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MINERVA (/mɪˈnɜːr.və/ ; Latin: ; Etruscan : _Menrva_) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. She was born of Metis , who had been swallowed by Jupiter , and burst from her father's head, fully armed and clad in armor. After impregnating the titaness Metis , Jupiter recalled a prophecy that his own child would overthrow him.

Fearing that their child would grow stronger than he was and rule the Heavens in his place, Jupiter swallowed Metis whole. The titaness gave birth to Minerva
Minerva
nonetheless and forged weapons and armor for her child while within Jupiter's body. The constant pounding and ringing gave him a headache. To relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to split Jupiter's head and, from the cleft, Minerva
Minerva
emerged, whole, adult, and bearing her mother's weapons and armor.

From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena
Athena
. She was the virgin goddess of music, poetry , medicine , wisdom , commerce , weaving , and the crafts . She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the "owl of Minerva
Minerva
", which symbolised her association with wisdom and knowledge.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etruscan Menrva * 2 Worship in Rome * 3 Roman coinage * 4 Universities and educational establishments * 5 Use by societies and governments * 6 Public monuments, places, and modern culture * 7 See also * 8 References and sources * 9 External links

ETRUSCAN MENRVA

Main article: Menrva

Stemming from an Italic moon goddess _*Meneswā_ ('She who measures'), the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name, _*Menerwā_, thereby calling her Menrva . It is presumed that her Roman name, Minerva, is based on this Etruscan mythology . Minerva
Minerva
was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools, and commerce. She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena
Athena
. Like Athena, Minerva
Minerva
burst from the head of her father, Jupiter (Greek Zeus
Zeus
), who had devoured her mother (Metis) in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent her birth.

By a process of folk etymology , the Romans could have linked her foreign name to the root _men-_ in Latin words such as _mens_ meaning "mind", perhaps because one of her aspects as goddess pertained to the intellectual. The word _mens_ is built from the Proto-Indo-European root _*men-_ 'mind' (linked with memory as in Greek Mnemosyne /μνημοσύνη and _mnestis_/μνῆστις: memory, remembrance, recollection, _manush_ in Sanskrit meaning mind).

WORSHIP IN ROME

Raised-relief image of Minerva
Minerva
on a Roman gilt silver bowl, first century BC Temple of Minerva
Minerva
in Sbeitla , Tunisia
Tunisia

The Etruscan Menrva was part of a holy triad with Tinia
Tinia
and Uni , equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triad of Jupiter-Juno-Minerva. Minerva
Minerva
was the daughter of Metis and Jupiter.

As _ Minerva
Minerva
Medica_, she was the goddess of medicine and physicians. As _ Minerva
Minerva
Achaea_, she was worshipped at Lucera in Apulia where votive gifts and arms said to be those of Diomedes
Diomedes
were preserved in her temple. A head of "Sulis-Minerva" found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Silver denarius of the Roman Emperor Domitianus (Domitian) featuring Minerva, dated c. 90 AD, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIIII, laureate head right; IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva
Minerva
standing left, holding spear and thunderbolt, shield resting against back of leg; References: BMC 167, RIC 691, RSC 260, Paris 159, Cohen 260

In _Fasti _ III, Ovid
Ovid
called her the "goddess of a thousand works". Minerva
Minerva
was worshipped throughout Italy, and when she eventually became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, she also became a goddess of battle. Unlike Mars, god of war, she was sometimes portrayed with sword lowered, in sympathy for the recent dead, rather than raised in triumph. In Rome her bellicose nature was emphasized less than elsewhere.

Her worship also was spread throughout the empire—in Britain, for example, she was syncretized with the local goddess Sulis
Sulis
, who often was invoked for restitution for theft.

The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day which is called, in the neuter plural, Quinquatria , the fifth after the Ides of March, the nineteenth, an artisans ' holiday. A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players , who were particularly useful to religion. In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva
Minerva
on the Aventine Hill . Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus
Livius Andronicus
. The Aventine sanctuary of Minerva
Minerva
continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic
Roman Republic
.

Minerva
Minerva
was worshipped on the Capitoline Hill as one of the Capitoline Triad , at the Temple of Minerva Medica , and at the "Delubrum Minervae", a temple founded around 50 BC by Pompey
Pompey
on the site now occupied by the church of _ Santa Maria sopra Minerva _. When it was founded, the emperor was present and was believed to be of divine nature as a result of its construction.

ROMAN COINAGE

Minerva
Minerva
is featured on the coinage of different Roman Emperors . She often is represented on the reverse side of a coin holding an owl and a spear among her attributes.

UNIVERSITIES AND EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

Main article: Minerva in the emblems of educational establishments

As a patron goddess of wisdom, Minerva
Minerva
frequently features in statuary, as an image on seals, and in other forms at educational institutions.

USE BY SOCIETIES AND GOVERNMENTS

_ Minerva
Minerva
and owl (right) depicted on Confederate currency (1861)

* The Seal of California
Seal of California
depicts the Goddess
Goddess
Minerva. Her birth fully-grown parallels California becoming a state without first being a territory. * In the early twentieth century, Manuel José Estrada Cabrera , President of Guatemala , tried to promote a "Worship of Minerva" in his country; this left little legacy other than a few interesting Hellenic style "Temples" in parks around Guatemala
Guatemala
. * According to John Robison\'s Proofs of a Conspiracy_ (1798), the third degree of the Bavarian Illuminati was called _Minerval_ or _Brother of Minerva_, in honour of the goddess of learning. Later, this title was adopted for the first initiation of Aleister Crowley
Aleister Crowley
's OTO rituals. * Minerva
Minerva
is displayed on the Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
, the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. * Minerva
Minerva
is featured in the logo of the Max Planck Society . * Minerva
Minerva
alongside Mars is displayed on the cap badge of the Artists Rifles Territorial SAS Regiment of the British Army. * Kingston Upon Hull
Kingston Upon Hull
's oldest Masonic lodge
Masonic lodge
is named The Minerva Lodge. * Minerva
Minerva
is the patron goddess of the Theta Delta Chi and Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternities, the Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society, and the Kappa Kappa Gamma and Delta Sigma Theta sororities * LSV Minerva
Minerva
is the oldest student society in the Netherlands and strongly related to Leiden University . * Minerva Schools at KGI is an innovative global four-year undergraduate program that took their name from Minerva.

PUBLIC MONUMENTS, PLACES, AND MODERN CULTURE

* A statue of Minerva
Minerva
is displayed by the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and is the university's new graphic identity starting 2004. * A small Roman shrine to Minerva
Minerva
stands in Handbridge , Chester
Chester
. It sits in a public park, overlooking the River Dee . * A statue to Minerva
Minerva
was designed by John Charles Felix Rossi to adorn the Town Hall of Liverpool
Liverpool
, where it has stood since 1799. It remains extant and was restored as part of the 2014 renovations conducted by the city. * The Minerva
Minerva
Roundabout in Guadalajara, Mexico , located at the crossing of the López Mateos , Vallarta, López Cotilla, Agustín Yáñez , and Golfo de Cortez avenues, features the goddess standing on a pedestal, surrounded by a large fountain, with an inscription that says "Justice, wisdom and strength guard this loyal city". * A bronze statue of Minerva
Minerva
stands in Monument Square (Portland, Maine) . "Our Lady of Victories Monument" dedicated in 1891, features a 14-feet-tall bronze figure by Franklin Simmons atop a granite pedestal with smaller bronze sculptures by Richard Morris Hunt . * A sculpture of Minerva
Minerva
by Andy Scott , known as the Briggate Minerva, stands outside Trinity Leeds shopping centre. * Minerva
Minerva
is displayed as a statue in Pavia, Italy , near the train station, and is considered as an important landmark in the city. * Minerva
Minerva
is the name of a supercomputer at the Icahn School of Medicine
Medicine
at Mount Sinai in New York City. * Minerva
Minerva
is the name of a supercomputer at the Albert Einstein Institute in Potsdam, also known as the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics . * In the comic book series _ The Wicked + The Divine _, Minerva
Minerva
is one of twelve deities in a "pantheon" who reincarnate every 90 years but only live for two years each reincarnation. * Minerva
Minerva
is the song title of a single and the third track by the Deftones on their self-titled album released May 20, 2003. * Minerva
Minerva
is a reoccurring character in the _Assassin\'s Creed _ franchise as a guide to Desmond and later a potential foil for Juno , a main antagonist for the series. * Minerva, along with her Greek counterpart Athena
Athena
are gods in the Japanese mobile game _Puzzle then during the morning of the last day of classes and after singing around the Sycamore tree, the senior class takes turns kissing the feet of Minerva, believed to be good luck and bring success and prosperity to all graduation seniors.

SEE ALSO

* Celtic mythology * Second French Empire
Second French Empire
* Sulis
Sulis

REFERENCES AND SOURCES

References

* ^ Encarta World English Dictionary 1998–2004 Microsoft Corporation. * ^ _Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia_, Book People , Haydock, 1995, p. 215. * ^ Candau, Francisco J. Cevallos (1994). _Coded Encounters: Writing, Gender, and Ethnicity in Colonial Latin America_. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 215. ISBN 0-87023-886-8 . * ^ _ Philosophy of Right _ (1820), "Preface" * ^ Aristotle _Mirab. Narrat._ 117 * ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Achaea (2)". In Smith, William. _ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology _. 1. Boston. p. 8. * ^ Mark Cartwright. "Minerva". _Ancient History Encyclopedia_. * ^ R. S. O. Tomlin (1992). "Voices from the Sacred Spring" (PDF). _Bath History_. 4: 8, 10. * ^ "American Numismatic Society: Browse Collection". Retrieved 2017-03-02. * ^ "California State Symbols". _California State Library_. * ^ "List of Registered Trademarks and Service Marks" (PDF). * ^ Cavanagh, Terry (1997). _Public sculpture of Liverpool_. Liverpool
Liverpool
University Press. pp. 70–1. * ^ Elson, Peter (2014-10-14). " Liverpool
Liverpool
Town Hall\'s Minerva statue restored to heavenly condition". _ Liverpool
Liverpool
Echo _. * ^ "Our Lady of Victories (The Portland Sailors and Soldiers Monument)". _Public Art Portland_. Retrieved 28 January 2017. * ^ "Maine Civil War Monuments: Portland (Monument Square)". _Maine.gov_. Archived from the original on 2015-05-24. Retrieved 28 January 2017. * ^ "New high-performance computing cluster at the Albert Einstein Institute in Potsdam". _Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics_. Retrieved 31 January 2017. * ^ "Minerva". _Hennepin County Library_. * ^ "University at Albany - SUNY -". _albany.edu_. * ^ "Herald Square Monuments - James Gordon Bennett Memorial : NYC Parks". * ^ "minerva Search Results Wellsipedia". _wellsipedia.wordpress.com_. Retrieved 2017-03-09. * ^ Citizen, Erik Sorensen / Special
Special
to The. " Wells College to graduate its first males this weekend". _Auburn Citizen_. Retrieved 2017-03-09. * ^ York, Michelle (2005-09-06). "Wells College: Newly, and Uneasily, Coed". _The New York Times_. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 2017-03-09.

Sources

* Origins of English History see Chapter Ten. * Romans in Britain – Roman religion and beliefs see The Roman gods. * Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society * _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Smith, William , ed. (1870). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology _. See page 1090

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikisource

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