—who had
departed from Yunnan—met up and joined Zhang Fu's forces at Đa
Bang. By late January 1407, the Ming armies had decisively defeated
Việt forces, taking control of the
Red River Delta by superior siege
and naval warfare. By early May 1407,
Hồ Quý Ly was forced to
flee southwards as he had lost the support from his people and was
being pursued by the Ming forces. He first destroyed his palace at
Tay Do, before fleeing to the south by sea. Despite this, Hồ Quý
Ly and his son were captured on 16 June 1407, while the rest of his
family would be captured on either 16 or 17 June 1407. They were
caged and brought as prisoners to the
Yongle Emperor in Nanjing.
Ming Shilu 2 December 1407 entry stated that the Yongle Emperor
gave orders to Marquis Zhang Fu to not harm innocent Vietnamese and to
spare the family members of rebels, such as young males if they
themselves were not involved in the rebellion.
Non-Han ethnic minorities fought in the Chinese army against the
Ho. It was instructed that the Ming army should free foreign
prisoners who were jailed in Vietnam. Vietnamese records like
gazetteers, maps, and registered were instructed to be saved and
preserved by the Chinese army.
Further information: Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam
On 5 October 1407, the prisoners were charged with high treason by the
Ming imperial court. The
Yongle Emperor asked them whether they
had killed the former king and whether they had usurped the throne of
the Trần royal family, but he received no answer in return. In
the end, most of these prisoners were either imprisoned or
executed. In June 1407, the
Yongle Emperor annexed the conquered
Jiaozhi (Giao Chỉ) province. Lü Yi was
appointed as the military commissioner, Huang Zhong as the
vice-commissioner, and Huang Fu as the provincial administrator
and the surveillance commissioner.
Jiaozhi province became divided
into fifteen prefectures, 41 sub-prefectures, and 210 counties.
The first major signs of discontent against Chinese rule would surface
when Tran Ngỗi (a former Tran official) revolted in September
1408. Even though he would be captured by Zhang Fu in December
1408, Tran Qui Khoang (a nephew) would continue the rebellion until
his capture by Zhang Fu on 30 March 1414, formally ending the
rebellion. Nevertheless, the region would continue to be plagued
by several other uprisings during course of the Chinese domination,
and the Ming occupation army was eventually evicted out of
1427 as the result of the Lam Sơn uprising.
The Ming's ethnic Vietnamese collaborators included Mac Thuy whose
Mạc Đĩnh Chi
Mạc Đĩnh Chi who was a direct ancestor of Mạc
^ a b c Dardess 2012, 4.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Chan 1990, 230.
^ a b c d Chan 1990, 229.
^ Shiro 2004, 399.
^ a b Dreyer 1982, 207–208.
^ a b c d e f g Tsai 2001, 179.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Tsai 2001, 180.
^ a b Dreyer 1982, 208
^ "Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource". Geoff
Wade, translator. Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore
E-Press, National University of Singapore. p. 1014. Retrieved
July 6, 2014.
^ a b c Tsai 2001, 180–181.
^ a b c d e Tsai 2001, 181.
^ a b c Chan 1990, 230–231.
^ K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 232–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
^ Bruce M. Lockhart; William J. Duiker (14 April 2010). The A to Z of
Vietnam. Scarecrow Press. pp. 229–.
Chan, Hok-lam (1990). "The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-hsi, and Hsüan-te
reigns, 1399–1435". The Cambridge History of China. Volume 7: The
Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644 (Part 1). Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-24332-7.
Dardess, John W. (2012). Ming China, 1368–1644: A concise history of
a resilient empire. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Dreyer, Edward L. (1982). Early Ming China: A political history,
1355–1435. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Shiro, Momoki (2004). "Great Viet". Southeast Asia. Santa Barbara: ABC
Clio. ISBN 9781576077702.
Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (2001). Perpetual happiness: The Ming emperor
Yongle. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Ming dynasty topics
Red Turban Rebellion
Ming conquest of Yunnan
Ming-Mong Mao War
Ming campaign against the Uriankhai
Battle of Buir Lake
Ming–Mong Mao Intervention
Battle of Kherlen
Lam Sơn uprising
Yongle Emperor's campaigns against the Mongols
Rule of Ren and Xuan
Rebellion of Cao Qin
Prince of Anhua rebellion
Prince of Ning rebellion
Japanese missions to Ming China
Great Rites Controversy
Jiajing wokou raids
Single whip law
Japanese invasions of Korea
Battle of Beijing
Qing conquest of the Ming
Battle of Shanhai Pass
Imperial Clan Court
Military conquests of the Ming dynasty
Nine Garrisons of the Ming dynasty
Gunpowder weapons in the Ming dynasty
Army of the Ming dynasty
Yunnan under Ming rule
Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam
Manchuria under Ming rule
Compilations & Documents
History of Yuan
The Hundred-word Eulogy
Collected Statutes of the Ming Dynasty
Luso-Chinese agreement (1554)
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