Mindoro is the seventh largest island in the
Philippines by land area
with a total of 10,571 km2 ( 4,082 sq.mi ) and with a total population
of 1,331,473 as of 2015. It is located off the southwestern coast of
Luzon and northeast of Palawan.
Mindoro is divided into two provinces
Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro. San Jose is the largest
settlement on the island with a total population of 143,430
inhabitants as of 2015. The southern coast of
Mindoro forms the
northeastern extremum of the Sulu Sea.
Mount Halcon is the highest
point on the island, standing at 8,484 feet (2,586 m) above sea
level located in Oriental Mindoro. Mount Baco is the island's second
highest mountain with an elevation of 8,163 feet (2,488 m),
located in the province of Occidental Mindoro.
7 External links
1900 map of
In past times, it has been called
Ma-i or Mait by
Han Chinese traders
and by Spaniards, as Mina de Oro (meaning "gold mine") from where the
island got its current name. According to the late historian William
Henry Scott, an entry in the official history of the
Sung Dynasty for
the year 972 mentions
Ma-i as a state which traded with China. Other
Chinese records referring to
Mindoro appear in the years that
The products that
Mindoro traders exchanged with the Chinese included
"beeswax, cotton, true pearls, tortoise shell, medicinal betelnuts and
yu-ta [jute?] cloth" for Chinese porcelain, trade gold, iron pots,
lead, copper, colored glass beads and iron needles.
The island was briefly invaded by the
Sultanate of Brunei
Sultanate of Brunei and housed
Moro settlements before the Spanish invaded and Christianized the
population. Afterwards, the area was depopulated due to wars between
the Spaniards and the Moros from
Mindanao who sought to enslave the
hispanized people and to re-islamize the island. Consequently,
most of the population fled to nearby
Batangas and the once rich towns
Mindoro fell to ruin. In the seventeenth century, Giovanni
Francesco Gemelli Careri visited the island. In 1898, Mindoro
joined in the
Philippine Revolution against Spain due to the influx of
rebels settling into the island from
Cavite and Bataan. Local
patriotism died down however during the American occupation of the
Philippines and the Japanese era.
The island was the location of the
Battle of Mindoro
Battle of Mindoro in World War II.
Nevertheless, upon Philippine independence, the area recovered and
from 1920 to 1950, the island was a single province with Calapan City
as the provincial capital. In 1950, it was partitioned into its two
Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro,
following a referendum that was pushed through by then acting governor
Beach in Northern Mindoro
The economy of
Mindoro is largely based on agriculture. Products
consist of a wide variety of fruits, such as citrus, bananas,
lanzones, rambutan and coconuts, grains (rice and corn), sugarcane,
peanuts, fish (catfish, milkfish and tilapia), livestock and poultry.
Logging and the mining of marble and copper also thrive.
Tourism is a lucrative business as well, with locations such as Apo
Reef National Park, Lubang Island, Puerto Galera, Sabang Beach and
Mount Halcon. Puerto Galera's beaches are the island's most known
tourist attraction and are widely visited.
The principal language in
Mindoro is Tagalog, although in some parts
it has been greatly influenced by the native
Mangyan and Visayan
languages. Mainstream Standard Filipino and Taglish are, indeed,
present in and around such areas as Calapan City, Pinamalayan, Puerto
Galera and San Jose. Visayan and
Mangyan languages, too, are spoken on
the island, as are Ilocano, Bicolano and some foreign languages —
e.g., English, Hokkien and to a lesser extent, Spanish.
The following indigenous languages are spoken in Mindoro. is
Northern Mindoro languages - 16,000 speakers
Iraya - 10,000 speakers
Alangan - 2,150 speakers
Tadyawan - 4,200 speakers
Southern Mindoro languages - 30,000 speakers
Buhid - 8,000 speakers
Tawbuid - 8,000 speakers
Hanuno'o - 14,000 speakers
Ratagnon language - 2 speakers
The common religions on the island fall under Christianity. The
religion of the indigenous
Mangyan population is animism. Though they
are into animism as a principal religion, the Roman Catholic Church in
some of Mindoro's parts is also active, so are a few independent
Iglesia Ni Cristo
Iglesia Ni Cristo and Philippine Independent
Church, as well as the Baptist Church.
Mindoro is also home to the tamaraw or
Mindoro dwarf buffalo (Bubalus
mindorensis), which is endemic to the island. The tamaraw is a bovine
related to the water buffalo (carabao) and is an endangered species.
C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Sulu Sea. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P.Saundry
& C.J.Cleveland. Washington DC
^ "Islands of Philippines". Island Directory. United Nations
Environment Programme. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
^ "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as
of May 1, 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National
Statistics Office. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Sulu Sea
^ a b Scott, William Henry. (1984). "Societies in Prehispanic
Philippines". Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine
History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. p. 70.
^ Prof. Cesar A. Majul attests to the existence of Bornean settlements
in Manila and construes that some of the rulers found by the Spaniards
were themselves Borneans. He in fact cites that as late as 1574, the
Borneans and their allies, the Sulus, continued to extract tribute
from the natives of Mindoro, thus this practice must have been going
on for quite some time. Cf. Muslims in the Philippines, (Quezon City:
University of the
Philippines Press, 1973), pp. 72.,78; ·
^ a b Lopez, Violeta B. (April 1974). "Culture Contact and
Mindoro up to the End of the Spanish Rule" (PDF).
Asian Studies, Volume XII, Number 1. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
^ Majul, op. cit., p. 108.
^ Mirabeau, Honoré (1867). Erotika Biblion. Chevalier de Pierrugues.
Chez tous les Libraries.
^ "Republic Act No. 505 - An Act to Create the Provinces of Oriental
Mindoro and Occidental Mindoro". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 13
June 1950. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
Media related to
Mindoro at Wikimedia Commons
Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article
Geographic data related to
Mindoro at OpenStreetMap
"Map of Mindoro" showing towns and major mountain tops
Major islands of the Philippines
Geography of the Philippines
Island groups of the Philippines
List of islands