MINERVA (/mɪˈnɜːr.və/ ; Latin: ; Etruscan : _Menrva_) was the
Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, and the sponsor of
arts, trade, and strategy. She was born of
Metis , who had been
swallowed by Jupiter , and burst from her father's head, fully armed
and clad in armor. After impregnating the titaness
Metis , Jupiter
recalled a prophecy that his own child would overthrow him.
Fearing that their child would grow stronger than he was and rule the
Heavens in his place, Jupiter swallowed
Metis whole. The titaness gave
Minerva nonetheless and forged weapons and armor for her
child while within Jupiter's body. The constant pounding and ringing
gave him a headache. To relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to
split Jupiter's head and, from the cleft,
Minerva emerged, whole,
adult, and bearing her mother's weapons and armor.
From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the
Athena . She was the virgin goddess of music, poetry ,
medicine , wisdom , commerce , weaving , and the crafts . She is
often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the
Minerva ", which symbolised her association with wisdom and
* 1 Etruscan
* 2 Worship in Rome
* 3 Roman coinage
* 4 Universities and educational establishments
* 5 Use by societies and governments
* 6 Public monuments, places, and modern culture
* 7 See also
* 8 References and sources
* 9 External links
Stemming from an Italic moon goddess _*Meneswā_ ('She who
measures'), the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name,
_*Menerwā_, thereby calling her
Menrva . It is presumed that her
Roman name, Minerva, is based on this
Etruscan mythology .
the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools, and commerce. She was the
Etruscan counterpart to Greek
Athena . Like Athena,
Minerva burst from
the head of her father, Jupiter (Greek
Zeus ), who had devoured her
mother (Metis) in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent her birth.
By a process of folk etymology , the Romans could have linked her
foreign name to the root _men-_ in Latin words such as _mens_ meaning
"mind", perhaps because one of her aspects as goddess pertained to the
intellectual. The word _mens_ is built from the Proto-Indo-European
root _*men-_ 'mind' (linked with memory as in Greek Mnemosyne
/μνημοσύνη and _mnestis_/μνῆστις: memory,
remembrance, recollection, _manush_ in Sanskrit meaning mind).
WORSHIP IN ROME
Raised-relief image of
Minerva on a Roman gilt silver bowl,
first century BC Temple of
Menrva was part of a holy triad with
Tinia and Uni ,
equivalent to the Roman
Capitoline Triad of Jupiter-Juno-Minerva.
Minerva was the daughter of
Metis and Jupiter.
Minerva Medica_, she was the goddess of medicine and physicians.
Minerva Achaea_, she was worshipped at
votive gifts and arms said to be those of
Diomedes were preserved in
her temple. A head of "Sulis-Minerva" found in the ruins of the
Roman baths in Bath Silver denarius of the Roman Emperor
Domitianus (Domitian) featuring Minerva, dated c. 90 AD, IMP CAES
DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIIII, laureate head right; IMP XXI COS XV
CENS P P P,
Minerva standing left, holding spear and thunderbolt,
shield resting against back of leg; References: BMC 167, RIC 691, RSC
260, Paris 159, Cohen 260
In _Fasti _ III,
Ovid called her the "goddess of a thousand works".
Minerva was worshipped throughout Italy, and when she eventually
became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, she also became a
goddess of battle. Unlike Mars, god of war, she was sometimes
portrayed with sword lowered, in sympathy for the recent dead, rather
than raised in triumph. In Rome her bellicose nature was emphasized
less than elsewhere.
Her worship also was spread throughout the empire—in Britain, for
example, she was syncretized with the local goddess
Sulis , who often
was invoked for restitution for theft.
The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during
the day which is called, in the neuter plural,
Quinquatria , the fifth
after the Ides of March, the nineteenth, an artisans ' holiday. A
lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of
June, June 13, by the flute-players , who were particularly useful to
religion. In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet
and make votive offerings at the temple of
Minerva on the Aventine
Hill . Among others, its members included
Livius Andronicus . The
Aventine sanctuary of
Minerva continued to be an important center of
the arts for much of the middle
Roman Republic .
Minerva was worshipped on the
Capitoline Hill as one of the
Capitoline Triad , at the
Temple of Minerva Medica , and at the
"Delubrum Minervae", a temple founded around 50 BC by
Pompey on the
site now occupied by the church of _
Santa Maria sopra Minerva _. When
it was founded, the emperor was present and was believed to be of
divine nature as a result of its construction.
Minerva is featured on the coinage of different Roman Emperors . She
often is represented on the reverse side of a coin holding an owl and
a spear among her attributes.
UNIVERSITIES AND EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS
Minerva in the emblems of educational establishments
As a patron goddess of wisdom,
Minerva frequently features in
statuary, as an image on seals, and in other forms at educational
USE BY SOCIETIES AND GOVERNMENTS
Minerva and owl (right) depicted on Confederate currency (1861)
Seal of California
Seal of California depicts the
Goddess Minerva. Her birth
fully-grown parallels California becoming a state without first being
* In the early twentieth century,
Manuel José Estrada Cabrera ,
President of Guatemala , tried to promote a "Worship of Minerva" in
his country; this left little legacy other than a few interesting
Hellenic style "Temples" in parks around
* According to John Robison\'s Proofs of a Conspiracy_ (1798), the
third degree of the Bavarian
Illuminati was called _Minerval_ or
_Brother of Minerva_, in honour of the goddess of learning. Later,
this title was adopted for the first initiation of
Aleister Crowley 's
Minerva is displayed on the
Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor , the highest military
decoration awarded by the United States government.
Minerva is featured in the logo of the
Max Planck Society .
Minerva alongside Mars is displayed on the cap badge of the
Artists Rifles Territorial SAS Regiment of the British Army.
Kingston Upon Hull
Kingston Upon Hull 's oldest
Masonic lodge is named The Minerva
Minerva is the patron goddess of the
Theta Delta Chi and Sigma
Alpha Epsilon fraternities, the Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society, and the
Kappa Kappa Gamma and
Delta Sigma Theta sororities
Minerva is the oldest student society in the Netherlands and
strongly related to
Leiden University .
Minerva Schools at KGI is an innovative global four-year
undergraduate program that took their name from Minerva.
PUBLIC MONUMENTS, PLACES, AND MODERN CULTURE
* A statue of
Minerva is displayed by the University of North
Carolina at Greensboro and is the university's new graphic identity
* A small Roman shrine to
Minerva stands in
It sits in a public park, overlooking the River Dee .
* A statue to
Minerva was designed by
John Charles Felix Rossi to
adorn the Town Hall of
Liverpool , where it has stood since 1799. It
remains extant and was restored as part of the 2014 renovations
conducted by the city.
Minerva Roundabout in
Guadalajara, Mexico , located at the
crossing of the López Mateos , Vallarta, López Cotilla, Agustín
Yáñez , and Golfo de Cortez avenues, features the goddess standing
on a pedestal, surrounded by a large fountain, with an inscription
that says "Justice, wisdom and strength guard this loyal city".
* A bronze statue of
Minerva stands in Monument Square (Portland,
Maine) . "Our Lady of Victories Monument" dedicated in 1891, features
a 14-feet-tall bronze figure by
Franklin Simmons atop a granite
pedestal with smaller bronze sculptures by
Richard Morris Hunt .
* A sculpture of
Minerva by Andy Scott , known as the Briggate
Minerva, stands outside Trinity Leeds shopping centre.
Minerva is displayed as a statue in
Pavia, Italy , near the train
station, and is considered as an important landmark in the city.
Minerva is the name of a supercomputer at the Icahn School of
Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City.
Minerva is the name of a supercomputer at the Albert Einstein
Institute in Potsdam, also known as the Max Planck Institute for
Gravitational Physics .
* In the comic book series _
The Wicked + The Divine _,
one of twelve deities in a "pantheon" who reincarnate every 90 years
but only live for two years each reincarnation.
Minerva is the song title of a single and the third track by the
Deftones on their self-titled album released May 20, 2003.
Minerva is a reoccurring character in the _Assassin\'s Creed _
franchise as a guide to Desmond and later a potential foil for Juno ,
a main antagonist for the series.
* Minerva, along with her Greek counterpart
Athena are gods in the
Japanese mobile game _Puzzle then during the morning of the last day
of classes and after singing around the Sycamore tree, the senior
class takes turns kissing the feet of Minerva, believed to be good
luck and bring success and prosperity to all graduation seniors.
Second French Empire
Second French Empire
REFERENCES AND SOURCES
* ^ Encarta World English Dictionary 1998–2004 Microsoft
* ^ _Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia_,
Book People , Haydock,
1995, p. 215.
* ^ Candau, Francisco J. Cevallos (1994). _Coded Encounters:
Writing, Gender, and Ethnicity in Colonial Latin America_. University
of Massachusetts Press. p. 215. ISBN 0-87023-886-8 .
* ^ _
Philosophy of Right _ (1820), "Preface"
* ^ Aristotle _Mirab. Narrat._ 117
* ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Achaea (2)". In Smith, William.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology _. 1. Boston.
* ^ Mark Cartwright. "Minerva". _Ancient History Encyclopedia_.
* ^ R. S. O. Tomlin (1992). "Voices from the Sacred Spring" (PDF).
_Bath History_. 4: 8, 10.
* ^ "American Numismatic Society: Browse Collection". Retrieved
* ^ "California State Symbols". _California State Library_.
* ^ "List of Registered Trademarks and Service Marks" (PDF).
* ^ Cavanagh, Terry (1997). _Public sculpture of Liverpool_.
Liverpool University Press. pp. 70–1.
* ^ Elson, Peter (2014-10-14). "
Liverpool Town Hall\'s Minerva
statue restored to heavenly condition". _
Liverpool Echo _.
* ^ "Our Lady of Victories (The Portland Sailors and Soldiers
Monument)". _Public Art Portland_. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
* ^ "Maine Civil War Monuments: Portland (Monument Square)".
_Maine.gov_. Archived from the original on 2015-05-24. Retrieved 28
* ^ "New high-performance computing cluster at the Albert Einstein
Institute in Potsdam". _Max Planck Institute for Gravitational
Physics_. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
* ^ "Minerva". _Hennepin County Library_.
* ^ "University at Albany - SUNY -". _albany.edu_.
* ^ "Herald Square Monuments - James Gordon Bennett Memorial : NYC
* ^ "minerva Search Results Wellsipedia".
_wellsipedia.wordpress.com_. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
* ^ Citizen, Erik Sorensen /
Special to The. "
Wells College to
graduate its first males this weekend". _Auburn Citizen_. Retrieved
* ^ York, Michelle (2005-09-06). "Wells College: Newly, and
Uneasily, Coed". _The New York Times_. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved
* Origins of English History see Chapter Ten.
* Romans in Britain – Roman religion and beliefs see The Roman
* Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society
* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain : Smith, William , ed. (1870). "article name needed".
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology _. See page