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The Midlands is a part of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. En ...

England
and a
cultural area 's map of native American cultural areas within the territory of the United States of America , United States (1948) as defined by Melville J. Herskovits influence , homelands of the Celtic languages, can be classed as a cultural region Ima ...
that broadly corresponds to the
Kingdom of Mercia Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Li ...

Kingdom of Mercia
of the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages (historiography), Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start ...
. The Midlands region is bordered by
Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England. There are three Regions of England, statistical regions defined as northern England: the North East England, North East; the North Wes ...

Northern England
and
Southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernmost part, with cultural, economic and political differences from the Midlands The Midlands is the central part of England ...

Southern England
. The Midlands were important in the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be ...
of the 18th and 19th centuries. Two of the nine official
regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with ...

regions of England
are the
West MidlandsWest Midlands may refer to: Places * West Midlands (region), a region of the United Kingdom **West Midlands (county), the metropolitan county in the West Midlands region ** West Midlands conurbation, the large conurbation in the West Midlands region ...
and
East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Linco ...
.
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is the second-largest city, urban area and ESPON metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom, metropoli ...

Birmingham
, in the West Midlands, is the second-largest city and
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, infrastructure and housing. A metro area u ...
in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
.


Symbolism

A
saltire A saltire, also called Saint Andrew's Cross or the crux decussata, is a heraldic Heraldry () is a broad term, encompassing the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology ...

saltire
(diagonal cross) may have been used as a symbol of Mercia since the time of
King Offa Offa (died 29 July 796 AD) was King of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of ...
. By the 13th century, the saltire had become the
attributed arms from the 15th-century '' Hyghalmen Roll'', based on the instruments of the Passion Instrument may refer to: Science and technology * Flight instruments two-seat light airplane. The flight instruments are visible on the left of the instrument ...
of the Kingdom of Mercia. The arms are
blazon In heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, Imperial, royal and noble ranks ...

blazon
ed ''Azure, a saltire Or'', meaning a gold (or yellow) saltire on a blue field. The saltire is used as both a flag and a coat of arms. As a flag, it is flown from
Tamworth Castle Tamworth Castle, a Grade I listed building A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, in Wales ...

Tamworth Castle
, the ancient seat of the Mercian Kings, to this day. The flag also appears on street signs welcoming people to Tamworth, the "ancient capital of Mercia". It was also flown outside Birmingham Council House during 2009 while the
Staffordshire Hoard The Staffordshire Hoard is the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork . It consists of almost 4,600 items and metal fragments, amounting to a total of of gold Gold is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol ...
was on display in the city before being taken to the
British Museum The British Museum is a public institution dedicated to human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of hu ...

British Museum
in London. The cross has been incorporated into a number of
coats of arms A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand, which may or may not be strapped to the wrist or forearm. Shields are used to intercept specific attacks, ...
of Midlands towns, including Tamworth,
Leek The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar '' 'Pink Whirls' A cultivar selected for its intriguing and colourful flowers A cultivarCultivar () has two denominations as explained in ''#Formal definition, Formal definition''. When referring to a ta ...
and
Blaby Blaby () is a village in the Blaby District in central Leicestershire, England, some five miles south of Leicester city centre. It has population of around 6,240 (2001 figures), falling slightly to 6,194 at the 2011 census, and its proximity to ...
. It was recognised as the Mercian flag by the
Flag Institute The Flag Institute is an educational charity headquartered in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in ...
in 2014.


Extent

There is no single definition for the Midlands. If defined as being made up of the of
East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Linco ...
and
West MidlandsWest Midlands may refer to: Places * West Midlands (region), a region of the United Kingdom **West Midlands (county), the metropolitan county in the West Midlands region ** West Midlands conurbation, the large conurbation in the West Midlands region ...
, it includes the
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
of
Derbyshire Derbyshire (; or ) is a county in the East Midlands of England. It includes much of the Peak District, Peak District National Park, the southern end of the Pennines, Pennine range of hills, and part of the The National Forest (England), Nationa ...
,
Herefordshire Herefordshire () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William ...

Herefordshire
,
Leicestershire Leicestershire (; postal abbreviation Leics.) is a landlocked Counties of England, county in the England, English Midlands (England), Midlands, being within the East Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to th ...

Leicestershire
,
Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain mode ...

Lincolnshire
(but excluding
North Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Lincolnshire, England, with a population of 167,446 in the 2011 census. There are six significant towns: Scunthorpe, Brigg, Haxey, Crowle, Lincolnshire, Crowle, Ep ...
and
North East Lincolnshire North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ...
),
Northamptonshire Northamptonshire (; abbreviated Northants.), archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a county in the East Midlands of England. In 2015 it had a population of 723,000. The county A county is a geographical region of a country us ...

Northamptonshire
,
Nottinghamshire Nottinghamshire (; abbreviated Notts.) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west. The traditional county t ...

Nottinghamshire
,
Rutland Rutland () is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire. Its greatest length north to south is onl ...

Rutland
,
Shropshire Shropshire (; alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian ,) is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (e ...

Shropshire
,
Staffordshire Staffordshire (; postal abbreviation Staffs.) is a landlocked Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands of England. It borders Cheshire to the northwest, Derbyshire and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to ...

Staffordshire
,
Warwickshire Warwickshire (; abbreviated Warks) is a Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. The county town is Warwick, and the largest town is Nuneaton. The county is famous for being the birthplace of W ...

Warwickshire
,
Worcestershire Worcestershire ( , ; written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh ...

Worcestershire
and the West Midlands metropolitan boroughs. If not following the official regional boundaries, the Midlands may also include
Peterborough Peterborough () is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and unitary authority#United Kingdom, unitary authority area in Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 202,110 in 2017. Originally part of Northamptonshire, it became p ...

Peterborough
(
historically History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered ...
part of Northamptonshire),
Finningley Finningley is a village and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster, in South Yorkshire, England. Historic counties of England, Historically in Nottinghamshire, it lies on the A614 road about six miles fro ...

Finningley
(historically part of Nottinghamshire), and the aforementioned boroughs of Lincolnshire. Additionally, there is an informal region known as the
South Midlands The South Midlands is a notional area of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwes ...
which is considered to include the southern parts of the East Midlands and northern parts of
Southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernmost part, with cultural, economic and political differences from the Midlands The Midlands is the central part of England ...

Southern England
. Conversely, although the northern parts of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire are officially part of the Midlands, they are often considered to be in
Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England. There are three Regions of England, statistical regions defined as northern England: the North East England, North East; the North Wes ...

Northern England
, with northern Derbyshire (areas of which were historically in
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in North West England, northwest England. It is bordered by Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and ...
) lying close to the cities of
Sheffield Sheffield is a city status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. The name derives from the River Sheaf which runs through the city. It is a Historic counties of England, historic part of Yorkshire, alt ...

Sheffield
and
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough in North West England North West England is one of nine official regions of England and consists of the counties of Cheshire, Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial cou ...

Manchester
, and northern Nottinghamshire lying close to Sheffield. However, they are included in the
North Midlands The North Midlands is a loosely defined area of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies nor ...
informal region which covers the northern parts of the West and East Midlands, along with some southern parts of Northern England.


Divisions

The
West MidlandsWest Midlands may refer to: Places * West Midlands (region), a region of the United Kingdom **West Midlands (county), the metropolitan county in the West Midlands region ** West Midlands conurbation, the large conurbation in the West Midlands region ...
and
East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Linco ...
regions are NUTS 1 statistical regions and were formerly
constituencies An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state Sta ...
of the
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three Legislature, legislative branches of the European Union and one of its seven Institutions of the European Union, institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legis ...

European Parliament
. Local government in the Midlands is as follows: *Boroughs: (1)
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is the second-largest city, urban area and ESPON metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom, metropoli ...

Birmingham
, (2)
Coventry Coventry ( or ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is on the River Sherbourne. Coventry has been a large settlement for centuries, although it was not founded and given its ci ...
, (3)
Derby Derby ( ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent, Derbyshire, River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, of which i ...

Derby
, (4)
Dudley Dudley is a market town and administrative centre in the county of West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England, south-east of Wolverhampton and north-west of Birmingham. Historically an exclave of Worcestershire, the town is the administrat ...
, (5)
Leicester Leicester is a city status in the United Kingdom, city, Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority and the county town of Leicestershire in the East Midlands of England. The city lies on the River Soar and close to the eastern end of ...

Leicester
, (6)
Nottingham Nottingham ( ) is a city status in the United Kingdom, city and Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England. Part of the East Midlands region, it is north of London and northeast of Birmingham. Nottingha ...

Nottingham
, (7)
Sandwell Sandwell is a metropolitan borough of the West Midlands (county), West Midlands county in England. The borough is named after the Sandwell Priory, and spans a densely populated part of the West Midlands conurbation. According to Sandwell Metropoli ...
, (8)
Stoke-on-Trent Stoke-on-Trent (often abbreviated to Stoke) is a city and Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Staffordshire, England, with an area of . In 2019, the city had an estimated population of 256,375. It is the largest settlement ...
, (9)
Solihull Solihull (, or ) is a large market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from ...
, (10)
Telford and Wrekin Telford and Wrekin is a unitary authority A unitary authority is a local authority for a place's borough which is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant coun ...
, (11)
Walsall Walsall (, or ; locally ) is a market town and administrative centre in West Midlands (county), West Midlands County, England. Historic counties of England, Historically part of Staffordshire, it is located north-west of Birmingham, east of Wo ...
and (12)
Wolverhampton Wolverhampton () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rout ...

Wolverhampton
. *Shires: (13)
Derbyshire Derbyshire (; or ) is a county in the East Midlands of England. It includes much of the Peak District, Peak District National Park, the southern end of the Pennines, Pennine range of hills, and part of the The National Forest (England), Nationa ...
(''Districts: (a)
Amber Valley Amber Valley is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district and Borough#Other current uses, borough in the east of Derbyshire, England. It takes its name from the River Amber. It covers a semi-rural zone with four main towns whose econ ...
, (b)
Bolsover Bolsover is a market town and the administrative centre of the Bolsover (borough), Bolsover District, Derbyshire, England. It is 145 miles (233 km) from London, 18 miles (29 km) from Sheffield, 26 miles (42 ...
, (c) Chesterfield, (d) Derbyshire Dales, (e) Borough of Erewash, Erewash, (f) High Peak, Derbyshire, High Peak, (g) North East Derbyshire and (h) South Derbyshire''), (14)
Herefordshire Herefordshire () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William ...

Herefordshire
(''Districts: none''), (15)
Leicestershire Leicestershire (; postal abbreviation Leics.) is a landlocked Counties of England, county in the England, English Midlands (England), Midlands, being within the East Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to th ...

Leicestershire
(''Districts: (a) Blaby (district), Blaby, (b) Charnwood (borough), Charnwood, (c) Harborough District, Harborough, (d) Hinckley and Bosworth, (e) Melton (borough), Melton, (f) North West Leicestershire and (g) Oadby and Wigston''), (16)
Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain mode ...

Lincolnshire
(''Districts: (a) Boston (borough), Boston, (b) East Lindsey, (c) Lincoln, Lincolnshire, Lincoln, (d) North Kesteven, (e) South Holland, Lincolnshire, South Holland, (f) South Kesteven and (g) West Lindsey''), (17)
Northamptonshire Northamptonshire (; abbreviated Northants.), archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a county in the East Midlands of England. In 2015 it had a population of 723,000. The county A county is a geographical region of a country us ...

Northamptonshire
(''Districts: (a) Corby (borough), Corby, (b) Daventry (district), Daventry, (c) East Northamptonshire, (d) Kettering (borough), Kettering, (e) Northampton, (f) South Northamptonshire and (g) Wellingborough (borough), Wellingborough''), (18)
Nottinghamshire Nottinghamshire (; abbreviated Notts.) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west. The traditional county t ...

Nottinghamshire
(''Districts: (a) Ashfield, Nottinghamshire, Ashfield, (b) Bassetlaw District, Bassetlaw, (c) Borough of Broxtowe, Broxtowe, (d) Borough of Gedling, Gedling, (e) Mansfield (district), Mansfield, (f) Newark and Sherwood and (g) Rushcliffe''), (19)
Rutland Rutland () is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire. Its greatest length north to south is onl ...

Rutland
(''Districts: none''), (20)
Shropshire Shropshire (; alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian ,) is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (e ...

Shropshire
(''Districts: none''), (21)
Staffordshire Staffordshire (; postal abbreviation Staffs.) is a landlocked Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands of England. It borders Cheshire to the northwest, Derbyshire and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to ...

Staffordshire
(''Districts: (a) Cannock Chase (district), Cannock Chase, (b) East Staffordshire, (c) Lichfield (district), Lichfield, (d) Newcastle-under-Lyme (borough), Newcastle-under-Lyme, (e) South Staffordshire, (f) Stafford (borough), Stafford, (g) Staffordshire Moorlands and (h) Tamworth (borough), Tamworth''), (22)
Warwickshire Warwickshire (; abbreviated Warks) is a Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. The county town is Warwick, and the largest town is Nuneaton. The county is famous for being the birthplace of W ...

Warwickshire
(''Districts: (a) North Warwickshire, (b) Nuneaton and Bedworth, (c) Rugby (borough), Rugby, (d) Stratford-on-Avon (district), Stratford-on-Avon and (e) Warwick (district), Warwick'') and (23)
Worcestershire Worcestershire ( , ; written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh ...

Worcestershire
(''Districts: (a) Bromsgrove (district), Bromsgrove, (b) Malvern Hills (district), Malvern Hills, (c) Redditch, (d) Worcester, England, Worcester, (e) Wychavon and (f) Wyre Forest (district), Wyre Forest''). The unitary authorities of
North Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Lincolnshire, England, with a population of 167,446 in the 2011 census. There are six significant towns: Scunthorpe, Brigg, Haxey, Crowle, Lincolnshire, Crowle, Ep ...
and
North East Lincolnshire North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ...
(not shown), while classed as part of the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire, actually come under the Yorkshire and the Humber region and are therefore not in the officially recognised East Midlands region. The two regions of the Midlands have a combined population of 10,350,697 (2014 mid-year estimate), and an area of . The largest Midlands conurbation, which includes the cities of
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is the second-largest city, urban area and ESPON metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom, metropoli ...

Birmingham
and
Wolverhampton Wolverhampton () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rout ...

Wolverhampton
, is roughly covered by the metropolitan county of the West Midlands (county), West Midlands (which also includes the city of
Coventry Coventry ( or ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is on the River Sherbourne. Coventry has been a large settlement for centuries, although it was not founded and given its ci ...
); with the related City region (United Kingdom), City Region extending into neighbouring areas of
Shropshire Shropshire (; alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian ,) is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (e ...

Shropshire
,
Staffordshire Staffordshire (; postal abbreviation Staffs.) is a landlocked Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands of England. It borders Cheshire to the northwest, Derbyshire and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to ...

Staffordshire
,
Warwickshire Warwickshire (; abbreviated Warks) is a Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. The county town is Warwick, and the largest town is Nuneaton. The county is famous for being the birthplace of W ...

Warwickshire
and
Worcestershire Worcestershire ( , ; written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh ...

Worcestershire
. Various parts of the Midlands, particularly Warwickshire and Leicestershire, are on occasion referred to as the Heart of England, especially in tourist literature given that the geographic centre of England is generally considered to lie within this arc. Different areas of the Midlands have their own distinctive character, giving rise to many local history and industrial heritage groups.
Nottingham Nottingham ( ) is a city status in the United Kingdom, city and Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England. Part of the East Midlands region, it is north of London and northeast of Birmingham. Nottingha ...

Nottingham
played a notable part in the English Civil War, which is commemorated in a number of place names (Parliament Terrace, Parliament Street, Standard Hill). Areas such as Derbyshire's
Amber Valley Amber Valley is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district and Borough#Other current uses, borough in the east of Derbyshire, England. It takes its name from the River Amber. It covers a semi-rural zone with four main towns whose econ ...
and Borough of Erewash, Erewash combine attractive countryside with industrial heritage and are home to historic canals and sites associated with the mining industry. The Black Country, broadly the boroughs of County Borough of Dudley, Dudley,
Sandwell Sandwell is a metropolitan borough of the West Midlands (county), West Midlands county in England. The borough is named after the Sandwell Priory, and spans a densely populated part of the West Midlands conurbation. According to Sandwell Metropoli ...
, County Borough of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton and County Borough of Walsall, Walsall, played an important part in the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be ...
.


Historic counties

The historic counties ceased to be used for any administrative purpose in 1899 but remain important to some people, notably for county cricket. * * * * * * * * * * *


Geography

The area is predominantly low-lying and flat apart from isolated hills such as Turners Hill, West Midlands, Turners Hill within the Black Country conurbation (at 271 m / 889 ft) with extensive views. Upland areas lie in the west and north of the region with the Shropshire Hills to the west, close to the England–Wales border and the Peak District area of the southern Pennines in the north of the region. The Shropshire Hills reach a height of 540 m (1,771 ft) at Brown Clee Hill and includes the Long Mynd, Clee Hills and Stiperstones ridge. Wenlock Edge, running through the middle of the Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), is a long, low ridge, which extends for over . The Peak District reaches heights of between 300 m and 600 m; Kinder Scout is the highest point at 636 m (2,086 ft). Further south, the Welsh border reaches over 700 m high, at Black Mountain (hill), Black Mountain, which at 703 m (2,306 ft) is thus the highest point in
Herefordshire Herefordshire () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William ...

Herefordshire
. The Malvern Hills, Malverns are formed of some of the oldest rock in England (around 680 million years old) and extend for through two
West MidlandsWest Midlands may refer to: Places * West Midlands (region), a region of the United Kingdom **West Midlands (county), the metropolitan county in the West Midlands region ** West Midlands conurbation, the large conurbation in the West Midlands region ...
counties (
Worcestershire Worcestershire ( , ; written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh ...

Worcestershire
and
Herefordshire Herefordshire () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William ...

Herefordshire
) as well as northern Gloucestershire in the South West England, southwest. The highest point of the hills is the Worcestershire Beacon at 425 m (1,394 ft) above sea level (OS Grid reference SO768452).
Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain mode ...

Lincolnshire
is also the only coastal county in the Midlands as the region is bordered by Wales to the west. The Cotswolds – designated an AONB in 1966. – extend for over through Oxfordshire, Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Somerset,
Warwickshire Warwickshire (; abbreviated Warks) is a Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. The county town is Warwick, and the largest town is Nuneaton. The county is famous for being the birthplace of W ...

Warwickshire
, and
Worcestershire Worcestershire ( , ; written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh ...

Worcestershire
. They reach a highest point of 330 m (1,082 ft) at Cleeve Hill, Gloucestershire, Cleeve Hill. Areas of lower hills, in the range 200 m - 300 m, include Charnwood Forest in
Leicestershire Leicestershire (; postal abbreviation Leics.) is a landlocked Counties of England, county in the England, English Midlands (England), Midlands, being within the East Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to th ...

Leicestershire
, Cannock Chase in
Staffordshire Staffordshire (; postal abbreviation Staffs.) is a landlocked Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands of England. It borders Cheshire to the northwest, Derbyshire and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to ...

Staffordshire
, and the Lincolnshire Wolds (100 m - 200 m); the latter having some prominence despite their modest altitude given their location in typically low-lying
Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain mode ...

Lincolnshire
near to the east coast.


Climate

The Midlands has a temperate maritime climate, with cold, cloudy, wet winters and comfortable, mostly dry, mostly sunny summers. The temperature usually ranges from during winter nights to during summer days. Due to its geographical location, which is furthest away from the coast than anywhere else in England, it typically receives mostly light winds, with warm days and cold nights. Sometimes the Midlands can have very cold nights such as a minimum of in Pershore on 20 December 2010. The previous day had a maximum of only , also in Pershore. Hot days are also possible, such as a maximum of in Pershore on 19 July 2006. There can also be very mild winters nights, such as in Bidford-on-Avon when the temperature at 6 pm was as high as on 9 January 2015. At 8 am the following morning the temperature was still at .Record heat July 2006 http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/interesting/july2006/


See also

* Subdivisions of England * *


References


Further reading

* Allen, R.C. ''Enclosure and the Yeoman: the Agricultural Development of the South Midlands 1450-1850'' (Oxford UP, 1992) * Beckett, John V. ''The East Midlands from AD 1000'' (Addison-Wesley Longman, 1988). * Bennett, Michael J. "Sir Gawain and the green knight and the literary achievement of the north-west Midlands: the historical background." ''Journal of Medieval History'' 5.1 (1979): 63–88. * Betteridge, Alan. ''Deep Roots, Living Branches: A History of Baptists in the English Western Midlands'' (Troubador Publishing Ltd, 2010). * Dewindt, Edwin Brezett, and Edwin Brezette DeWindt. ''Land and people in Holywell-cum-Needingworth: structures of tenure and patterns of social organization in an East Midlands village, 1252-1457'' (PIMS, 1972). * Donnelly, Tom, Jason Begley, and Clive Collis. "The West Midlands automotive industry: the road downhill." ''Business History'' 59.1 (2017): 56-7
online
* Finberg, H.P.R. ''The early charters of the West Midlands'' (Leicester University Press, 1972). * Gelling, Margaret. ''The West Midlands in the Early Middle Ages'' (Leicester UP, 1992). * Hilton, R. H. ''A Medieval Society: The West Midlands at the End of the Thirteenth Century'' (1987
online review
* Jones, Peter M. ''Industrial Enlightenment: Science, technology and culture in Birmingham and the West Midlands, 1760–1820'' (2017
online
* Laughton, Jane, Evan Jones, and Christopher Dyer. "The urban hierarchy in the later Middle Ages: a study of the East Midlands." ''Urban history'' (2001): 331–357. * McWhirr, A. L. A. N. ''The Early Military History of the Roman East Midlands'' (1970
online
* Money, John. "Birmingham and the West Midlands, 1760-1793: Politics and Regional Identity in the English Provinces in the Later Eighteenth Century." ''Midland History'' 1.1 (1971): 1–19. * Money, John. ''Experience and Identity: Birmingham and the West Midlands, 1760-1800'' (Manchester University Press, 1977). * Rowlands, Marie B. ''The West Midlands from AD 1000'' (3 vol, Longman, 1987). * Somerset, Alan. "New Historicism: Old History Writ Large? Carnival, Festivity and Popular Culture in the West Midlands." ''Medieval & Renaissance Drama in England'' 5 (1991): 245–255
online
* Stafford, Pauline. ''The East Midlands in the Early Middle Ages'' ( Leicester University, 1985). * Stobart, Jon. "Regions, Localities, and Industrialisation: Evidence from the East Midlands Circa 1780–1840." ''Environment and Planning A'' 33.7 (2001): 1305–1325. * Tompkins, Matthew. ''Peasant society in a midlands manor, Great Horwood 1400-1600'' (PhD Diss. U of Leicester, 2006
online
* Townsend, Claire. "County versus region? Migrational connections in the East Midlands, 1700–1830." ''Journal of Historical Geography'' 32.2 (2006): 291–312. {{DEFAULTSORT:Midlands Regions of England East Midlands, *The Midlands West Midlands (region), *The Midlands