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Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/)[1] are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97% of millet production in developing countries.[2] The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world.[3] The most widely grown millet is pearl millet, which is an important crop in India
India
and parts of Africa.[4] Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are also important crop species. Millets have been important food staples in human history, particularly in Asia and Africa.

Contents

1 Description 2 Millet
Millet
species 3 History 4 Cultivation 5 Production

5.1 Alcoholic beverages 5.2 As a food source 5.3 Grazing millet

6 Nutrition

6.1 Comparison with other major staple foods

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Description[edit] The minor millets have been consumed since the beginning of the ancient civilizations of the world.[citation needed] Generally, the millets are small-grained, annual, warm-weather cereals belonging to grass family. They are highly tolerant of drought and other extreme weather conditions and have a similar nutrient content to other major cereals.[citation needed] Millet
Millet
species[edit]

Pearl millet

Thinai (foxtail) millet

Varagu (kodo) millet

The different species of millets are not necessarily closely related. All are members of the Poaceae
Poaceae
family (the grasses) but can belong to different tribes or even subfamilies. The most commonly cultivated millets are in bold and marked with an *.[4] Eragrostideae
Eragrostideae
tribe in the subfamily Chloridoideae:

*Eleusine coracana: Finger millet Eragrostis tef: Teff
Teff
- often not considered to be a millet.[3]

Paniceae
Paniceae
tribe in the subfamily Panicoideae:

Panicum
Panicum
genus:

* Panicum
Panicum
miliaceum: Proso millet
Proso millet
(common millet, broomcorn millet, hog millet or white millet) * Panicum
Panicum
sumatrense : Little millet (also known as Samalu in Telugu and "Samai" in Tamil Nadu)

*Pennisetum glaucum: Pearl millet *Setaria italica: Foxtail millet, Italian millet, panic[5] Digitaria
Digitaria
genus - of minor importance as crops.[3]

Digitaria
Digitaria
exilis: known as white fonio, fonio millet, and hungry rice or acha rice. Digitaria
Digitaria
iburua: Black fonio Digitaria
Digitaria
compacta: Raishan, cultivated in the Khasi Hills of northeast India Digitaria
Digitaria
sanguinalis: Polish millet

Echinochloa
Echinochloa
genus: Collectively, the members of this genus are called barnyard grasses or barnyard millets. Other common names to identify these seeds include Jhangora, Samo seeds or Morio / Mario / Moraiaya seeds.

Echinochloa
Echinochloa
esculenta: Japanese barnyard millet Echinochloa
Echinochloa
frumentacea: Indian barnyard millet, also known as Sawa millet, Kodisama in Andhra Pradesh and Kuthirai vaali in Tamil Nadu and Bhagar or Varai in Maharashtra), Echinochloa
Echinochloa
stagnina: Burgu millet Echinochloa
Echinochloa
crus-galli: Common barnyard grass (or Cockspur grass).

Paspalum scrobiculatum: Kodo millet (also known as Varigalu in Andhra Pradesh and Varagu in Tamil Nadu) Brachiaria
Brachiaria
deflexa: Guinea millet Urochloa
Urochloa
ramosa: Browntop millet (also known as Korle in Karnataka)[6]

Andropogoneae
Andropogoneae
tribe also in the subfamily Panicoideae:

* Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor: Sorghum
Sorghum
- usually considered a separate cereal, but sometimes known as Great millet Coix lacryma-jobi: Job's tears, also known as adlay millet.[3]

History[edit] Chinese legends attribute the domestication of millet to Shennong, the legendary Emperor of China.[7] Similarly, millets have been mentioned in some of the oldest extant Yajurveda
Yajurveda
texts, identifying foxtail millet (priyangava), Barnyard millet
Barnyard millet
(aanava) and black finger millet (shyaamaka), indicating that millet consumption was very common, dating to 4500 BC, during the Indian Bronze Age.[8][citation needed] Common millet is currently believed to have been the first domesticated millet dating back some 10,300 years before the present.[9] Specialized archaeologists called palaeoethnobotanists, relying on data such as the relative abundance of charred grains found in archaeological sites, hypothesize that the cultivation of millets was of greater prevalence in prehistory than rice,[10] especially in northern China
China
and Korea. Millets also formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic
Neolithic
and Korean Mumun societies. Broomcorn ( Panicum
Panicum
miliaceum) and foxtail millet were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic
Neolithic
of China. For example, some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan (north). Cishan dates for common millet husk phytoliths and biomolecular components have been identified around 8300–6700 BC in storage pits along with remains of pit-houses, pottery, and stone tools related to millet cultivation.[9] Evidence at Cishan for foxtail millet dates back to around 6500 BC.[9] A 4,000-year-old well-preserved bowl containing well-preserved noodles made from foxtail millet and broomcorn millet was found at the Lajia archaeological site in China.[11] Palaeoethnobotanists
Palaeoethnobotanists
have found evidence of the cultivation of millet in the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
dating to the Middle Jeulmun pottery period (around 3500–2000 BC).[12] Millet
Millet
continued to be an important element in the intensive, multicropping agriculture of the Mumun pottery period (about 1500–300 BC) in Korea.[13] Millets and their wild ancestors, such as barnyard grass and panic grass, were also cultivated in Japan
Japan
during the Jōmon period
Jōmon period
some time after 4000 BC.[14] Asian varieties of millet made their way from China
China
to the Black Sea region of Europe
Europe
by 5000 BC.[15] The cultivation of common millet as the earliest dry crop in East Asia has been attributed to its resistance to drought,[9] and this has been suggested to have aided its spread.[15] Pearl Millet
Pearl Millet
was domesticated in the Sahel
Sahel
region of West Africa, where its wild ancestors are found. Evidence for the cultivation of Pearl Millet
Pearl Millet
in Mali
Mali
dates back to 2500 BC,[16] and Pearl Millet
Pearl Millet
is found in South Asia by 2300 BC[17] Finger Millet
Finger Millet
is originally native to the highlands of East Africa, and was domesticated before the third millennium BC. It's cultivation had spread to South India
India
by 1800 BC.[18] Research on millets is carried out by the International Crops
Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and ICAR-Indian Institute of Millets Research in Telangana, India, and by the USDA-ARS at Tifton, Georgia, United States. Cultivation[edit] Pearl millet
Pearl millet
is one of the two major crops in the semiarid, impoverished, less fertile agriculture regions of Africa and southeast Asia.[19] Millets are not only adapted to poor, droughty, and infertile soils, but they are also more reliable under these conditions than most other grain crops. This has, in part, made millet production popular, particularly in countries surrounding the Sahara in western Africa. Millets, however, do respond to high fertility and moisture. On a per hectare basis, millet grain produced per hectare can be two to four times higher with use of irrigation and soil supplements. Improved breeds of millet improve their disease resistance and can significantly enhance farm yield productivity. There has been cooperation between poor countries to improve millet yields. For example, 'Okashana 1', a variety developed in India
India
from a natural-growing millet variety in Burkina Faso, doubled yields. This breed was selected for trials in Zimbabwe. From there it was taken to Namibia, where it was released in 1990 and enthusiastically adopted by farmers. Okashana 1 became the most popular variety in Namibia, the only non-Sahelian country where pearl millet – locally known as mahangu – is the dominant food staple for consumers. 'Okashana 1' was then introduced to Chad. The breed has significantly enhanced yields in Mauritania
Mauritania
and Benin.[20] Production[edit]

Millet
Millet
production – 2016

Country Production (millions of tonnes)

 India

10.3

 Niger

3.9

 China

2.0

 Mali

1.8

 Nigeria

1.5

 Burkina Faso

1.1

World

28.4

Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[21]

In 2016, global production of millet was 28.4 million tonnes, led by India
India
with 36% of the world total (table). Niger
Niger
also had significant production.[21] Alcoholic beverages[edit]

Tongba, a millet-based alcoholic brew found in the far eastern mountainous region of Nepal
Nepal
and Sikkim, India

Millets are traditionally important grains used in brewing millet beer in some cultures, for instance by the Tao people
Tao people
of Orchid Island[citation needed] and the Amis or Atayal of Taiwan. Various peoples in East Africa
East Africa
brew a drink from millet or sorghum known as ajono, a traditional brew of the Teso. The fermented millet is prepared in a large pot with hot water and people share the drink by sipping it through long straws. Millet
Millet
is also the base ingredient for the distilled liquor rakshi in Nepal
Nepal
and the indigenous alcoholic drink of the Sherpa, Tamang, Rai and Limbu
Limbu
people, tongba, in eastern Nepal. In Balkan countries, especially Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria, millet is used to prepare the fermented drink boza. As a food source[edit]

Awaokoshi, candied millet puffs, are a specialty of Osaka, Japan. This millet confection tradition began when it was presented to Sugawara no Michizane when he stopped in Naniwa during the early Heian period, about 1000 years ago.

Millets are major food sources in arid and semiarid regions of the world, and feature in the traditional cuisine of many others. In western India, sorghum (called jowar, jola, jonnalu, jwaarie, or jondhahlaa in Gujarati, Kannada, Telugu, Hindi and Marathi languages, respectively; mutthaari, kora, or panjappullu in Malayalam; or cholam in Tamil) has been commonly used with millet flour (called jowari in western India) for hundreds of years to make the local staple, hand-rolled (that is, made without a rolling pin) flat bread (rotla in Gujarati, bhakri in Marathi, or roti in other languages). Another cereal grain popularly used in rural areas and by poor people to consume as a staple in the form of roti. Other millets such as ragi (finger millet) in Karnataka, naachanie in Maharashtra, or kezhvaragu in Tamil, "ragulu" in Telugu, with the popular ragi rotti and Ragi mudde is a popular meal in Karnataka. Ragi, as it is popularly known, is dark in color like rye, but rougher in texture. Millet
Millet
porridge is a traditional food in Russian, German, and Chinese сuisines. In Russia, it is eaten sweet (with milk and sugar added at the end of the cooking process) or savoury with meat or vegetable stews. In China, it is eaten without milk or sugar, frequently with beans, sweet potato, and/or various types of squash. In Germany, it is also eaten sweet, boiled in water with apples added during the boiling process and honey added during the cooling process. Per capita consumption of millets as food varies in different parts of the world with consumption being the highest in Western Africa. In the Sahel
Sahel
region, millet is estimated to account for about 35 percent of total cereal food consumption in Burkina Faso, Chad
Chad
and the Gambia. In Mali
Mali
and Senegal, millets constitute roughly 40 percent of total cereal food consumption per capita, while in Niger
Niger
and arid Namibia
Namibia
it is over 65 percent (see mahangu). Other countries in Africa where millets are a significant food source include Ethiopia, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Uganda. Millet
Millet
is also an important food item for the population living in the drier parts of many other countries, especially in eastern and central Africa, and in the northern coastal countries of western Africa. In developing countries outside Africa, millet has local significance as a food in parts of some countries, such as China, India, Burma
Burma
and North Korea.[3] The use of millets as food fell between the 1970s and the 2000s, both in urban and rural areas, as developing countries such as India
India
have experienced rapid economic growth and witnessed a significant increase in per capita consumption of other cereals. People affected by gluten-related disorders, such as coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers,[22][23][24] who need a gluten-free diet, can replace gluten-containing cereals in their diets with millet.[25] Nevertheless, while millet does not contain gluten, its grains and flour may be contaminated with gluten-containing cereals.[26][27] It is a common ingredient in seeded bread. Millets are also used as bird and animal feed. Grazing millet[edit] In addition to being used for seed, millet is also used as a grazing forage crop. Instead of letting the plant reach maturity it can be grazed by stock and is commonly used for sheep and cattle. Millet
Millet
is a C4 plant which means it has good water-use efficiency and utilizes high temperature and is therefore a summer crop. A C4 plant uses a different enzyme in photosynthesis from C3 plants and this is why it improves water efficiency. In southern Australia
Australia
millet is used as a summer quality pasture, utilizing warm temperatures and summer storms. Millet
Millet
is frost sensitive and is sown after the frost period, once soil temperature has stabilised at 14 °C or more. It is sown at a shallow depth. Millet
Millet
grows rapidly and can be grazed 5–7 weeks after sowing, when it is 20–30 cm high. The highest feed value is from the young green leaf and shoots. The plant can quickly come to head, so it must be managed accordingly because as the plant matures the value and palatability of feed reduces. The Japanese millets ( Echinochloa
Echinochloa
esculenta) are considered the best for grazing and in particular Shirohie, a new variety of Japanese millet, is the best suited variety for grazing. This is due to a number of factors: it gives better regrowth and is later to mature compared to other Japanese millets; it is cheap – cost of seed is $2–$3 per kg and sowing rates are around 10 kg per hectare for dryland production; it is quick to establish; it can be grazed early; and it is suitable for both sheep and cattle. Compared to forage sorghum, which is grown as an alternative grazing forage, animals gain weight faster on millet and it has better hay or silage potential, although it produces less dry matter. Lambs do better on millet compared to sorghum.[28] Millet
Millet
does not contain prussic acid which can be in sorghum. Prussic acid
Prussic acid
poisons animals by inhibiting oxygen utilisation by the cells and is transported in the blood around the body — ultimately the animal will die from asphyxia.[29] There is no need for additional feed supplements such as Sulphur
Sulphur
or salt blocks with millet. The rapid growth of millet as a grazing crop allows flexibility in its use. Farmers can wait until sufficient late spring / summer moisture is present and then make use of it. It is ideally suited to irrigation where livestock finishing is required.[28][29][30] Nutrition[edit]

Millet, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 1,582 kJ (378 kcal)

Carbohydrates

72.8 g

Dietary fiber 8.5 g

Fat

4.2 g

Saturated 0.7 g

Monounsaturated 0.8 g

Polyunsaturated omega‑3 omega‑6

2.1 g 0.1 g 2.0 g

Protein

11.0 g

Vitamins

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(24%) 0.29 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(31%) 4.72 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(17%) 0.85 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(29%) 0.38 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(21%) 85 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(2%) 1.6 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
K

(1%) 0.9 μg

Minerals

Calcium

(1%) 8 mg

Iron

(23%) 3.0 mg

Magnesium

(32%) 114 mg

Manganese

(76%) 1.6 mg

Phosphorus

(41%) 285 mg

Potassium

(4%) 195 mg

Sodium

(0%) 5 mg

Zinc

(18%) 1.7 mg

Other constituents

Water 8.7 g

Copper 0.8 mg

Selenium 2.7 µg

Full Link to USDA
USDA
Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

In a 100 gram serving, raw millet provides 378 calories and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins
B vitamins
and numerous dietary minerals, especially manganese at 76% DV ( USDA
USDA
nutrient table). Raw millet is 9% water, 73% carbohydrates, 4% fat and 11% protein (table). Comparison with other major staple foods[edit] The following table shows the nutrient content of millet compared to major staple foods in a raw form. Raw forms, however, are not edible and cannot be fully digested. These must be prepared and cooked as appropriate for human consumption. In processed and cooked form, the relative nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these grains is remarkably different from that of raw forms reported in this table. The nutritional value in the cooked form depends on the cooking method.

Nutrient profile comparison of millet with other food staples

Synopsis[31] ~ composition: Cassava[32] Wheat[33] Rice[34] Sweetcorn[35] Sorghum Millet[36] Proso Millet[37]

Component (per 100g portion, raw grain) Amount Amount Amount Amount Amount Amount

water (g) 60 13.1 12 76 9.2 8.7

energy (kJ) 667 1368 1527 360 1418 1582

protein (g) 1.4 12.6 7 3 11.3 11

fat (g) 0.3 1.5 1 1 3.3 4.2

carbohydrates (g) 38 71.2 79 19 75 73

fiber (g) 1.8 1.2 1 3 6.3 8.5

sugars (g) 1.7 0.4 >0.1 3 1.9

iron (mg) 0.27 3.2 0.8 0.5 4.4 3

manganese (mg) 0.4 3.9 1.1 0.2 <0.1 1.6

calcium (mg) 16 29 28 2 28 8

magnesium (mg) 21 126 25 37 <120 114

phosphorus (mg) 27 288 115 89 287 285

potassium (mg) 271 363 115 270 350 195

zinc (mg) 0.3 2.6 1.1 0.5 <1 1.7

pantothenic acid (mg) 0.1 0.9 1.0 0.7 <0.9 0.8

vitB6 (mg) 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 <0.3 0.4

folate (µg) 27 38 8 42 <25 85

thiamin (mg) 0.1 0.38 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4

riboflavin (mg) <0.1 0.1 >0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3

niacin (mg) 0.9 5.5 1.6 1.8 2.9 4.7

Nutrient Content of Various Millets with comparison to Rice
Rice
and Wheat (Source: Millet
Millet
Network of India, http://www.milletindia.org )

Crop / Nutrient Protein(g) Fiber(g) Minerals(g) Iron(mg) Calcium(mg)

Pearl millet 10.6 1.3 2.3 16.9 38

Finger millet 7.3 3.6 2.7 3.9 344

Foxtail millet 12.3 8 3.3 2.8 31

Proso millet 12.5 2.2 1.9 0.8 14

Kodo millet 8.3 9 2.6 0.5 27

Little millet 7.7 7.6 1.5 9.3 17

Barnyard millet 11.2 10.1 4.4 15.2 11

Rice 6.8 0.2 0.6 0.7 10

Wheat 11.8 1.2 1.5 5.3 41

See also[edit]

Food portal

Fura (food) List of ancient dishes
List of ancient dishes
and foods

Notes[edit]

^ "Definition of millet". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University. Retrieved July 21, 2017.  ^ McDonough, Cassandrea M.; Rooney, Lloyd W.; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O. (2000). "The Millets". Food Science and Technology: Handbook of Cereal
Cereal
Science and Technology. CRC Press. 99 2nd ed: 177–210.  ^ a b c d e " Sorghum
Sorghum
and millet in human nutrition". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1995.  ^ a b "Annex II: Relative importance of millet species, 1992–94". The World Sorghum
Sorghum
and Millet
Millet
Economies: Facts, Trends and Outlook. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1996. ISBN 92-5-103861-9.  ^ "panic". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) from classical Latin pānicum (or pānīcum) Italian millet ^ "Browntop Millet" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ Yang, Lihui; et al. (2005). Handbook of Chinese Mythology. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-19-533263-6.  ^ " Yajurveda
Yajurveda
4th Anuvaka, Rudra Chamakam" (PDF). p. 6.  ^ a b c d Lu, H; Zhang, J; Liu, KB; Wu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, K; Ye, M; Zhang, T; et al. (2009). "Earliest domestication of common millet ( Panicum
Panicum
miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (18): 7367–72. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900158106. PMC 2678631 . PMID 19383791.  ^ Manjul, Tarannum (January 21, 2006). "Millets older than wheat, rice: Archaeologists". Lucknow Newsline. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  ^ "Oldest noodles unearthed in China". BBC News. 12 October 2005.  ^ (Crawford 1992; Crawford and Lee 2003). ^ (Crawford and Lee 2003). ^ (Crawford 1983, 1992). ^ a b Lawler, A (2009). "Bridging East and West: Millet
Millet
on the move". Science. 325: 942–943. doi:10.1126/science.325_940.  ^ "4500-Year old domesticated pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) from the Tilemsi Valley, Mali: new insights into an alternative cereal domestication pathway". Journal of Archaeological Science. 38: 312–322. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.09.007.  ^ "pearl Millet
Millet
- Domestication
Domestication
and History".  ^ "Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia".  ^ Baltensperger, David D. (2002). "Progress with Proso, Pearl and Other Millets" (PDF).  ^ ICRISAT. "A New Generation of Pearl Millet
Pearl Millet
on the Horizon". The World Bank.  ^ a b "World Regions/Production Quantity for millet, 2016; from picklists". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC, Biagi F, Fasano A, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Kaukinen K, Kelly CP, Leonard JN, Lundin KE, Murray JA, Sanders DS, Walker MM, Zingone F, Ciacci C (January 2013). "The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms". Gut. 62 (1): 43–52. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301346. PMC 3440559 . PMID 22345659.  ^ Mulder CJ, van Wanrooij RL, Bakker SF, Wierdsma N, Bouma G (2013). " Gluten-free diet
Gluten-free diet
in gluten-related disorders". Dig. Dis. (Review). 31 (1): 57–62. doi:10.1159/000347180. PMID 23797124.  ^ Volta U, Caio G, De Giorgio R, Henriksen C, Skodje G, Lundin KE (Jun 2015). "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a work-in-progress entity in the spectrum of wheat-related disorders". Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 29 (3): 477–91. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2015.04.006. PMID 26060112.  ^ Rai S, Kaur A, Singh B (Apr 2014). "Quality characteristics of gluten free cookies prepared from different flour combinations". J Food Sci Technol. 51 (4): 785–9. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0547-1. PMC 3982011 . PMID 24741176.  ^ Saturni L, Ferretti G, Bacchetti T (January 2010). "The gluten-free diet: safety and nutritional quality". Nutrients (Review). 2 (1): 16–34. doi:10.3390/nu2010016. PMC 3257612 . PMID 22253989.  ^ Koerner, T. B.; Cleroux, C; Poirier, C; Cantin, I; La Vieille, S; Hayward, S; Dubois, S (2013). " Gluten
Gluten
contamination of naturally gluten-free flours and starches used by Canadians with celiac disease". Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 30 (12): 2017–21. doi:10.1080/19440049.2013.840744. PMID 24124879.  ^ a b Collett, Ian J. "Forage Sorghum
Sorghum
and Millet" (PDF). District Agronomist, Tamworth. NSW Department of Primary Industries. Retrieved 7 November 2013.  ^ a b Robson, Sarah. "Dr" (PDF). primefact 417, Prussic Acid Poisoning in Livestock. NSW Department of Primary Industries. Retrieved 7 November 2013.  ^ Lonewood Trust. "Shirohie Millet
Millet
Growing Guide" (PDF). Retrieved 7 November 2013.  ^ "Raw millet per 100 g, Full Report". USDA
USDA
National Nutrient Database, Release 28. 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.  ^ raw, uncooked ^ hard red winter ^ white, long-grain, regular, raw, unenriched ^ sweet, yellow, raw ^ Sorghum, edible portion white variety ^ Millet, proso variety, raw

References[edit]

Crawford, Gary W. (1983). Paleoethnobotany of the Kameda Peninsula. Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan. ISBN 0-932206-95-6.  Crawford, Gary W. (1992). "Prehistoric Plant Domestication
Domestication
in East Asia". In Cowan C.W.; Watson P.J. The Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 117–132. ISBN 0-87474-990-5.  Crawford, Gary W. & Lee, Gyoung-Ah (2003). "Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula". Antiquity. 77 (295): 87–95. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00061378. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Millet.

 "Millet". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). 1911.  "Millets". Alternative Field Crops
Crops
Manual. 

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