MILLENARIANISM (also MILLENARISM), from Latin _mīllēnārius_ "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious , social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed. Millenarianismis a concept or theme that exists in many cultures and religions.
The application of an apocalyptic timetable to the establishment or changing of the world has happened in many cultures and religions, and continues to this day, and is not relegated to the sects of major world religions .
The terms millenarianism and millennialism are sometimes used interchangeably, but this usage is incorrect. As Gould notes:
_Millennium_ is from the Latin _mille_, "one thousand," and _annus_, "year"—hence the two n's. _Millenarian_ is from the Latin _millenarius_, "containing a thousand (of anything)," hence no _annus_, and no two n's.
Increasingly in the study of apocalyptic new religious movements , _millenarianism_ is used to refer to a more cataclysmic and destructive arrival of a utopian period as compared to _millennialism_ which is often used to denote a more peaceful arrival and is more closely associated with a one thousand year utopia.
Many if not most millenarian groups claim that the current society and its rulers are corrupt, unjust, or otherwise wrong. They therefore believe they will be destroyed soon by a powerful force. The harmful nature of the status quo is considered intractable without the anticipated dramatic change. Henri Desrocheobserved that millenarian movements often envisioned three periods in which change might occur. First, the elect members of the movement will be increasingly oppressed, leading to the second period in which the movement resists the oppression. The third period brings about a new utopian age, liberating the members of the movement.
In the modern world, economic rules, perceived immorality or vast conspiracies are seen as generating oppression . Only dramatic events are seen as able to change the world and the change is anticipated to be brought about, or survived, by a group of the devout and dedicated. In most millenarian scenarios, the disaster or battle to come will be followed by a new, purified world in which the believers will be rewarded.
While many millennial groups are pacifistic , millenarian beliefs
have been claimed as causes for people to ignore conventional rules of
behavior, which can result in violence directed inwards (such as the
Millenarian ideologies or religious sects sometimes appear in oppressed peoples , with examples such as the 19th-century Ghost Dance movement among Native Americans and the 19th and 20th-century Cargo Cults among isolated Pacific Islanders.
Catechism of the Catholic Church, paragraph 676, follows a
discussion of the church's ultimate trial. "The
There have been examples of millenarian groups, movements, and writings over the years. While each is different, and not all of these adhere to a strict millennial pattern, they do ascribe to patterns of wide-scale change as described above:
* ^ Gould, Stephen Jay. 1997. _Questioning the millennium: a rationalist's guide to a precisely arbitrary countdown_. New York: Harmony Books, p. 112 (note) * ^ Kark, Ruth "Millenarism and agricultural settlement in the Holy Land in the nineteenth century," in Journal of Historical Geography, 9, 1 (1983), pp. 47-62 * ^ Landes, Richard A. _Heaven on Earth: The Varieties of the Millennial Experience_. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print. * ^ Gould, Stephen Jay. 1997 * ^ Mayer, Jean-François (June 2016). "Millennialism: New Religious Movements and the Quest for a New Age". _The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements_. II. doi :10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190466176.013.30 . * ^ Worsley, Peter. 1957. _The trumpet shall sound ; a study of "cargo" cults in Melanesia_. London: MacGibbon & Kee. * ^ Desroche, Henri (1969). _Dieux d’hommes. Dictionnaire des messianismes et millénarismes de l’ère chrétienne_. Paris: Berg International. pp. 31–32. * ^ Wessinger, Catherine. _Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases_. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press, 2000. Print.
* Burrage, Champlin. _"The Fifth Monarchy Insurrections,"_ The English Historical Review, Vol. XXV, 1910. * Burridge, Kenelm. "New Heaven, New Earth: A Study of Millenarian Activities" (Basil Blackwell. Original printing 1969, three reprints 1972, 1980, 1986) ISBN 0-631-11950-7 pb. ISBN 0-8052-3175-7 hb. * Cohn, Norman. _ The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages_, revised and expanded (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970). (revised and expanded 1990) ISBN 0-19-500456-6 * Gray, John. _Black Mass: Apocalyptic Religion and the Death of Utopia_ (London: Penguin Books, 2008) ISBN 978-0-14-102598-8 * Hotson, Howard. _Paradise Postponed: Johann Heinrich Alsted and the Birth of Calvinist Millenarianism,_ (Springer, 2000). * Jue, Jeffrey K. _Heaven Upon Earth: Joseph Mede and the Legacy of Mllenarianism,_ (Springer, 2006). * Kaplan, Jeffrey. _Radical Religion in America: Millenarian Movements from the Far Right to the Children of Noah_ (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997). ISBN 0-8156-2687-8 ISBN 0-8156-0396-7 * Katz, David S. and Popkin, Richard H. _Messianic Revolution: Radical Religious Politics to the End of the Second Millennium_. (New York: Hill and Wang, 1999) ISBN 0-8090-6885-0 .Review on H-Net * Landes, Richard. _Heaven on Earth: The Varieties of Millennial Experiences,_ (Oxford University Press, 2011). * Lerner, Robert E. _The Feast of Saint Abraham: Medieval Millenarians and the Jews,_ (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000).
* Millenarianismand Messianism in Early Modern Culture (4 voll.), Dordrecht: Kluwer.
* Vol. 1: Goldish, Matt and Popkin, Richard H. (eds.). _Jewish Messianism in the Early Modern World_, 2001 * Vol. 2: Kottmnan, Karl (eds.). _Catholic Milleniarism: From Savonarola to th Abbè Grégoire_, 2001 * Vol. 3: Force, James E. and Popkin, Richard H. (eds.). _The Millenarian Turn: Millenarian Contexts of Science, Politics and Everyday Anglo-American Life in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries_, 2001 * Vol. 4: Laursen, John Christian and Popkin, Richard H. (eds.). _Continental Millenarians: Protestants, Catholics, Heretics_, 2001
* Schwartz, Hillel . _The French Prophets: The History of a Millenarian Group in Eighteenth-Century England_. Berkeley: University of California, 1980. * Voegelin, Eric. _The New Science of Politics_. University of Chicago Press (October 12, 2012). * Wright, Ben and Dresser, Zachary W. (eds.) _Apocalypse and the Millennium in the American Civil War Era._ Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2013.