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Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
Rosales (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel ˈaŋ.xel asˈtu.ɾjas]; October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) was a Nobel Prize-winning Guatemalan poet-diplomat, novelist, playwright and journalist. Asturias helped establish Latin American literature's contribution to mainstream Western culture, and at the same time drew attention to the importance of indigenous cultures, especially those of his native Guatemala. Asturias was born and raised in Guatemala
Guatemala
though he lived a significant part of his adult life abroad. He first lived in Paris
Paris
in the 1920s where he studied ethnology. Some scholars view him as the first Latin American novelist to show how the study of anthropology and linguistics could affect the writing of literature.[1] While in Paris, Asturias also associated with the Surrealist
Surrealist
movement, and he is credited with introducing many features of modernist style into Latin American letters. In this way, he is an important precursor of the Latin American Boom
Latin American Boom
of the 1960s and 1970s. One of Asturias' most famous novels, El Señor Presidente, describes life under a ruthless dictator. Asturias' very public opposition to dictatorial rule led to him spending much of his later life in exile, both in South America and in Europe. The book that is sometimes described as his masterpiece, Hombres de maíz
Hombres de maíz
(Men of Maize), is a defense of Mayan culture
Mayan culture
and customs. Asturias combined his extensive knowledge of Mayan beliefs with his political convictions, channeling them into a life of commitment and solidarity. His work is often identified with the social and moral aspirations of the Guatemalan people. After decades of exile and marginalization, Asturias finally received broad recognition in the 1960s. In 1966, he won the Soviet Union's Lenin Peace Prize. The following year he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, becoming the second Latin American author to receive this honor ( Gabriela Mistral
Gabriela Mistral
had won it in 1945). Asturias spent his final years in Madrid, where he died at the age of 74. He is buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery
Père Lachaise Cemetery
in Paris.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Exile and rehabilitation 1.3 Family

2 Major works

2.1 Leyendas de Guatemala 2.2 El Señor Presidente 2.3 Men of Maize 2.4 The Banana Trilogy 2.5 Mulata de tal

3 Themes

3.1 Identity 3.2 Politics 3.3 Nature

4 Writing style

4.1 Mayan influence 4.2 Surrealism
Surrealism
and magical realism 4.3 Use of language

5 Legacy 6 Awards 7 Works 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Biography[edit] Early life and education[edit] Map of Guatemala Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
was born in Guatemala
Guatemala
City on October 19, 1899, the first child of Ernesto Asturias Girón, a lawyer and judge, and María Rosales de Asturias, a schoolteacher.[2] Two years later, his brother, Marco Antonio, was born. Asturias's parents were of Spanish descent, and reasonably distinguished: his father could trace his family line back to colonists who had arrived in Guatemala in the 1660s; his mother, whose ancestry was more mixed, was the daughter of a colonel. In 1905, when the writer was six years old, the Asturias family moved to the house of Asturias' grandparents, where they lived a more comfortable lifestyle.[3] Despite his relative privilege, Asturias's father opposed the dictatorship of Manuel Estrada Cabrera, who had come to power in February 1898. As Asturias later recalled, "My parents were quite persecuted, though they were not imprisoned or anything of the sort".[4] Following an incident in 1904 which, in his capacity as judge, Asturias Sr. set free some students arrested for causing a disturbance, he clashed directly with the dictator, lost his job, and he and his family were forced to move in 1905 to the town of Salamá, the departmental capital of Baja Verapaz, where Miguel Ángel Asturias lived on his grandparents' farm.[2] It was here that Asturias first came into contact with Guatemala's indigenous people; his nanny, Lola Reyes, was a young indigenous woman who told him stories of their myths and legends that would later have a great influence on his work.[5] In 1908, when Asturias was nine, his family returned to the suburbs of Guatemala
Guatemala
City. Here they established a supply store where Asturias spent his adolescence.[6] Asturias first attended Colegio del Padre Pedro and then, Colegio del Padre Solís.[6] Asturias began writing as a student and wrote the first draft of a story that would later become his novel El Señor Presidente.[7] In 1920, Asturias participated in the uprising against the dictator Manuel Estrada Cabrera. While enrolled in El Instituto Nacional de Varones (The National Institute for Boys) he took an active role, such as organizing strikes in his high school, in the overthrow of the dictatorship of Estrada Cabrera.[8] He and his classmates formed what is now known to be “La Generación del 20” (The Generation of 20).[9] In 1922, Asturias and other students founded the Popular University, a community project whereby "the middle class was encouraged to contribute to the general welfare by teaching free courses to the underprivileged."[10] Asturias spent a year studying medicine before switching to the faculty of law at the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala
Guatemala
in Guatemala
Guatemala
City.[11] He obtained his law degree in 1923 and received the Gálvez Prize for his thesis on Indian problems.[2] Asturias was also awarded the Premio Falla for being the top student in his faculty. It was at this university that he founded the Asociación de Estudiantes Universitarios (Association of University Students) and the Asociación de estudiantes El Derecho (Association of Law Students), in addition to actively participating in La Tribuna del Partido Unionista (Platform of the Unionist Party).[12] It was ultimately the latter group which derailed the dictatorship of Estrada Cabrera.[12] Both of the associations he founded have been recognized as being positively associated with Guatemalan patriotism.[13] In reference to literature, Asturias' involvement in all of these organizations influenced many of his scenes in El Señor Presidente.[12] Asturias was thus involved in politics; working as a representative of the Asociación General de Estudiantes Universitarios (General Association of University Students), and traveling to El Salvador
El Salvador
and Honduras
Honduras
for his new job. Asturias' university thesis, "The Social Problem of the Indian," was published in 1923.[14] After receiving his law degree the same year, Asturias moved to Europe. He had originally planned to live in England and study political economy, but changed his mind.[11] He soon transferred to Paris, where he studied ethnology at the Sorbonne (University of Paris) and became a dedicated surrealist under the influence of the French poet and literary theorist André Breton.[15] While there, he was influenced by the gathering of writers and artists in Montparnasse, and began writing poetry and fiction. During this time, Asturias developed a deep concern for Mayan culture and in 1925 he worked to translate the Mayan sacred text, the Popol Vuh, into Spanish, a project which he spent 40 years on.[16] He also founded a magazine while in Paris
Paris
called Tiempos Nuevos or New Times.[17] In 1930, Asturias published his first novel Leyendas de Guatemala.[18] Two years later, in Paris, Asturias received the Sylla Monsegur Prize for the French translations of Leyendas de Guatemala.[19] On July 14, 1933, he returned to Guatemala after ten years in Paris.[20]

Exile and rehabilitation[edit] Asturias devoted much of his political energy towards supporting the government of Jacobo Árbenz, successor to Juan José Arévalo Bermejo.[21] Asturias was asked following his work as an ambassador to help suppress the threat of rebels from El Salvador. While his efforts were backed by the U.S. and Salvadoran governments, the rebels succeeded in invading Guatemala
Guatemala
and overthrew Jacobo Árbenz' rule in 1954. When the government of Jacobo Árbenz
Jacobo Árbenz
fell Asturias was expelled from the country by Carlos Castillo Armas because of his support for Árbenz. He was stripped of his Guatemalan citizenship and went to live in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and Chile, where he spent the next eight years of his life. When another change of government in Argentina
Argentina
meant that he once more had to seek a new home, Asturias moved to Europe.[22] While living in exile in Genoa
Genoa
his reputation grew as an author with the release of his novel, Mulata de Tal (1963).[23] In 1966, democratically elected President Julio César Méndez Montenegro achieved power and Asturias was given back his Guatemalan citizenship. Montenegro appointed Asturias as ambassador to France, where he served until 1970, taking up a permanent residence in Paris.[24] A year later, in 1967, English translations of Mulata de Tal were published in Boston.[25] Later in Asturias' life he helped found the Popular University of Guatemala.[14] Asturias spent his final years in Madrid, where he died in 1974. He is buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery
Père Lachaise Cemetery
in Paris.

Family[edit] Asturias married his first wife, Clemencia Amado, in 1939. They had two sons, Miguel and Rodrigo Ángel, before divorcing in 1947. Asturias then met and married his second wife, Blanca Mora y Araujo (1903-2000), in 1950.[26] Mora y Araujo was Argentinian, and so when Asturias was deported from Guatemala
Guatemala
in 1954, he went to live in the Argentinian capital of Buenos Aires. He lived in his wife's homeland for eight years. Asturias dedicated his novel Week-end en Guatemala
Guatemala
to his wife, Blanca, after it was published in 1956.[18] They remained married until Asturias' death in 1974. Asturias' son from his first marriage, Rodrigo Asturias, under the nom de guerre Gaspar Ilom, the name of an indigenous rebel in his father's own novel, Men of Maize, was President of the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (URNG). The URNG was a rebel group active in the 1980s, during the Guatemalan Civil War, and after the peace accords in 1996.[27]

Major works[edit] Leyendas de Guatemala[edit] Main article: Leyendas de Guatemala Asturias' first book to be published, Leyendas de Guatemala
Guatemala
(Legends of Guatemala; 1930), is a collection of nine stories that explore Mayan myths from before the Spanish conquest as well as themes that relate to the development of a Guatemalan national identity. Asturias' fascination with pre-Columbian texts such as Popul Vuh and Anales de los Xahil, as well as his beliefs in popular myths and legends, have heavily influenced the work.[28] Academic Jean Franco describes the book as, "lyrical recreations of Guatemalan folk-lore gaining inspiration from pre-Columbian and colonial sources."[29] For Latin American literature
Latin American literature
critic Gerald Martin, Leyendas de Guatemala
Guatemala
is, "The first major anthropological contribution to Spanish American literature."[30] According to academic Francisco Solares-Larrave, the stories are a precursor to the magical realism movement.[31] Asturias used conventional writing and lyrical prose to tell a story about birds and other animals conversing with other archetypal human beings.[32] Asturias' writing style in Leyendas de Guatemala
Guatemala
has been described by some as "historia-sueño-poemas" (history-dream-poem).[19] In each legend, Asturias draws the reader in with a fury of beauty and mystery without being able to comprehend the sense of space and time.[33] Leyendas de Guatemala
Guatemala
brought Asturias critical praise in France as well as in Guatemala. The noted French poet and essayist Paul Valéry
Paul Valéry
wrote of the book, "I found it brought about a tropical dream, which I experienced with singular delight."[34]

El Señor Presidente[edit] A translation of El Señor Presidente, one of Asturias's best-known works. Main article: El Señor Presidente One of Asturias' most critically acclaimed novels, El Señor Presidente was completed in 1933 but remained unpublished until 1946, where it was privately released in Mexico.[35] As one of his earliest works, El Señor Presidente
El Señor Presidente
showcased Asturias's talent and influence as a novelist. Zimmerman and Rojas describe his work as an "impassioned denunciation of the Guatemalan dictator Manuel Estrada Cabrera."[36] The novel was written during Asturias's exile in Paris.[37] While completing the novel, Asturias associated with members of the Surrealist
Surrealist
movement as well as fellow future Latin American writers, such as Arturo Uslar Pietri
Arturo Uslar Pietri
and the Cuban Alejo Carpentier.[38] El Señor Presidente
El Señor Presidente
is one of many novels to explore life under a Latin American dictator and in fact, has been heralded by some as the first real novel exploring the subject of dictatorship.[39] The book has also been called a study of fear because fear is the climate in which it unfolds.[40] El Señor Presidente
El Señor Presidente
uses surrealistic techniques and reflects Asturias' notion that Indian's non-rational awareness of reality is an expression of subconscious forces.[21] Although the author never specifies where the novel takes place, it is clear that the plot is influenced by Guatemalan president, and well-known dictator, Manuel Estrada Cabrera's rule.[41] Asturias's novel examines how evil spreads downward from a powerful political leader, into the streets and homes of the citizens. Many themes, such as justice and love, are mocked in the novel, and escape from the dictator's tyranny is seemingly impossible.[42] Each character within the novel is deeply affected by the dictatorship and must struggle to survive in a terrifying reality.[37] The story opens with the accidental murder of a high official, Colonel Parrales Sonriente.[43] The President uses the Colonel's death to dispose of two men as he decides to frame them both for the murder.[43] The tactics of the President are often viewed as sadistic, as he believes his word is the law which no one shall question.[44] The novel then travels with several characters, some close to the President and some seeking escape from his regime. The dictator's trusted adviser, whom the reader knows as "Angel Face", falls in love with a General Canales's daughter, Camila.[45] Also, Angel Face, under the direct order of the President, convinces General Canales that immediate flight is imperative.[44] Unfortunately, the General is one of the two men the President is trying to frame for murder; the President's plan to make General Canales appear guilty is to have him shot while fleeing.[43] The General is hunted for execution while his daughter is held under house arrest by Angel Face.[46] Angel Face is torn between his love for her and his duty to the President. While the Dictator is never named, he has striking similarities to Manuel Estrada Cabrera. Playwright
Playwright
Hugo Carrillo adapted El Señor Presidente
El Señor Presidente
into a play in 1974.[47]

Men of Maize[edit] Main article: Men of Maize Men of Maize
Men of Maize
(Hombres de maíz, 1949) is usually considered to be Asturias's masterpiece, yet remains one of the least understood novels produced by Asturias.[48] The title Hombres de maíz
Hombres de maíz
refers to the Maya Indians' belief that their flesh was made of corn.[49] The novel is written in six parts, each exploring the contrast of traditional Indian customs and a progressive, modernizing society. Asturias's book explores the magical world of indigenous communities, a subject about which the author was both passionate and knowledgeable. The novel draws on traditional legend, but the story is of Asturias's own creation.[29] The plot revolves around an isolated Indian community (the men of maize or "people of corn") whose land is under threat by outsiders, with the intent of commercial exploitation. An indigenous leader, Gaspar Ilom, leads the community's resistance to the planters, who kill him in the hope of thwarting the rebellion. Beyond the grave Ilom lives on as a "folk-hero"; despite his efforts, the people still lose their land.[50] In the second half of the novel, the central character is a postman, Nicho, and the story revolves around his search for his lost wife. In the course of his quest he abandons his duties, tied as they are to "white society", and transforms himself into a coyote, which represents his guardian spirit.[51] This transformation is yet another reference to Mayan culture; the belief of nahualism, or a man's ability to assume the shape of his guardian animal, is one of the many essential aspects to understanding the hidden meanings in the novel.[52] Through allegory, Asturias shows how European imperialism dominates and transforms native traditions in the Americas.[53] By the novel's end, as Jean Franco notes, "the magic world of Indian legend has been lost"; but it concludes on a "Utopian note," as the people become ants to transport the maize they have harvested.[51] Written in the form of a myth, the novel is experimental, ambitious, and difficult to follow. For instance, its "time scheme is a mythic time in which many thousands of years may be compressed and seen as a single moment", and the book's language is also "structured so as to be analogous to Indian languages".[29] Because of its unusual approach, it was some time before the novel was accepted by critics and the public.[53]

The Banana Trilogy[edit] Asturias wrote an epic trilogy about the exploitation of the native Indians on banana plantations. This trilogy comprises three novels: Viento fuerte (Strong Wind; 1950), El Papa Verde (The Green Pope; 1954), and Los ojos de los enterrados (The Eyes of the Interred; 1960).[54] It is a fictional account of the results of foreign control over the Central American
Central American
banana industry.[11] At first, the volumes were only published in small quantities in his native Guatemala.[55] His critique of foreign control of the banana industry and how Guatemalan natives were exploited eventually earned him the Soviet Union's highest prize, the Lenin Peace Prize. This recognition marked Asturias as one of the few authors recognized in both the West and the Communist bloc
Communist bloc
during the period of the Cold War for his literary works.[56]

Mulata de tal[edit] Main article: Mulata de tal Asturias published his novel Mulata de tal
Mulata de tal
while he and his wife were living in Genoa
Genoa
in 1963. His novel received many positive reviews; Ideologies and Literature described it as "a carnival incarnated in the novel. It represents a collision between Mayan Mardi Gras and Hispanic baroque."[57] The novel emerged as a major novel during the 1960s.[32] The plot revolves around the battle between Catalina and Yumí to control Mulata (the moon spirit). Yumí and Catalina become experts in sorcery and are criticized by the Church for their practices. The novel uses Mayan mythology and Catholic tradition to form a distinctive allegory of belief. Gerald Martin in the Hispanic Review commented that it is "sufficiently obvious that the whole art of this novel rests upon its language". In general, Asturias matches the visual freedom of the cartoon by using every resource the Spanish language offers him. His use of color is striking and immeasurably more liberal than in earlier novels."[58] Asturias built the novel with this unique use of color, liberal theory, and his distinctive use of the Spanish language.[27] His novel also received the Silla Monsegur Prize for the best Spanish-American novel published in France.[14]

Themes[edit] Identity[edit] Postcolonial Guatemalan identity is influenced by a mixture of Mayan and European culture. Asturias, himself a mestizo, proposed a hybrid national soul for Guatemala
Guatemala
(ladino in its language, Mayan in its mythology).[59] His quest to create an authentic Guatemalan national identity is central to his first published novel, Leyendas de Guatemala, and is a pervasive theme throughout his works. When asked by interviewer Günter W. Lorenz how he perceives his role as a Latin American writer, he responds, “...I felt it was my calling and my duty to write about America, which would someday be of interest to the world.”[60] Later in the interview Asturias identifies himself as a spokesman for Guatemala, saying, "...Among the Indians there's a belief in the Gran Lengua (Big Tongue). The Gran Lengua is the spokesman for the tribe. And in a way that's what I've been: the spokesman for my tribe."[60]

Politics[edit] Throughout Asturias' literary career, he was continually involved in politics. He was openly opposed to the Cabrera Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and worked as an ambassador in various Latin American countries.[18] His political opinions come through in a number of his works. Some political themes found in his books are the following: Spanish colonization of Latin America and the decline of the Maya civilization; the effects of political dictatorships on society; and the exploitation of the Guatemala
Guatemala
people by foreign-owned agricultural companies. Asturias' collection of short stories, Leyendas de Guatemala, is loosely based on Maya mythology and legends. The author chose legends spanning from the creation of the Maya people to the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors hundreds of years later. Asturias introduces the Spanish colonizers in his story "Leyenda del tesoro del Lugar Florido" (Legend of the Treasure from the Flowering Place). In this story, a sacrificial ritual is interrupted by the unexpected arrival of "the white man" ("los hombres blancos").[61] The tribe scatters in fright of the intruders and their treasure is left behind in the hands of the white man. Jimena Sáenz argues that this story represents the fall of the Maya civilization at the hands of the Spanish conquistadors.[62] El Señor Presidente
El Señor Presidente
does not explicitly identify its setting as early twentieth-century Guatemala, however, the novel's title character was inspired by the 1898–1920 presidency of Manuel Estrada Cabrera. The character of the President rarely appears in the story but Asturias employs a number of other characters to show the terrible effects of living under a dictatorship. This book was a notable contribution to the dictator novel genre. Asturias was unable to publish the book in Guatemala
Guatemala
for thirteen years because of the strict censorship laws of the Ubico government, a dictatorship that ruled Guatemala
Guatemala
from 1931 to 1944. Following the Second World War, the United States continually increased its presence in Latin American economies.[63] Companies such as the United Fruit Company
United Fruit Company
manipulated Latin American politicians and exploited land, resources, and Guatemalan laborers.[63] The effects of American companies in Guatemala inspired Asturias to write "The Banana Trilogy," a series of three novels published in 1950, 1954, and 1960 that revolve around the exploitation of indigenous farm laborers and the monopoly presence of the United Fruit Company
United Fruit Company
in Guatemala. Asturias was very concerned with the marginalization and poverty of the Maya people in Guatemala.[64] He believed that socio-economic development in Guatemala
Guatemala
depended on better integration of indigenous communities, a more equal distribution of wealth in the country, and working to lower the rates of illiteracy amongst other prevalent issues.[64] Asturias' choice to publicize some of the political problems of Guatemala
Guatemala
in his novels brought international attention to them. He was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize and the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature because of the political criticisms included in his books.

Nature[edit] Guatemala
Guatemala
and America are, for Asturias, a country and a continent of nature.[65] Nahum Megged in her article “Artificio y naturaleza en las obras de Miguel Angel Asturias,” writes on how his work embodies the “captivating totality of nature” and how it does not use nature solely as a backdrop for the drama.[65] She explains that the characters in his books who are most in harmony with nature are the protagonists and those who disrupt the balance of nature are the antagonists.[65] The theme of the erotic personification of nature in his novels is pervasive throughout his novels. An example being in Leyendas de Guatemala
Guatemala
in which he writes, “El tropico es el sexo de la tierra.”

Writing style[edit] Asturias was greatly inspired by the Maya culture of Central America. It is an overarching theme in many of his works and greatly influenced the style of this writing.

Mayan influence[edit] Maya vase depicting a lord of the underworld stripped of clothes and headgear by the young maize divinity. The Guatemala
Guatemala
that exists today was founded on top of a substratus of Mayan culture. Before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors, this civilization was very advanced politically, economically, and socially.[66] This rich Mayan culture
Mayan culture
has had an undeniable influence on Asturias' literary works.[67] He believed in the sacredness of the Mayan traditions and worked to bring life back into its culture by integrating the Indian imagery and tradition into his novels.[68] Asturias studied at the Sorbonne (the University of Paris
Paris
at that time) with Georges Raynaud, an expert in the culture of the Quiché Maya. In 1926, he finished a translation of the Popol Vuh, the sacred book of the Mayas.[69] Fascinated by the mythology of the indigenous people of Guatemala, he wrote Leyendas de Guatemala
Guatemala
(Legends of Guatemala).[70] This fictional work re-tells some of the Mayan folkloric stories of his homeland. Certain aspects of indigenous life were of a unique interest to Asturias. Commonly known as corn, maize is an integral part of Mayan culture. It is not only a main staple in their diet but plays an important role in the Mayan creation story found in the Popul Vuh.[71] This particular story was the influence for Asturias' novel Hombres de maíz
Hombres de maíz
(Men of Maize), a mythological fable that introduces readers to the life, customs, and psyche of a Maya Indian. Asturias did not speak any Mayan language and admitted that his interpretations of the indigenous psyche were intuitive and speculative.[72] In taking such liberties, there are many possibilities for error. However, Lourdes Royano Gutiérrez argues that his work remains valid because in this literary situation, intuition served as a better tool than scientific analysis.[72] In accordance, Jean Franco categorizes Asturias along with Rosario Castellanos
Rosario Castellanos
and José María Arguedas
José María Arguedas
as "Indianist" authors. She argues that all three of these writers were led to "break with realism precisely because of the limitations of the genre when it came to representing the Indian".[29] For example, Asturias used a lyrical and experimental style in Men of Maize, which Franco believed to be a more authentic way of representing the indigenous mind than traditional prose.[50] When asked about his method of interpreting the Mayan psyche, Asturias was quoted saying "I listened a lot, I imagined a little, and invented the rest" (Oí mucho, supuse un poco más e inventé el resto).[72] In spite of his inventions, his ability to incorporate his knowledge in Mayan ethnology into his novels make his work authentic and convincing.

Surrealism
Surrealism
and magical realism[edit] Surrealism
Surrealism
has contributed greatly to the works of Asturias.[73] Characterized by its exploration of the subconscious mind, the genre allowed Asturias to cross boundaries of fantasy and reality. Although Asturias' works were seen as preceding magical realism, the author saw many similarities between the two genres. Asturias discussed the idea of magical realism in his own works linking it explicitly to surrealism.[74] He did not, however, use the term to describe his own material. He used it instead in reference to the Mayan stories written before the conquest of America by the Europeans, stories such as Popul Vuh or Los Anales de los Xahil.[60] In an interview with his friend and biographer Günter W. Lorenz, Asturias discusses how these stories fit his view of magical realism and relate to surrealism, saying, "Between the "real" and the "magic" there is a third sort of reality. It is a melting of the visible and the tangible, the hallucination and the dream. It is similar to what the surrealists around [André] Breton wanted and it is what we could call "magic realism."[60] Although the two genres shared much in common, magical realism is often considered as having been born in Latin America. As mentioned above, Maya culture was an important inspiration for Asturias. He saw a direct relationship between magical realism and Indigenous mentality, saying, “...an Indian or a mestizo in a small village might describe how he saw an enormous stone turn into a person or a giant, or a cloud turn into a stone. That is not a tangible reality but one that involves an understanding of supernatural forces. That is why when I have to give it a literary label I call it "magic realism."[60] Similarly, scholar Lourdes Royano Gutiérrez argues that surrealist thought is not entirely different from the indigenous or mestizo worldview.[73] Royano Gutiérrez describes this worldview as one in which the border between reality and dream is porous and not concrete.[73] It is clear from both Asturias' and Gutiérrez' quotes that magical realism was seen as a suitable genre to represent an indigenous character's thoughts. The surrealist/magical realist style is exemplified in Asturias' works Mulata de tal
Mulata de tal
and El señor Presidente.

Use of language[edit] Asturias was one of the first Latin American novelists to realize the enormous potential of language in literature.[75] He had a very profound linguistic style that he employed to convey his literary vision.[75] In his works, language is more than a form of expression or a means to an end and can be quite abstract. Language does not give life to his work, rather the organic language Asturias uses has a life of its own within his work ("El lenguage tiene vida propia").[75] For example, in his novel "Leyendas de Guatemala", there is a rhythmic, musical style to writing. In many of his works, he is known to have frequently used onomatopoeias, repetitions and symbolism, techniques which are also prevalent in pre-Columbian texts. His modern interpretation of the Mayan writing style later became his trademark.[76] Asturias synthesized the liturgic diction found in the ancient Popul Vuh with colourful, exuberant vocabulary.[75] This unique style has been called "tropical baroque" ("barroquismo tropical") by scholar Lourdes Royano Gutiérrez in her analysis of his major works.[77] In Mulata de tal, Asturias fuses surrealism with indigenous tradition in something called the "great language" ("la gran lengua").[75] In this Maya tradition, the people bestow magical power to certain words and phrases; similar to a witch's chant or curse. In his stories, Asturias restores this power to words and lets them speak for themselves: "Los toros toronegros, los toros torobravos, los toros torotumbos, los torostorostoros" ("the bulls bullsblack, the bulls bullsbrave, the bulls bullsshake, the bullsbullsbulls").[78] Asturias uses a significant amount of Mayan vocabulary in his works. A glossary can be found at the end of Hombres de maíz, Leyendas de Guatemala, El Señor Presidente, Viento Fuerte, and El Papa verde in order to better understand the rich combination of colloquial Guatemalan and indigenous words.[79]

Legacy[edit] Bust of Miguel Ángel Asturias. Paseo de los Poetas, Rosedal de Palermo, Parque Tres de Febrero, Buenos Aires. After his death in 1974, his home country acknowledged his contribution to Guatemalan literature by establishing literary awards and scholarships in his name. One of these is the country's most distinguished literary prize, the Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
National Prize in Literature. In addition, Guatemala
Guatemala
City's national theatre, the Centro Cultural Miguel Ángel Asturias, is named after him. Asturias is remembered as a man who believed strongly in recognizing indigenous culture in Guatemala. For Gerald Martin, Asturias is one of what he terms "the ABC writers—Asturias, Borges, Carpentier" who, he argues, "really initiated Latin American modernism."[80] His experimentation with style and language is considered by some scholars as a precursor to the magical realism genre.[81] Critics compare his fiction to that of Franz Kafka, James Joyce, and William Faulkner
William Faulkner
because of the stream-of-consciousness style he employed.[82] His work has been translated into numerous languages such as English, French, German, Swedish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian and many more.

Awards[edit] Asturias received many honors and literary awards over the course of his career. One of the more notable awards was the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature, which he received in 1967 for Hombres de maiz.[18] This award caused some controversy at the time because of his relative anonymity outside of Latin America. Robert G. Mead criticized the choice because he thought that there were more well-known deserving candidates.[83] In 1966, Asturias was awarded the Soviet Union's Lenin Peace Prize. He received this recognition for La trilogía bananera (The Banana Trilogy) in which he criticizes the presence of aggressive American companies such as The United Fruit Company in Latin American countries.[84] Other prizes for Asturias' work include: el Premio Galvez (1923); Chavez Prize (1923); and the Prix Sylla Monsegur (1931), for Leyendas de Guatemala ; as well as the Prix du Meilleur Livre Étranger for El señor presidente (1952).[22]

Works[edit] Novels El Señor Presidente. – Mexico City : Costa-Amic, 1946 (translated by Frances Partridge. New York: Macmillan, 1963) Hombres de maíz. – Buenos Aires : Losada, 1949 ( Men of Maize
Men of Maize
/ translated by Gerald Martin. – New York : Delacorte/Seymour Lawrence, 1975) Viento fuerte. – Buenos Aires : Ministerio de Educación Pública, 1950 (Strong Wind / translated by Gregory Rabassa. – New York : Delacorte, 1968; Cyclone / translated by Darwin Flakoll and Claribel Alegría. – London : Owen, 1967) El papa verde. – Buenos Aires : Losada, 1954 (The Green Pope / translated by Gregory Rabassa. – New York : Delacorte, 1971) Los ojos de los enterrados. – Buenos Aires : Losada, 1960 (The Eyes of the Interred / translated by Gregory Rabassa. – New York : Delacorte, 1973) El alhajadito. – Buenos Aires : Goyanarte, 1961 (The Bejeweled Boy / translated by Martin Shuttleworth. – Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971) Mulata de tal. – Buenos Aires : Losada, 1963 (The Mulatta and Mr. Fly / translated by Gregory Rabassa. – London : Owen, 1963) Maladrón. – Buenos Aires, Losada, 1969 Viernes de Dolores. – Buenos Aires : Losada, 1972 Story Collections Rayito de estrella. – Paris : Imprimerie Française de l'Edition, 1925 Leyendas de Guatemala. – Madrid : Oriente, 1930 Week-end en Guatemala. – Buenos Aires : Losada, 1956 El espejo de Lida Sal. – Mexico City : Siglo Veintiuno, 1967 (The Mirror of Lida Sal : Tales Based on Mayan Myths and Guatemalan Legends / translated by Gilbert Alter-Gilbert. – Pittsburgh : Latin American Literary Review, 1997) Tres de cuatro soles. – Madrid : Closas-Orcoyen, 1971 Children's Book La Maquinita de hablar. – 1971 (The Talking Machine / translated by Beverly Koch. – Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1971) El Hombre que lo Tenía Todo Todo Todo. – 1973 (The Man that Had it All, All, All) Anthologies Torotumbo; La audiencia de los confines; Mensajes indios. – Barcelona : Plaza & Janés, 1967 Antología de Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
. – México, Costa-Amic, 1968 Viajes, ensayos y fantasías / Compilación y prólogo Richard J. Callan . – Buenos Aires : Losada, 1981 El hombre que lo tenía todo, todo, todo; La leyenda del Sombrerón; La leyenda del tesoro del Lugar Florido. – Barcelona : Bruguera, 1981 El árbol de la cruz. – Nanterre : ALLCA XX/Université Paris X, Centre de Recherches Latino-Américanes, 1993 Cuentos y leyendas. – Madrid, Allca XX, 2000 (Mario Roberto Morales Compilation) Poetry Rayito de estrella; fantomima. – Imprimerie Française de l'Edition, 1929 Emulo Lipolidón: fantomima. – Guatemala
Guatemala
City : Américana, 1935 Sonetos. – Guatemala
Guatemala
City : Américana, 1936 Alclasán; fantomima. – Guatemala
Guatemala
City : Américana, 1940 Con el rehén en los dientes: Canto a Francia. – Guatemala City : Zadik, 1942 Anoche, 10 de marzo de 1543. – Guatemala
Guatemala
City : Talleres tipográficos de Cordón, 1943 Poesía : Sien de alondra. – Buenos Aires : Argos, 1949 Ejercicios poéticos en forma de sonetos sobre temas de Horacio. – Buenos Aires : Botella al Mar, 1951 Alto es el Sur : Canto a la Argentina. – La Plata, Argentina : Talleres gráficos Moreno, 1952 Bolívar : Canto al Libertador. – San Salvador : Ministerio de Cultura, 1955 Nombre custodio e imagen pasajera. – La Habana, Talleres de Ocar, García, S.A., 1959 Clarivigilia primaveral. – Buenos Aires : Losada, 1965. Sonetos de Italia. – Varese-Milán, Instituto Editoriale Cisalpino, 1965. Miguel Ángel Asturias, raíz y destino: Poesía inédita, 1917-1924. – Guatemala
Guatemala
City : Artemis Edinter, 1999 Theatre Soluna : Comedia prodigiosa en dos jornadas y un final. – Buenos Aires : Losange, 1955 La audiencia de los confines. – Buenos Aires : Ariadna, 1957 Teatro : Chantaje, Dique seco, Soluna, La audiencia de los confines. – Buenos Aires : Losada, 1964 El Rey de la Altaneria. – 1968 Librettos Emulo Lipolidón: fantomima. – Guatemala
Guatemala
City : Américana, 1935. Imágenes de nacimiento. – 1935 Essays Sociología guatemalteca: El problema social del indio. – Guatemala City Sánchez y de Guise, 1923 (Guatemalan Sociology : The Social Problem of the Indian / translated by Maureen Ahern. – Tempe : Arizona State University Center for Latin American Studies, 1977) La arquitectura de la vida nueva. – Guatemala
Guatemala
City : Goubaud, 1928 Carta aérea a mis amigos de América. – Buenos Aires : Casa impresora Francisco A. Colombo, 1952 Rumania; su nueva imagen. – Xalapa : Universidad Veracruzana, 1964 Latinoamérica y otros ensayos. – Madrid : Guadiana, 1968 Comiendo en Hungría. – Barcelona : Lumen, 1969 América, fábula de fábulas y otros ensayos. – Caracas : Monte Avila Editores, 1972 See also[edit]

Poetry portal Politics portal Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
National Prize in Literature, Guatemala's most prestigious literary prize Centro Cultural Miguel Ángel Asturias, national theatre and cultural complex in Guatemala
Guatemala
City Notes[edit]

^ Royano Gutiérrez, 1993

^ a b c Callan, p.11

^ Martin 2000, pp. 481–483

^ "Mis padres eran bastante perseguidos, pero no eran conjurados ni cosa que se parezca." Qtd. in Martin 2000, pp. 482

^ Martin 2000, pp. 483

^ a b Carrera 1999, p. 14

^ Franco 1989, p. 865

^ Castelpoggi, p. 14

^ Castelpoggi, p. 13

^ Callan 1970, p. 11

^ a b c Westlake 2005, p. 65

^ a b c Castelpoggi, p.15

^ Carrera 1999, p. 16

^ a b c Frenz 1969. See "Biography". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2008-03-11..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ McHenry 1993, p. 657

^ Callan, p. 12

^ Liukkonen 2002

^ a b c d Callan, see Chronology

^ a b Castelpoggi, p. 26

^ Castelpoggi, p. 16

^ a b Franco 1989, p. 867

^ a b Leal 1968, p. 245

^ Pilón de Pachecho 1968, p. 35

^ Franco 1989, p. 866

^ Callan, see Chronolgy

^ Leal 1968, p. 238

^ a b Franco 1989, p. 871

^ Castelpoggi, p. 28

^ a b c d Franco 1994, p. 250

^ Martin 1989, p. 146

^ Solares-Larrave, pp. 682

^ a b Leal 1968, p. 246

^ Castelpoggi, p. 27

^ Valéry 1957, p. 10

^ Callan, see 'Chronology'

^ Zimmerman & Rojas 1998, p. 123

^ a b Westlake 2005, p. 165

^ Himelblau, 1973, 47

^ Martin 1989, p. 151

^ Callan, p. 21

^ Bellini & Giuseppe 1969, p. 58

^ Callan, p. 25

^ a b c Callan, p. 18

^ a b Callan, p. 19

^ Callan, p. 20

^ Leal 1968, p. 242

^ Westlake 2005, p. 40

^ Callan, p. 53

^ Callan, p. 54

^ a b Franco 1994, p. 251

^ a b Franco 1994, p. 252

^ Callan, p. 58

^ a b Franco 1989, p. 869

^ Castelpoggi, p. 91

^ Westlake 2005, p. 66

^ "Asturias, Miguel Angel, Viento Fuerte". Ilab Lila.[permanent dead link]

^ Willis 1983, p. 146

^ Martin 1973, p. 413

^ Henighan, p. 1023

^ a b c d e Mead 1968, p. 330

^ Asturias, Leyendas de Guatemala. p. 52-58.

^ Sáenz, p.81.

^ a b Royano Gutiérrez, p. 82.

^ a b Royano Gutiérrez, p. 101.

^ a b c Megged 1976, pp. 321

^ Royano Gutiérrez, p. 81.

^ Prieto 1993, p. 16

^ Westlake 2005, p. 7

^ Prieto 1993, pp. 67–70

^ Prieto 1993, pp. 64–67

^ Royano Gutiérrez, p. 94.

^ a b c Royano Gutiérrez, p. 90.

^ a b c Royano Gutiérrez, p. 84.

^ Zamora, Faris 1995, p. 191

^ a b c d e Royano Gutiérrez, p. 112.

^ Bellini & Giuseppe 1969, p. 21

^ Royano Gutiérrez, p. 113.

^ Asturias, Torotumbo, 1971.

^ Royano Gutiérrez, p. 115.

^ Martin 1982, p. 223

^ Royano Gutiérrez, p. 83.

^ Leal 1968, p. 237

^ Mead 1968, p. 326

^ "A Tendency of Commitment". Time (October 27, 1967).

References[edit] .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Asturias, Miguel Angel (1957). Leyendas de Guatemala. Buenos Aires: Losada. Bellini, Giuseppe (1969). La narrativa de Miguel Angel Asturias. Buenos Aires: Losada. Callan, Richard (1970). Miguel Angel Asturias. New York: Twayne. OCLC 122016. Carrera, Mario Alberto (1999). ¿Cómo era Miguel Ángel Asturias?. Guatemala: Editorial Cultura. Castelpoggi, Atilio Jorge (1961). Miguel Angel Asturias. Buenos Aires: La Mandrágora. Franco, Jean (1989). "Miguel Angel Asturias". In Solé, Carlos A.; Abreu, Maria I. (eds.). Latin American Writers. New York: Scribner. pp. 865–873. ISBN 978-0-684-18463-0. Franco, Jean (1994). An Introduction to Spanish-American Literature (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-44923-6. Frenz, Horst (1969). Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901–1967. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-981-02-3413-3. Gutiérrez, Royano (1993). Las novelas de Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
desde la teoría de la recepción. Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid. ISBN 8477623635. Henighan, Stephen (1999). "Two Paths to the Boom: Carpentier, Asturias, and the Performative Split". The Modern Language Review. 94: 1009–1024. doi:10.2307/3737234. JSTOR 3737234. Hill, Eladia Leon (1972). Miguel Angel Asturias. New York: Eliseo Torres & Sons. Himelblau, Jack (Winter 1973). "El Señor Presidente: Antecedents, Sources and Reality". Hispanic Review. 40 (1): 43–78. doi:10.2307/471873. JSTOR 471873. ( JSTOR
JSTOR
subscription required for online access.) Leal, Luis (1968). "Myth and Social Realism in Miguel Angel Asturias". Comparative Literature Studies. 5 (3): 237–247. Archived from the original on 2008-08-07. Retrieved 2008-03-28. Liukkonen, Petri (2002). " Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
(1899–1974)". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 26 January 2008. Martin, Gerald (1973). "Mulata de tal: The Novel as Animated Cartoon". Hispanic Review. University of Pennsylvania Press. 41 (2): 397–415. doi:10.2307/471993. JSTOR 471993. ( JSTOR
JSTOR
subscription required for online access.) Martin, Gerald (1982). "On Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and Rhetoric in Latin American Writing: A Counter-Proposal". Latin American Research Review. 17 (3): 207–227. Martin, Gerald (1989). Journeys through the Labyrinth: Latin American Fiction in the Twentieth Century. London: Verso. ISBN 978-0-86091-952-0. Martin, Gerald (2000b). "Cronología". In Martin, Gerald (ed.). El Señor Presidente. By Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
(Critical ed.). Madrid: ALLCA XX. pp. xxxix–li. ISBN 84-89666-51-2. Mead, Jr., Robert G. (May 1968). " Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
and the Nobel Prize". Hispania. American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese. 51 (2): 326–331. doi:10.2307/338517. JSTOR 338517. Megged, Nahun (1976). "Artificio y naturaleza en las obras de Miguel Angel Asturias". Hispania. Hispania. 59 (2): 319–328. doi:10.2307/339512. JSTOR 339512. Pilón de Pachecho, Marta (1968). Miguel Angel Asturias: Semblanza para el estudio de su vida y obra. Guatemala: Cultural Centroamericana. OCLC 2779332. Prieto, Rene (1993). Miguel Angel Asturias's Archaeology of Return. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43412-6. Royano Gutiérrez, Lourdes (1993). Las novelas de Miguel Angel Asturias: desde la teoría de la recepción. Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid. ISBN 84-7762-363-5. Sáenz, Jimena (1974). Genio y Figura de Miguel Angel Asturias. Buenos Airesa: Editorial Universitaria. Sierra Franco, Aurora (1969). Miguel Angel Asturias en la Literatura. Guatemala: Istmo. OCLC 2546463. Solares-Lavarre, Francisco (2000). "El discurso del mito: respuesta a la modernidad en Leyendas de Guatemala". In Mario Roberto Morales (ed.). Cuentos y leyendas. Madrid
Madrid
- París: ALLCA (Colección Archivos). pp. 675–705. Valéry, Paul (1957). "Carta de Paul Valéry
Paul Valéry
a Francis de Miomandre". In Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
(ed.). Leyendas de Guatemala. Buenos Aires: Losada. Westlake, E. J. (2005). Our Land is Made of Courage and Glory. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2625-9. Willis, Susan (1983). "Nobody's Mulata". I & L (Ideologies and Literature) Journal of Hispanic and Luso-Brazil Literatures Minneapolis. 4 (17): 146–162. Zimmerman, Marc; Rojas, Raul (1998). Voices From the Silence: Guatemalan Literature of Resistance. Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN 978-0-89680-198-1.

External links[edit] Literature Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Award Ceremony 1967 Recording of Asturias reading The President Works by or about Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
in libraries (WorldCat catalog) "The Latin American Novel, Testimony of an Epoch". Nobel lecture from NobelPrize.org.[permanent dead link] Estudios críticos sobre Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
(in Spanish), from Arte y Literatura de Guatemala Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
at Find a Grave vte Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
(books)Books Leyendas de Guatemala
Guatemala
(1930) El Señor Presidente
El Señor Presidente
(1946) Men of Maize
Men of Maize
(1949) Mulata de tal
Mulata de tal
(1963) Related Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
National Prize in Literature

vteLaureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature1901–1925 1901: Sully Prudhomme 1902: Theodor Mommsen 1903: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904: Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905: Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906: Giosuè Carducci 1907: Rudyard Kipling 1908: Rudolf Eucken 1909: Selma Lagerlöf 1910: Paul Heyse 1911: Maurice Maeterlinck 1912: Gerhart Hauptmann 1913: Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915: Romain Rolland 1916: Verner von Heidenstam 1917: Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919: Carl Spitteler 1920: Knut Hamsun 1921: Anatole France 1922: Jacinto Benavente 1923: W. B. Yeats 1924: Władysław Reymont 1925: George Bernard Shaw 1926–1950 1926: Grazia Deledda 1927: Henri Bergson 1928: Sigrid Undset 1929: Thomas Mann 1930: Sinclair Lewis 1931: Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932: John Galsworthy 1933: Ivan Bunin 1934: Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936: Eugene O'Neill 1937: Roger Martin du Gard 1938: Pearl S. Buck 1939: Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944: Johannes V. Jensen 1945: Gabriela Mistral 1946: Hermann Hesse 1947: André Gide 1948: T. S. Eliot 1949: William Faulkner 1950: Bertrand Russell 1951–1975 1951: Pär Lagerkvist 1952: François Mauriac 1953: Winston Churchill 1954: Ernest Hemingway 1955: Halldór Laxness 1956: Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957: Albert Camus 1958: Boris Pasternak 1959: Salvatore Quasimodo 1960: Saint-John Perse 1961: Ivo Andrić 1962: John Steinbeck 1963: Giorgos Seferis 1964: Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965: Mikhail Sholokhov 1966: Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967: Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968: Yasunari Kawabata 1969: Samuel Beckett 1970: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971: Pablo Neruda 1972: Heinrich Böll 1973: Patrick White 1974: Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975: Eugenio Montale 1976–2000 1976: Saul Bellow 1977: Vicente Aleixandre 1978: Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979: Odysseas Elytis 1980: Czesław Miłosz 1981: Elias Canetti 1982: Gabriel García Márquez 1983: William Golding 1984: Jaroslav Seifert 1985: Claude Simon 1986: Wole Soyinka 1987: Joseph Brodsky 1988: Naguib Mahfouz 1989: Camilo José Cela 1990: Octavio Paz 1991: Nadine Gordimer 1992: Derek Walcott 1993: Toni Morrison 1994: Kenzaburō Ōe 1995: Seamus Heaney 1996: Wisława Szymborska 1997: Dario Fo 1998: José Saramago 1999: Günter Grass 2000: Gao Xingjian 2001–present 2001: V. S. Naipaul 2002: Imre Kertész 2003: J. M. Coetzee 2004: Elfriede Jelinek 2005: Harold Pinter 2006: Orhan Pamuk 2007: Doris Lessing 2008: J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009: Herta Müller 2010: Mario Vargas Llosa 2011: Tomas Tranströmer 2012: Mo Yan 2013: Alice Munro 2014: Patrick Modiano 2015: Svetlana Alexievich 2016: Bob Dylan 2017: Kazuo Ishiguro 2018: Olga Tokarczuk 2019: Peter Handke

vteCannes Film Festival jury presidents1946–1975 Georges Huisman (1946) Georges Huisman (1947) Georges Huisman (1949) André Maurois
André Maurois
(1951) Maurice Genevoix
Maurice Genevoix
(1952) Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(1953) Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(1954) Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
(1955) Maurice Lehmann
Maurice Lehmann
(1956) André Maurois
André Maurois
(1957) Marcel Achard (1958) Marcel Achard (1959) Georges Simenon
Georges Simenon
(1960) Jean Giono (1961) Tetsurō Furukaki (1962) Armand Salacrou (1963) Fritz Lang
Fritz Lang
(1964) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1965) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1966) Alessandro Blasetti (1967) André Chamson
André Chamson
(1968) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1969) Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
(1970) Michèle Morgan
Michèle Morgan
(1971) Joseph Losey
Joseph Losey
(1972) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1973) René Clair
René Clair
(1974) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1975) 1975–2000 Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1976) Roberto Rossellini
Roberto Rossellini
(1977) Alan J. Pakula
Alan J. Pakula
(1978) Françoise Sagan
Françoise Sagan
(1979) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1980) Jacques Deray (1981) Giorgio Strehler (1982) William Styron
William Styron
(1983) Dirk Bogarde
Dirk Bogarde
(1984) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1985) Sydney Pollack
Sydney Pollack
(1986) Yves Montand
Yves Montand
(1987) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1988) Wim Wenders
Wim Wenders
(1989) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1990) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(1991) Gérard Depardieu
Gérard Depardieu
(1992) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1993) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1994) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1995) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1996) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1997) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1998) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(1999) Luc Besson
Luc Besson
(2000) 2001–present Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(2001) David Lynch
David Lynch
(2002) Patrice Chéreau
Patrice Chéreau
(2003) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(2004) Emir Kusturica
Emir Kusturica
(2005) Wong Kar-wai
Wong Kar-wai
(2006) Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(2007) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2008) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(2009) Tim Burton
Tim Burton
(2010) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2011) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(2012) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(2013) Jane Campion
Jane Campion
(2014) Joel and Ethan Coen (2015) George Miller (2016) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(2017) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2018) Alejandro González Iñárritu
Alejandro González Iñárritu
(2019)

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