Milton Keynes (/ˌmɪltən ˈkiːnz/ ( listen) MIL-tən
KEENZ), locally abbreviated to MK, is a large town[note 1] in the
Borough of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, of which it is the
administrative centre. It was formally designated as a new town on 23
January 1967, with the design brief to become a "city" in scale. It
is located about 45 miles (72 km) north-west of London.
At designation, its 89 km2 (34 sq mi) area incorporated
the existing towns of Bletchley, Wolverton, and Stony Stratford, along
with another fifteen villages and farmland in between. It took its
name from the existing village of Milton Keynes, a few miles east of
the planned centre.
At the 2011 census, the population of the
Milton Keynes urban area,
including the adjacent
Newport Pagnell and Woburn Sands, was
229,941. The population of the Borough in total was 248,800,
compared with a population of around 53,000 for the same area in
1.1 Birth of a "New City"
1.2 Prior history
2 Urban design
2.1 Grid roads and grid squares
2.2 The Redways: a network of shared use paths
2.4 Linear parks
2.5 "City in the forest"
2.7 Further development plans
3.2 Arts and literature
3.3 Public sculpture
5 Government and infrastructure
5.1 Local government
5.3 UK government offices
6 Communications and media
10 Other amenities
11 Original towns and villages
12 Economy, demography, geography and politics
12.1 Modern parishes, community councils and districts
13 Closest cities, towns and villages
14 Notable people
16 Twin towns
20 External links
Main article: History of Milton Keynes
Birth of a "New City"
In the 1960s, the UK Government decided that a further generation of
new towns in the South East of
England was needed to relieve housing
congestion in London.
Population trend of Borough and Urban Area 1801–2011
Since the 1950s, overspill housing for several
London boroughs had
been constructed in Bletchley. Further studies in the
1960s identified north
Buckinghamshire as a possible site for a large
new town, a new city, encompassing the existing towns of
Stony Stratford and Wolverton. The New Town (informally and
in planning documents, "New City") was to be the biggest yet, with a
target population of 250,000, in a "designated area" of 21,850
acres (34.1 sq mi; 88.4 km2). The name "Milton
Keynes" was taken from the existing village of
Milton Keynes on the
On 23 January 1967, when the formal new town designation order was
made, the area to be developed was largely farmland and undeveloped
villages. The site was deliberately located equidistant from London,
Cambridge with the intention
that it would be self-sustaining and eventually become a major
regional centre in its own right. Planning control was taken from
elected local authorities and delegated to the Milton Keynes
Development Corporation (MKDC). Before construction began, every area
was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has
exposed a rich history of human settlement since
Neolithic times and
has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of
the landscape of north Buckinghamshire.
The Corporation's strongly modernist designs featured regularly in the
Architectural Design and the Architects' Journal. MKDC was
determined to learn from the mistakes made in the earlier New Towns
and revisit the Garden City ideals. They set in place the
characteristic grid roads that run between districts ('grid squares'),
as well as the intensive planting, lakes and parkland that are so
evident today. While still on the drawing board, planners noticed that
the main streets near the proposed city centre would almost frame the
rising sun on Midsummer's Day. Greenwich Observatory was consulted to
obtain the exact angle required at the latitude of Central Milton
Keynes, and they managed to persuade the engineers to shift the grid
of roads a few degrees in response. CMK was not intended to be a
traditional town centre but a central business and shopping district
to supplement Local Centres in most of the grid squares. This
non-hierarchical devolved city plan was a departure from the English
New Towns tradition and envisaged a wide range of industry and
diversity of housing styles and tenures across the city. The largest
and almost the last of the British New Towns,
Milton Keynes has 'stood
the test of time far better than most, and has proved flexible and
adaptable'. The radical grid plan was inspired by the work of
Californian urban theorist
Melvin M. Webber (1921–2006), described
by the founding architect of Milton Keynes, Derek Walker
(1929–2015), as the "father of the city". Webber thought that
telecommunications meant that the old idea of a city as a concentric
cluster was out of date and that cities which enabled people to travel
around them readily would be the thing of the future achieving
"community without propinquity" for residents.
The Government wound up MKDC in 1992, 25 years after the new town was
founded, transferring control to the Commission for
New Towns (CNT)
and then finally to English Partnerships, with the planning function
returning to local council control (since 1974 and the Local
Government Act 1972, the Borough of Milton Keynes). From 2004-2011 a
Government quango, the
Milton Keynes Partnership, had development
control powers to accelerate the growth of Milton Keynes.
Along with many other towns and boroughs,
Milton Keynes competed for
formal city status in the 2000, 2002 and 2012 competitions, but was
unsuccessful. Nevertheless, the term "city" is generally used by its
citizens, local media and bus services to describe itself, perhaps
because the term "town" is taken to mean one of the constituent towns.
Road signs refer to "Central Milton Keynes" or "Shopping" when
directing traffic to its centre.
Reproductions of the
Milton Keynes Hoard
Milton Keynes Hoard (
Milton Keynes Museum)
The area that was to become
Milton Keynes encompassed a landscape that
has a rich historic legacy. The area to be developed was largely
farmland and undeveloped villages, but with evidence of permanent
settlement dating back to the Bronze Age. Before construction began,
every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing
so has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of
the landscape of south-central England. There is evidence of Iron Age,
Romano-British, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman,
Medieval and Industrial
revolution settlements. Collections of oral history covering the
20th century completes a picture that is described in detail in
Bletchley Park, the site of
World War II
World War II British codebreaking and
Colossus, the world's first programmable electronic digital computer,
is a major component of MK's modern history. It is now a flourishing
heritage attraction, receiving hundreds of thousands of visitors
When the boundary of
Milton Keynes was defined in 1967, some 40,000
people lived in three towns and fifteen villages or hamlets in the
"designated area" of 21,863 acres (8,848 ha).
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The concepts that heavily influenced the design of the town are
described in detail in article urban planning – see 'cells'
under Planning and aesthetics (referring to grid squares). See also
article single-use zoning.
Since the radical plan form and large scale of
Milton Keynes attracted
international attention, early phases of development include work by
celebrated architects, including Sir Richard MacCormac, Lord Norman
Foster, Henning Larsen, Ralph Erskine, John Winter, and Martin
Richardson. Led by
Lord Campbell of Eskan (Chairman) and Fred
Roche (General Manager), the Corporation attracted talented young
architects led by the young and charismatic Derek Walker. In the
modernist Miesian tradition is the Shopping Building designed by
Stuart Mosscrop and Christopher Woodward, a grade II listed building,
Twentieth Century Society inter alia regards as the 'most
distinguished' twentieth century retail building in Britain.
The contextual tradition that ran alongside it is exemplified by the
Corporation's infill scheme at Cofferidge Close, Stony Stratford,
designed by Wayland Tunley, which carefully inserts into a historic
stretch of High Street a modern retail facility, offices and car park.
Development Corporation also led an ambitious Public art
The urban design has not been universally praised, however. Francis
Tibbalds, president of the Royal Town Planning Institute, described
the centre of
Milton Keynes as "bland, rigid, sterile, and totally
Grid roads and grid squares
The geography of Milton Keynes – the railway line, Watling
Street, Grand Union Canal, M1 motorway – sets up a very strong
north-south axis. If you've got to build a city between (them) it is
very natural to take a pen and draw the rungs of a ladder. Ten miles
by six is the size of this city – 22,000 acres. Do you lay it
out like an American city, rigid orthogonal from side to side? Being
more sensitive in 1966-7, the designers decided that the grid concept
should apply but should be a lazy grid following the flow of land, its
valleys, its ebbs and flows. That would be nicer to look at, more
economical and efficient to build, and would sit more beautifully as a
Professor David Lock, CBE
Milton Keynes grid road system
Milton Keynes grid road system and List of districts in
Milton Keynes Development Corporation planned the major road
layout according to street hierarchy principles, using a grid pattern
of approximately 1 km (0.62 mi) intervals, rather than on
the more conventional radial pattern found in older settlements. Major
internal roads run between communities, rather than through them:
these distributor roads are known locally as grid roads and the spaces
between them – the districts – are known as grid
squares. Intervals of 1 km (0.62 mi) were chosen so that
people would always be within walking distance of a bus stop.
Consequently, each grid square is a semi-autonomous community, making
a unique collective of 100 clearly identifiable neighbourhoods within
the overall urban environment. The grid squares have a variety of
development styles, ranging from conventional urban development and
industrial parks to original rural and modern urban and suburban
developments. Most grid squares have Local Centres, intended as local
retail hubs and most with community facilities as well. Originally
intended under the masterplan to sit alongside the Grid Roads, the
Local Centres were mostly in fact built embedded in the communities.
Roundabout junctions were built at intersections because the grid
roads were intended to carry large volumes of traffic: this type of
junction is efficient at dealing with these volumes. Some major roads
are dual carriageway, the others are single carriageway. Along one
side of each single carriageway grid road there is a (grassed)
reservation to permit dualling or additional transport infrastructure
at a later date. To date this has been limited. The edges of each grid
square are landscaped and densely planted, some additionally have
berms. Traffic movements are fast, with relatively little congestion
since there are alternative routes to any particular destination other
than during the (brief) peak periods. The national speed limit applies
on the grid roads, although lower speed limits have been introduced on
some stretches to reduce accident rates. Pedestrians rarely need to
cross grid roads at grade, as underpasses and bridges exist in
frequent places along each stretch of all of the grid roads. However,
the new districts to be added by the expansion plans for Milton Keynes
are departing from this model, with less separation and using 'at
grade' crossings. This approach, which contradicts the original design
ethos, has been a cause for conflict between residents and the Council
who are often regarded as failing to preserve the unique development
style of the city. Monitoring station data shows that
pollution is lower than in other settlements of a similar size.
The Redways: a network of shared use paths
Cycleway network in Milton Keynes. The national cycle routes are
highlighted in red. (Extracted from Openstreetmap.org
© OpenStreetMap contributors).
Milton Keynes redway system, Segregated cycle
facilities, and Shared use path
There is a separate network (approximately 270 kilometres or 170 miles
total length) of cycle and pedestrian routes, the "redways", that runs
through the grid-squares and often runs alongside the grid-road
network. This was designed to segregate slow moving cycle and
pedestrian traffic from fast moving motor traffic. In practice, it is
mainly used for leisure cycling rather than commuting, perhaps because
the cycle routes are shared with pedestrians, cross the grid-roads via
bridge or underpass rather than at grade, and because some take
meandering scenic routes rather than straight lines. It is so called
because it is generally surfaced with red tarmac. The national
Sustrans national cycle network routes 6 and 51 take advantage of this
The Hub:MK, built between 2006 and 2008. The taller glass tower,
Manhattan House, has fourteen stories.
The original design guidance declared that "no building [be] taller
than the tallest tree". However, the
Milton Keynes Partnership, in its
expansion plans for Milton Keynes, believed that Central Milton Keynes
(and elsewhere) needed "landmark buildings" and subsequently lifted
the height restriction for the area. As a result, high rise buildings
have been built in the central business district. Four of the
pedestrian underpasses were closed to 'normalise' the streetscape of
Central Milton Keynes
Central Milton Keynes and the character of the area was set to change
under government pressure to increase densities of development. These
changes are being opposed by pressure groups such as
Urban Eden and
Milton Keynes Forum. More recent local plans have protected the
existing boulevard framework and underpasses following the dissolution
Milton Keynes Partnership.
Recent large-scale buildings include The Pinnacle:MK on Midsummer
Boulevard and the Vizion development on Avebury Boulevard. The
Pinnacle was the largest office building to be constructed in Milton
Keynes in 25 years. More recently the
Network Rail National Centre has
been built at the western limit of Silbury Boulevard; this building
occupies a large land area but only rises to the equivalent of six
storeys; a return towards the design of the original Central Milton
Caldecotte Lake, Milton Keynes
The flood plains of the Great Ouse and of its tributaries (the Ouzel
and some brooks) have been protected as linear parks that run right
through Milton Keynes. The
Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal is another green route
(and demonstrates the level geography of the area – there is
just one minor lock in its entire 10-mile (16 km) meandering
route through from the southern boundary near
Fenny Stratford to the
"Iron Trunk" Aqueduct over the Ouse at
Wolverton at its northern
Park system was designed by landscape architect Peter
Youngman, who also developed landscape precepts for all
development areas: groups of grid squares were to be planted with
different selections of trees and shrubs to give them distinct
identities. However the landscaping of parks and of the grid roads was
evolved under the leadership of Neil Higson, who from 1977 took
over as Chief Landscape Architect and made the original grand but not
entirely practical landscape plan more subtle.
"City in the forest"
Development Corporation design concept aimed for a
"forest city" and its foresters planted millions of trees from its own
nursery in Newlands in the following years. As of 2006, the urban area
has 20 million trees. Following the winding up of the Development
Corporation, the lavish landscapes of the Grid Roads and of the major
parks were transferred to The
Milton Keynes Parks Trust, a charity
which is independent from the municipal authority and which was
intended to resist pressures to build on the parks over time. The
Parks Trust is endowed with a portfolio of commercial properties, the
income of which pay for the upkeep of the green spaces.
The land on which
Milton Keynes was built was originally hedges,
marshes, ancient woodland and wildflower meadows. Today, roses in
particular thrive in its heavy clay soils.
Milton Keynes has been dubbed
Buckinghamshire capital of shrubs by The
Further development plans
One of the new 'city streets', an extension of H7 Chaffron Way, in
Main article: Expansion plans for Milton Keynes
In January 2004,
Deputy Prime Minister
John Prescott announced the
Government's plan to double the population of
Milton Keynes by 2026.
English Partnerships (EP) to do so, taking planning
controls away from
Milton Keynes Borough Council and making EP the
statutory planning authority. Their proposal for the next phase of
expansion moves away from grid squares to large-scale, mixed use,
higher-density development. The more detailed article expands on the
details of their proposals. As the first stage in that plan, the
Government expanded the boundaries of the designated area, adding
large green-field expansion sites to the east and west that were to be
developed by 2015.
In June 2004
Milton Keynes Partnership
Milton Keynes Partnership Committee (MKPC), was created
by the Government and was a committee of the Homes and Communities
Agency (HCA), the national housing and regeneration agency for
England. MKPC was created to ensure a co-ordinated approach to
planning and delivery of growth and development in the ‘new city’.
Milton Keynes Partnership
Milton Keynes Partnership was disbanded in 2011, holding its last
meeting in March of that year. Its functions were folded back into the
Homes and Communities Agency (HCA), with
Milton Keynes Council
handling planning permission for established areas of MK.
65,000 capacity by the
Bullet in a Bible
Bullet in a Bible concert at the
National Bowl is a 65,000-capacity venue for large-scale
In Wavendon, the Stables provides a venue for jazz, blues, folk, rock,
classical, pop and world music. It was founded by jazz artists
Cleo Laine and the late
John Dankworth and is now ranked in the UK's
top 10 music venues by the Performing Right Society.
It presents around 400 concerts and over 200 education events each
year and also hosts the National Youth Music Camps summer camp for
young musicians. In 2010, it founded the biennial IF Milton Keynes
International Festival, producing events in unusual spaces and places
across Milton Keynes
MK11 Live Music Venue & Sports Bar, based in Kiln Farm near Stony
Stratford, is a 330 capacity live music venue and sports bar that
hosts over 200 live music events throughout the year. MK11 features
local acts as well as more notable acts from a variety of musical
genres. Some notable acts include The Blockheads, Big Country, The
King Blues, The Hoosiers, Akala and Men at Works' Colin Hay. MK11 has
also featured a number of influential US hip-hop artists such as
Grandmaster Flash, Pharoahe Monch, KRS One and Dead Prez. MK11 was
voted as "best live music pub" by readers of local culture magazine
Monkey Kettle in 2014. In addition to this award MK11 also won
'Bar of the Year 2017' at the
Milton Keynes Food & Leisure Awards.
Arts and literature
The municipal public art gallery, MK Gallery, presents free
exhibitions of international contemporary art.
There are two museums:
Bletchley Park complex which, as well as housing the museum of wartime
cryptography, also hosts (separately) the National Museum of Computing
including a working replica of the Colossus computer, and
Milton Keynes Museum, which includes the Stacey Hill Collection of
rural life that existed before the foundation of MK and the original
The 1,400 seat
Milton Keynes Theatre
Milton Keynes Theatre opened in 1999. The theatre has
an unusual feature: the ceiling can be lowered closing off the third
tier (gallery) to create a more intimate space for smaller-scale
productions. There are further performance spaces in Bletchley,
Wolverton, Leadenhall, Shenley Church End,
Stantonbury and Walton
MK also has a literature scene, with groups like Speakeasy meeting
regularly and hosting performance events, and former poetry and arts
Monkey Kettle which ran between 1999 and 2014. In addition,
two performance poetry groups exist – Poetry Kapow!, an
Monkey Kettle though now independent of the parent
organisation, specialising in live, multi-discipline, interactive
poetry/art/music events, usually featuring slams; and Tongue in
Chic, a regular open mic poetry event which features headline
poets such as John Hegley.
In May 2011 the outgoing Mayor, Debbie Brock, announced the
appointment of Mark Niel as the first official Milton Keynes' Poet
Milton Keynes Arts Centre is situated in the historic village of Great
Linford in the north of MK, between
Wolverton and Newport Pagnell.
Milton Keynes Arts Centre offers a year-round exhibitions, families
workshops and courses. Situated across many of
Great Linford Manor's
exterior buildings (barns, Almshouses, Pavilions), the Arts Centre
offers a special historical setting.
The Westbury Arts Centre is situated in the west of MK, near Shenley
Wood. It is based in a 16th-century grade II listed Farmhouse
building. The Art Centre has been providing spaces for professional
working artists to create work since 1994. The oldest part of the
house was built in the sixteenth century and has been greatly extended
over the years. It has several acres of garden and is home to several
protected species of bats and newts.
Milton Keynes also boasts several choirs – the Milton Keynes
Chorale, the New English Singers, the Cornerstone Choir, Quorum,
Open University Choir, and others.
There is a variety of amateur drama groups, and amateur musical
Milton Keynes Forum is the registered civic society for MK.
Liz Leyh's iconic "Concrete Cows"
Public sculpture in
Milton Keynes includes work by Elisabeth Frink,
Nicolas Moreton and Ronald Rae.
The Open University's headquarters are in the Walton Hall district,
though because this is a distance learning institution, the only
students resident on campus are approximately 200 full-time
Cranfield University, an all-postgraduate institution,
is in nearby Cranfield, Bedfordshire.
Milton Keynes College provides
further education up to foundation degree level, however a
Postgraduate Certificate in Education course is available; run in
partnership with and accredited by
Oxford Brookes University.
Leicester Polytechnic established a purpose-built polytechnic
campus in Kents Hill in Milton Keynes, opposite the Open University's
Walton Hall site, which was officially opened by
Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II in
1992. This was originally branded 'The Polytechnic: Milton Keynes'.
Later in 1992
Leicester Polytechnic gained university status and was
renamed De Montfort University, and the site was rebranded 'De
University Milton Keynes'. However, DMU closed the MK site in
2003 and the
Open University has expanded to take over the buildings.
Milton Keynes does not yet have its own conventional local
university, its founders hope that the
University Campus Milton Keynes
will be the seed for a future '
Milton Keynes University'. MK is
currently the UK's largest population centre without its own
Like most parts of the UK, the state secondary schools in Milton
Keynes are Comprehensive schools, such as
Stantonbury Campus and
Denbigh School, although schools in the rest of
use the Tripartite System. Results are above the national average,
though below that of the rest of Buckinghamshire – but the
Milton Keynes is also far closer to the national average
than is the latter. Access to selective schools is still possible in
Milton Keynes as the grammar schools in
Buckingham and Aylesbury
accept some pupils from within the unitary authority area, with
Buckinghamshire County Council operating bus services to ferry pupils
to the schools.
Private schools in
Milton Keynes include the 3-to-18 mixed sex Webber
Independent School and the 2½-to-11 mixed sex Milton Keynes
Safety Centre is a purpose-built interactive centre which provides
safety education to visiting schools and youth groups via its
full-size interactive demonstrations known as Hazard Alley. Another
educational organisation is the
Milton Keynes City Discovery
Centre at Bradwell Abbey, which holds an extensive archive about
Milton Keynes. MKCDC is therefore a research facility, as well as
offering a broad education programme (with a focus on urban geography
and local history) to schools, universities and professionals. MKCDC
also holds an annual programme of events at the medieval priory site
on which they are based.
Government and infrastructure
The responsible local government is
Milton Keynes Council, which
controls the Borough of Milton Keynes, a Unitary Authority. About 90%
of the population of the Borough lives in the urban area.
University Hospital, in the Eaglestone district, is an
NHS general hospital with an
Accident and Emergency
Accident and Emergency unit. It is
associated for medical teaching purposes with the
Buckingham medical school. The nearby BMI Saxon Clinic is a small
UK government offices
The Legalisation Office of the UK Foreign and Commonwealth
Office – which issues
Apostille certificates to prove that
official documents are genuine – is located in Milton
Government Communications Headquarters
Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) previously had been
Milton Keynes (at
Bletchley Park), but moved to Cheltenham
in the early 1950s.
Communications and media
Milton Keynes has two commercial radio stations, Heart Four Counties
covering Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and
Northamptonshire, and MKFM.
The first commercial radio station for
Milton Keynes was established
in 1989 under the name Horizon Radio. It was subsequently renamed
Heart MK in 2009 after being bought out by Global Radio. Heart MK was
merged with Heart Northants,
Heart Dunstable and
Heart Bedford in 2010
to form Heart Four Counties.
MKFM launched in 2011, initially broadcasting on internet, later on
DAB Digital Radio full-time. The station launched on 106.3 FM on
Monday 7 September 2015.
BBC Three Counties Radio is the local
BBC Radio station, covering
Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, but has different
programming from the
Bow Brickhill transmitter at breakfast.
CRMK is a voluntary station broadcasting on the Internet.
For television, the area is in the overlap between the
Oxford and the
Sandy transmitters and so receives BBC South and BBC East, and ITV
Meridian and Anglia.
As of October 2016[update],
Milton Keynes has one free-to-residents
local newspaper, the
Milton Keynes Citizen.
Milton Keynes has consistently benefited from above-average economic
growth. Outside of
London it is ranked as one of the most attractive
places for business along with Oxford,
Cambridge and Manchester.
In November 2012 the
Milton Keynes Citizen reported ratings company
Experian as describing
Milton Keynes as one of the leaders in a
prospective economic recovery. The same report quoted the Estate
Gazette as placing it first outside the M25 for office property
Milton Keynes is home to several national and international companies,
including the UK headquarters of Argos, Domino's Pizza, Marshall
Amplification, Mercedes-Benz, Suzuki, Volkswagen AG, Red Bull Racing,
Network Rail and
In January 2015, it was announced that
Milton Keynes had seen the
highest growth in jobs out of the biggest 64 towns and cities in the
UK during the preceding decade.
Milton Keynes saw its number of jobs
increase by 18.2 per cent between 2004 and 2013, followed by
17.1 per cent.
Main article: Sport in Milton Keynes
Stadium MK (in 2007)
Milton Keynes has professional teams in football (
Milton Keynes Dons
F.C. at Stadium:mk), in ice hockey (
Milton Keynes Lightning
Milton Keynes Lightning at Planet
Ice Milton Keynes), and in
Formula One (Red Bull Racing).
Milton Keynes is also home to the Xscape indoor ski slope, the iFLY
indoor sky diving facility, and the National Badminton Centre.
Main articles: Central Milton Keynes,
Milton Keynes Shopping Centre,
Milton Keynes Central railway station
As a key element of the New Town vision,
Milton Keynes has a purpose
built centre, with a very large "covered high street" shopping centre,
theatre, art gallery, a multiplex cinema, hotels, business district,
ecumenical church, Borough Council offices and central railway
Part of the Blue Lagoon
Near the central station, the former
Milton Keynes central bus station
has become a youth club called 'the Buszy' with a purpose-built
covered "urban skateboarding" arena, but the wide expanses and slopes
of the station plaza remain very popular among skaters.
There is a high security prison, HMP Woodhill, on the western
Willen Lakeside Park hosts watersports, and the North Lake is a bird
Blue Lagoon Local Nature Reserve
Blue Lagoon Local Nature Reserve is in Bletchley.
Original towns and villages
During the Second World War, British, Polish and American
Bletchley Park broke a large number of Axis codes
and ciphers, including the German Enigma machine.
The 1815 windmill near
New Bradwell village, beside the playing fields
Stony Stratford high street in festive mood
Milton Keynes consists of many pre-existing towns and villages, as
well as new infill developments. The designated area outside the four
main towns (Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Stony Stratford, Wolverton)
was largely rural farmland but included many picturesque North
Buckinghamshire villages and hamlets: Bradwell village and its Abbey,
Broughton, Caldecotte, Fenny Stratford, Great Linford, Loughton,
Milton Keynes Village, New Bradwell, Shenley Brook End, Shenley Church
End, Simpson, Stantonbury, Tattenhoe, Tongwell, Walton, Water Eaton,
Wavendon, Willen, Great and Little Woolstone,
Woughton on the Green.
The historical settlements have been focal points for the modern
development of the new town. Every grid square has historical
antecedents, if only in the field names. The more obvious ones are
listed below and most have more detailed articles.
Bletchley was first recorded in the 12th century as Blechelai. Its
station was a major Victorian junction (the
London and North Western
Railway with the Oxford-
Cambridge Varsity Line), leading to the
substantial urban growth in the town in that period. It expanded to
absorb the villages of Water Eaton and Fenny Stratford.
Bletchley Park was home to the Government Code and Cypher School
during the Second World War. The famous
Enigma code was cracked here,
and the building housed what was arguably the world's first
programmable computer, Colossus. The house is now a museum of war
memorabilia, cryptography and computing.
Bradwell Abbey at Bradwell was of major
economic importance in this area of north
Buckinghamshire before the
Dissolution of the Monasteries. The routes of the medieval trackways
(many of which are now Redways or bridleways) converge on the site
from some distance. Nowadays there is only a small medieval chapel and
a manor house occupying the site. Bradwell itself is a traditional
village with earthworks of a Norman motte and bailey and parish
church. There is a YHA hostel beside the church.
New Bradwell, to the north of Bradwell and just across the canal and
the railway to the east of Wolverton, was built specifically for
railway workers. It has a working windmill, although technically this
lies just a few yards outside of the parish boundary. The level bed of
Newport Pagnell Line ends here and has been
converted to a Redway, making it a favourite route for cycling.
Great Linford appears in the
Domesday Book as Linforde, and features a
church dedicated to Saint Andrew, dating from 1215. Today, the outer
buildings of the 17th century manor house form an arts centre, and
Linford Manor is a prestigious recording studio.
Milton Keynes Village is the original village to which the New Town
owes its name. The original village is still evident, with a pleasant
thatched pub, village hall, church and traditional housing. The area
around the village has reverted to its original name of Middleton, as
shown on old maps of the 1700s. The oldest surviving domestic
building in the area, a 14th-century manor house, is here.
There has been a market in
Stony Stratford since 1194 (by charter of
King Richard I). The Rose and Crown Inn at Stratford is reputedly the
last place the
Princes in the Tower
Princes in the Tower were seen alive.
The manor house of Walton village, Walton Hall, is the headquarters of
Open University and the tiny parish church (deconsecrated) is in
The tiny Parish Church (1680) at
Willen contains the only unaltered
building by the architect and physicist Robert Hooke. Nearby, there is
Buddhist Temple and a
Peace Pagoda which was built in 1980 and was
the first in the western world. The district borders the River
Ouzel: there is a large balancing lake here, to capture flash floods
before they cause problems downstream on the River Great Ouse. The
north basin is a wildlife sanctuary and a favourite of migrating
aquatic birds. The south basin is for leisure use, favoured by wind
surfers and dinghy sailors. The circuit of the lakes is a favoured
Wolverton was a medieval settlement just north and west
of today's town. The ridge and furrow pattern of agriculture can still
be seen in the nearby fields and the Saxon (rebuilt in 1819) Church of
the Holy Trinity still stands next to the Norman Motte and Bailey
Wolverton was a 19th-century New Town built to house the
workers at the
Wolverton railway works, which built engines and
carriages for the
London and North Western Railway.
Economy, demography, geography and politics
Main article: Borough of Milton Keynes
Data on the economy, demography and politics of
Milton Keynes are
collected at the Borough level and are detailed at Economy of the
Borough and Demographics of the Borough. However, since the urban area
is predominant in the Borough, it is reasonable to assume that, other
than for agriculture, the figures are broadly the same.
Milton Keynes is one of the more successful (per capita) economies in
the South East, with a gross value added per capita index that was 47%
higher than the national average (2005 data). Average wages place
it in the top five nationally (2015 data).
With 99.4% SMEs, just 0.6% of businesses locally employ more than 250
people: the more notable of these include the Open University,
Santander UK, Volkswagen Group,
Network Rail and Mercedes Benz. Of the
remaining enterprises, 81.5% employ fewer than 10 people. The
'professional, scientific and technical sector' contributes the
largest number of business units, 16.7%. The retail sector is the
largest contributor of employment.
Milton Keynes has one of the
highest business start-ups in
England and the start-up levels remained
high during the 2009/10 recession. Although Education, Health and
Public Administration are important contributors to employment, the
contribution is significantly less than in
England or the South East
as a whole.
The population is significantly younger than the national averages:
22.6% of the Borough population are aged under 16 compared with 19.0%
in England; 12.1% are aged 65+ compared with 17.3% in England.
According to 2011 census, the ethnic group categories makeup of Milton
Keynes Urban Area is: 78.4% White, 8.7% South Asian, 7.5% Black, 3.5%
Mixed Race, 1.2% Chinese and other Asian, and 0.7% other ethnic
Modern parishes, community councils and districts
Borough of Milton Keynes is fully parished. These are the
parishes, community councils and the districts they contain, within
Milton Keynes itself. For a list of parishes in the Borough, see
Borough of Milton Keynes (Rest of the borough)
Bletchley and Fenny Stratford: Brick fields, Central Bletchley,
Denbigh North, Denbigh East, Denbigh West, Fenny Lock, Fenny
Stratford, Granby, Mount Farm, Newton Leys, Water Eaton
Bradwell: Bradwell, Bradwell Common, Bradwell village, Heelands,
Bradwell Abbey: Bradwell Abbey, Kiln Farm, Stacey Bushes, Two Mile
Milton Keynes (shared parish council): Atterbury, Brook
Furlong, Broughton, Fox Milne, Middleton (including Milton Keynes
Village), Northfield, Oakgrove, Pineham
Campbell Park: Fishermead, Newlands, Oldbrook, Springfield,
Willen Lake, Winterhill, Woolstone
Central Milton Keynes:
Central Milton Keynes
Central Milton Keynes and Campbell Park
Great Linford: Blakelands, Bolbeck Park, Conniburrow, Downs Barn,
Downhead Park, Great Linford, Giffard Park, Neath Hill, Pennyland,
Kents Hill, Monkston and Brinklow: Brinklow, Kents Hill, Kingston,
Loughton: Loughton, Loughton Lodge, Great Holm,
Woughton on the Green,
Woughton Park, Passmore (formerly
Tinkers Bridge North).
Shenley Brook End: Emerson Valley, Furzton, Kingsmead, Shenley Brook
End, Snelshall, Tattenhoe,
Tattenhoe Park, Westcroft
Shenley Church End: Crownhill, Grange Farm, Hazeley, Medbourne,
Oakhill, Oxley Park, Shenley Church End, Woodhill
Simpson: Ashland, Simpson, West Ashland
Stantonbury: Bancroft/Bancroft Park, Blue Bridge, Bradville, Linford
Wood, Oakridge Park, Stantonbury,
Stony Stratford: Fullers Slade, Galley Hill, Stony Stratford
Walton: Brown's Wood, Caldecotte, Old Farm Park, Tilbrook, Tower Gate,
Walnut Tree, Walton, Walton Hall, Walton Park,
West Bletchley: Far Bletchley, Old Bletchley, West Bletchley, Denbigh
Wolverton and Greenleys: Greenleys, Hodge Lea, Stonebridge, Wolverton,
Woughton: Beanhill, Bleak Hall, Coffee Hall, Eaglestone, Elfield Park,
Leadenhall, Netherfield, Peartree Bridge, Redmoor, Tinkers Bridge.
Closest cities, towns and villages
Destinations from Milton Keynes
Deanshanger, Towcester, Daventry, Coventry
Roade, Northampton, Leicester
Newport Pagnell, Olney, Wellingborough
Cranfield, Bedford, Cambridge
Buckingham, Brackley, Banbury
Woburn Sands, Ridgmont, Ampthill
Leighton Buzzard or Winslow, Aylesbury
Toddington, Dunstable, Luton, London
Ed Slater, professional rugby player for
Gloucester Rugby who went to
Two Mile Ash
Two Mile Ash School and Denbigh Secondary School.
Dele Alli, professional footballer for Tottenham Hostpur who started
his career with
Milton Keynes Dons
Christopher B-Lynch, (visiting) Professor of Obstetrics and
Cranfield University, responsible for inventing the
B-Lynch suture which is used to treat post-partum
haemorrhage due to uterine atony worked at
Milton Keynes General
Andrew Baggaley, English table tennis champion.
Sam Baldock, professional footballer for Brighton and Hove Albion, who
began his football career at MK Dons.
Errol Barnett, an anchor and correspondent for
CNN is from Milton
Keynes. He lived in Crownhill and attended Holmwood First School and
Two Mile Ash
Two Mile Ash Middle School before moving to the US.
Emily Bergl, an actress famous for her roles in Desperate Housewives
and Shameless. Bergl was born in Milton Keynes, to an Irish mother and
an English architect father.
Chris Clarke, English sprinter.
Adam Ficek, drummer of
London band Babyshambles.
Lee Hasdell, professional Mixed martial artist and Kickboxer, and
Mixed martial arts
Mixed martial arts in the UK.
James Hildreth, cricketer who plays for
Somerset and has played for
Shaun Hutson, Novelist of horror novels and dark urban thrillers, has
Milton Keynes for several years.
Liam Kelly, professional footballer for Oldham Athletic.
Jim Marshall (1923-2012), founder and CEO of Marshall Amplification
was living in and ran his business from
Milton Keynes when he
Gordon Moakes, the bassist for the London-based rock band Bloc
Clare Nasir, the meteorologist, TV and radio personality, was born in
Milton Keynes in 1970.
Craig Pickering, English sprinter.
Sarah Pinborough, English horror writer.
Ian Poulter, PGA & European Tour golf professional. Member of the
2010 and 2012 European Ryder Cup Teams.
Mark Randall, professional footballer for
Milton Keynes Dons.
Antonee Robinson, professional footballer for Everton, on loan to
Greg Rutherford, long jump gold medallist for
Team GB at the 2012
Jack Trevor Story, novelist, was a long-term resident of Milton
Wigan Warriors and
England international rugby league
player, was born in Milton Keynes.
Alan Turing (1912-1954), played a significant role in the creation of
the modern computer. He lodged at the Crown Inn, Shenley Brook End,
while working at
Nat Wei, Baron Wei, member of the House of Lords, (born Watford], was
brought up and went to school in Milton Keynes.
Kevin Whately lives in Woburn Sands, in the
Milton Keynes urban area.
Dan Wheldon (1978-2011), Indy car driver.
George Williams, professional footballer for Fulham
Pete Winkelman, Chairman of
Milton Keynes Dons Football Club, owner of
Linford Manor recording studios, long term resident.
Ben Chilwell, professional footballer for Leicester
Capdown, the ska punk band, came from and formed in
Milton Keynes in
Fellsilent, the metal band, come from and formed in
Milton Keynes in
Tesseract, the djent band formed as a full live act in Milton Keynes
in 2007. Tesseract's guitarist, songwriter and producer Acle Kahney is
also a former member of Fellsilent.
Hacktivist, the Grime, djent band formed in 2011.
RavenEye, the rock band, formed in
Milton Keynes in 2014.
Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal passes over Grafton Street at Bradwell via the
modern Bradwell Aqueduct
See also: Buses in Milton Keynes
Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal between
Birmingham provides a major
axis in the design of Milton Keynes.
Milton Keynes has five railway stations.
Milton Keynes Central is
served by inter-city services. Wolverton,
Milton Keynes Central and
Bletchley stations are on the West Coast Main Line. Fenny Stratford
Bow Brickhill are on the Marston Vale Line.
Woburn Sands railway
station, also on the Marston Vale line, is in the small town of Woburn
Sands just inside the urban area.
M1 motorway runs along the east flank of MK and serves it from
junctions 13, 14, and 15A. The A5 road runs right through MK as a
grade separated dual carriageway. Other main roads are the A509,
Milton Keynes with
Wellingborough and Kettering, and the A421
and A422, both running west towards
Buckingham and east towards
Bedford. Proximity to the M1 has led to construction of a number of
distribution centres, including Magna Park at the A421/A5130
Many long-distance coaches stop at the
Milton Keynes coachway,
(beside M1 Junction 14), some 3.3 miles (5.3 km) from the centre
(or 4 mi or 6.4 km from
Milton Keynes Central railway
station). There is also a park and ride car park on the site.
Regional coaches stop at
Milton Keynes Central.
The main bus operator is Arriva Shires & Essex, providing a number
of routes which mainly pass through or serve Central Milton Keynes.
Milton Keynes is also served by Arriva-branded services from Aylesbury
Luton as well and
Stagecoach East which operate routes to Oxford,
Stagecoach Midlands which operates routes to Peterborough
and Leicester. Some local services are run by independent operators
such as Z&S International and Centrebus.
Milton Keynes is served by (and provides part of) routes 6 and 51 on
the National Cycle Network.
The nearest international airport is
Luton Airport, accessible
by Stagecoach route 99 from MK Central station, which runs with
wheelchair-accessible coaches. There is a direct rail connection to
Birmingham International station for
Birmingham Airport. In addition,
Cranfield Airport, an airfield, is 6 miles (10 km) from the
Milton Keynes is allocated an International Air
Transport Association airport code of KYN, it does not have an
airport. Proposals in 1971 for a third
London airport at (relatively)
Cublington were rejected).
Milton Keynes experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate
classification Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom.
Recorded temperature extremes range from 34.6 °C
(94.3 °F) during July 2006, to as low as −20.6 °C
(−5.1 °F) on 25 February 1947. More recently the
temperature fell to −16.3 °C (2.7 °F) on 20
Met Office weather station is in Woburn, located just
outside the south eastern fringe of the
Milton Keynes urban area.
Climate data for Woburn 1981–2010 (Weather station 3 mi
(5 km) to the SE of Central Milton Keynes)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Met Office
Milton Keynes was specified to be a city in scale and the
term "city" is used locally (inter alia to avoid confusion with its
constituent towns), formally this title cannot be used. This is
because conferment of city status in the
United Kingdom is a Royal
^ a b "2011 Census - Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 1 July
^ a b ""North
Buckinghamshire (Milton Keynes) New Town (Designation)
London Gazette, 24 January 1967, page 827".
Retrieved 14 January 2014. .
^ "Census 2011". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 25 August
^ Vision of Britain: historic census populations for modern Milton
Keynes UA Accessed 11 October 2006
Bletchley Pioneers, Planning, & Progress". Clutch.open.ac.uk.
16 December 1944. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
^ "Early days of overspill". Clutch.open.ac.uk. Retrieved 23 November
^ Need for more planned towns in the South-East.The Times. 2 December
1964 Accessed 21 September 2006
^ South East Study 1961–1981 HMSO 1964, cited in The Plan for Milton
Keynes. Retrieved 25 September 2006
^ Urgent action to meet
London housing needs. The Times, 4 February
1965. Retrieved 21 September 2006
^ Volume 1 of The Plan for
Milton Keynes (
Milton Keynes Development
Corporation March 1970 ISBN 0-903379-00-7 begins (in the Foreword
by Lord ("Jock") Campbell of Eskan): "This plan for building the new
Milton Keynes ..." (page xi) Accessed 25 September 2006
^ Area of New Town Increased by 6,000 acres (24 km2). The Times.
14 January 1966. Retrieved 21 September 2006
^ "MK Council General Statistics".
Milton Keynes Council. Archived
from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
^ a b Llewelyn-David et al. The Plan for
Milton Keynes 1968. Retrieved
11 January 2007
^ The South East Study 1961–1981 HMSO London, 1964: "A big change in
the economic balance within the south east is needed to modify the
London and to get a more even distribution of growth".
Retrieved 27 November 2006
^ Barkham, Patrick (May 3, 2016). "The struggle for the soul of Milton
Keynes". Retrieved May 11, 2016.
^ Jeff Bishop Milton Keynes – the Best of Both Worlds? Public
and professional views of a new city.
University of Bristol School for
Advanced Urban Studies 1981. Retrieved 13 February 2007
^ a b Walker The Architecture and Planning of Milton Keynes,
London 1981. Retrieved 13 February 2007
^ M Webber (1963) 'Order in Diversity: Community Without Propinquity,
in L Wingo (ed.) 'Cities and Spaces Hopkins, Baltimore. Retrieved 13
^ "Welcome to the Millennium CLUTCH Project". Clutch.open.ac.uk.
Retrieved 23 November 2012.
Bletchley Park welcomes 2015's 200,000th visitor".
26 August 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
^ "History in Milton Keynes". Mkweb.co.uk via Archive.org. 22 October
2004. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 23
November 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ Jef Bishop Milton Keynes – the Best of Both Worlds? Public
and professional views of a new city.
University of Bristol School for
Advanced Urban Studies. Retrieved 13 February 2007.
Milton Keynes shopping building – The Twentieth Century
^ Shopping building, Milton Keynes: Grade II listed 'This building is
listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas)
Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic
interest' – English Heritage
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3
December 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
^ Kitchen, Roger; Hill, Marion (2007). 'The story of the original CMK'
… told by the people who shaped the original Central Milton Keynes
(interviews). Milton Keynes: Living Archive. p. 17.
ISBN 0-904847-34-9. Retrieved 26 January 2009. (Professor
Lock is visiting professor of town planning at Reading University. He
was the chief town planner for CMK.) (Ten miles is about 16km and
18,000 acres is about 7,300 hectares),
^ Walker, Derek (1982). The Architecture and Planning of Milton
Keynes. London: Architectural Press. pp. 8.
ISBN 0-85139-735-2. cited in Clapson, Mark (2004). A Social
History of Milton Keynes: Middle England/Edge City. London: Frank
Cass. pp. 40. ISBN 0-7146-8417-1.
^ Urban Eden
Milton Keynes Council. "
Milton Keynes Council- Local Air Quality
Management – Environme". Mkweb.co.uk. Retrieved 23 November
Milton Keynes Redways". Destination Milton Keynes. Retrieved 23
^ Peter Youngman, Architect of the modern British landscape –
The Guardian, 17 June 2005, retrieved 23 January 2017
^ TNeil Higson, ex Chief landscape architect MKDC 28 March 1991; Frank
Henshaw, ex General Manager MKDC 28 Feb 1991 National Archives,
(undated), retrieved 23 January 2017
^ Pevsner, Nikolaus; Williamson, Dr Elizabeth (11 Mar 1994).
Buckinghamshire (Pevsner Architectural Guides). Yale University
^ "The Parks Trust model". theparkstrust.com. Archived from the
original on 7 March 2012.
^ "Garden Design in Milton Keynes". www.touchlandscapes.com. Retrieved
^ Jeffries, Stuart (2017-01-20). "50 reasons to love Milton Keynes
(what, only 50?)". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved
^ Hetherington, Peter (6 January 2004). "
Milton Keynes to double in
size over next 20 years". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 November
^ "Statutory Instruments: 2004 No. 932 – Urban Development, England"
(PDF). Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
Milton Keynes Partnership". Miltonkeynespartnership.info. Retrieved
23 November 2012.
^ "World Class Music and Entertainment". The Stables. Retrieved 23
^ "National Youth Music Camps". The Stables. Retrieved 14 February
Milton Keynes International Festival.
^ MK11 at Kiln Farm Club named best live music pub by Milton Keynes
^ "MK Gallery". mkgallery.org. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November
Milton Keynes – Speakeasy". MKWeb. 22 October 2004. Archived from
the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2012. CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ "MK Poetry Kapow! Homepage". Poetrykapow.co.uk. Retrieved 23
^ "Tongue in Chic Poets – supporting performance of poetry and the
spoken word". Tongueinchicpoets.com. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
^ "Mark Niel appointed Milton Keynes' first Poet Laureate", BBC News,
BBC, 23 May 2011
^ "Quorum choir at Milton Keynes". Quorummk.org.uk. Retrieved 23
Milton Keynes Council. "
Milton Keynes Council
Milton Keynes Council – COIN".
Milton-keynes.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
^ "Trails, Guides, Walks & Maps: : Arts & Cultural Venues
Map (PDF link)<".
Milton Keynes Council. Retrieved 9 August
Milton Keynes College, UCMK. Postgraduate Certificate in Education,
in partnership with and accredited by
Oxford Brookes University
Archived 27 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 6 August
^ "The Webber Independent School". The Webber Independent School.
Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November
^ Autumn Term 2012 (5 September 2012). "Private school for children
aged 2 months to 11 years old
Milton Keynes Preparatory School".
Mkprep.co.uk. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
^ "MKCDC at Bradwell Abbey". Mkcdc.org.uk. Archived from the original
on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
^ Get a document legalised 'Births, deaths, marriages and ce' at
^ MacAskill, Ewen, Julian Borger, Nick Hopkins, Nick Davies and James
Ball. "Mastering the internet: how GCHQ set out to spy on the world
wide web." The Guardian. Friday 21 June 2013. Retrieved on 21 June
^ "Radio for Milton Keynes". CRMK. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
^ a b
Milton Keynes is leading the way to recovery – Milton Keynes
Citizen, 18 December 2012
^ "Selected Headquarters in Milton Keynes" (PDF). Invest MK. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 8 January
Milton Keynes tops economy growth list – ITV News, 19 January
Milton Keynes Council
Milton Keynes Council (30 November 2004). "
Milton Keynes Council
Milton Keynes Council –
Statistics". Mkweb.co.uk via archive.org. Archived from the original
on 26 April 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2012. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
^ "Days Out in
Milton Keynes - Day Trips & Things To Do in MK -
oneMK". MK News via Archive.org. Archived from the original on 15
October 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ Regional Gross Value Added Archived 1 December 2007 at the Wayback
Machine. pp 240–253 pub. Office for National Statistics
^ Northern cities head list of UK's low-wage, high-welfare economies
Centre for Cities report) – The Guardian, 25 January 2016
^ a b c d e f Milton Keynes: Local Economic Assessment Refresh, March
2013 (PDF), Chapter 3.
Milton Keynes Council, March 2013
^ SNA Population and Growth Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback
Milton Keynes Council
Milton Keynes Council (2011 Census data).
^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "
Milton Keynes Urban Area Output Areas".
Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
^ "Link to the Community Councils web page". Community Council.
Retrieved 26 April 2012.
^ Osborne, Chris. "MK Dons'
Dele Alli has the makings of next Steven
Gerrard". BBC Sport.
^ "Awards & Honours - Professor
Christopher B-Lynch (GORSL)".
^ "'A worldwide review of the uses of the uterine compression suture
techniques as alternative to hysterectomy in the management of severe
post-partum haemorrhage'". Journal of Obstetrics and
Andrew Baggaley Biography". Retrieved 11 February 2012.
Sam Baldock Biography". Archived from the original on 7 September
2011. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
Errol Barnett profile at CNN.com". Retrieved 11 February
^ "Chris Clarke set for Worlds final – Update GB finish 7th". Milton
Keynes Citizen. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
Adam Ficek profile". BBC. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
^ Lewis, Peter (April 2004), "A Total Fighter", Fighters –
Kickboxing news, p. 45
James Hildreth – profile".
Somerset County Cricket Club.
Retrieved 11 February 2012.
^ James, Huw (5 April 2012). "Death Is Announced of Jim Marshall".
Heart FM. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
^ McLean, Craig (7 January 2007). "21st-century boy". The Guardian.
London. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
^ "TV's Clare says Wrap Up for Winter". NHS Milton Keynes. Retrieved
12 February 2012.
^ "Campbell backs Pickering to come good again in 2012". Milton Keynes
Citizen. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
Sarah Pinborough Interview". omegasapple.com. Retrieved 12 February
^ "Poulter's back in the swing at Woburn".
Milton Keynes Citizen. 29
July 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
^ "MK Dons: Mark Randall signs longer deal". Retrieved 31 July
Greg Rutherford – Long Jumper". Bucks Sport. Retrieved 12
^ "Independent Obituary – Jack Trevor Story". jacktrevorstory.co.uk.
Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 12 February
^ Hudson, Elizabeth (3 February 2012). "
Sam Tomkins targets more
trophies with Wigan". BBC. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
^ Douglas, Ian (5 August 2011). "Google backs
restoration project". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12
^ "Stars race to honour
Dan Wheldon in Milton Keynes". BBC. 5 December
2011. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
^ Jackson, Jamie (30 March 2008). "From Wimbledon to Winkelman, a
crazy new journey". The Observer. London. Retrieved 9 January
Capdown Fansite". Archived from the original on 4 March 2012.
Retrieved 12 February 2012.
^ "Fell Silent
Milton Keynes Metal Heros". miltonkeynes.com. Archived
from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 12 February
^ "RavenEye". RavenEye.
^ "Magna Park, Milton Keynes". Gazeley.com. Gazeley Limited. Archived
from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
^ "Services to and from
Milton Keynes Coachway, Park & Ride"
(PDF). National Express Coaches. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
^ "Google Maps". Maps.google.co.uk. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 23
Milton Keynes Airport – World-airport-codes.com accessed 9
^ "THIRD LONDON AIRPORT (ROSKILL COMMISSION REPORT)". Parliamentary
Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 4 March 1971.
^ "Crescendo: Combined rational and renewable energy strategies in
cities, for existing and new dwellings and optimal quality of life".
Cordis.europe.eu. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
^ "2006 Maximum". Metoffice.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 29
June 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
^ "1947 minimum". doi:10.1002/wea.66.
^ Rogers, Simon (21 December 2010). "2010 minimum". The Guardian.
London. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
^ "Synoptic and climate stations – February 2012 – Met Office".
Met Office. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 23
^ "Woburn 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 29 November
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Milton Keynes.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Milton Keynes.
Milton Keynes at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Milton Keynes news, what's on and community portal
Official visitor website for Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes Council
City Discovery Centre (MK urban studies centre)
Urban Design magazine – "
Milton Keynes at 40"
Community Forum for
Milton Keynes Borough
Milton Keynes in 1968, on BFI Player
Community information website
Ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire
Borough of Milton Keynes
Boroughs or districts
See also: List of civil parishes in Buckinghamshire
Schools (Milton Keynes)
Special Scientific Interest
Places of interest
Grade I listed buildings
Grade II* listed buildings
River Great Ouse, England
(upstream to downstream)
(upstream to downstream by confluence)
River Ouzel (or Lovat)
River Little Ouse
(upstream to downstream)
A428 Turvey bridge
A428 Bromham bypass
Bedford Town Bridge
Great Barford Bridge
A428 Bridge St Neots
St Neots Town Bridge
Godmanchester Chinese Bridge
A14 bridge, River Great Ouse
Huntingdon Old Bridge
St Ives Bridge
Longest UK rivers