MIDLAND is a city in and the county seat of Midland County,
At the 2010 census , the population of Midland was 111,147, and a
2015 estimate gave a total of 132,950, making it the twenty-fourth
most populous city in the state of
Midland was founded as the midway point between
Fort Worth and El
Paso on the
* 1 History
* 1.1 Avery v. Midland County
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 Demographics * 4 Economy * 5 Cityscape
* 6 Culture
* 6.1 Galleries * 6.2 Performing arts * 6.3 Tourism * 6.4 Sports * 6.5 Visiting lectures
* 7 Government
* 7.1 Local government * 7.2 State and federal representation
* 8 Education
* 8.1 Colleges and universities * 8.2 Schools * 8.3 Libraries
* 9 Media
* 9.1 Newspapers * 9.2 Radio * 9.3 Television
* 10 Transportation
* 10.1 Air * 10.2 Road * 10.3 Rail
* 11 Notable people * 12 Sister cities * 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 External links
See also: Timeline of Midland,
Midland was established in June 1881 as Midway Station, on the Texas
and Pacific Railway . It earned its name because of its central
Fort Worth and El Paso, but because there were
already other towns in
Midland became the county seat of Midland County in March 1885, when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County .
By 1890, it had become one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state. The city was incorporated in 1906, and by 1910 the city established its first fire department, along with a new water system.
Midland was changed significantly by the discovery of oil in the
Permian Basin in 1923 when the Santa Rita No. 1 well began producing
Reagan County , followed shortly by the
Yates Oil Field in Iraan .
Soon, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the
Midland's economy still relies heavily on petroleum; however, the city has also diversified to become a regional telecommunications and distribution center. By August 2006, a busy period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were almost 2,000 more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them.
John Howard Griffin
AVERY V. MIDLAND COUNTY
In 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court heard the case of Avery v. Midland County . Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County, challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioner's Court. The county districts geographically quartered the county, but the city of Midland, in the northwestern quarter, accounted for 97% of the county's population. A judge, elected on an at-large basis, provided a fifth vote, but the result was that the three rural commissioners, representing only three percent of the county's population, held a majority of the votes.
The majority of the U.S. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendment 's Equal Protection clause . The dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Court's policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Court's constitutional authority.
Midland is located at 32°0′N 102°6′W / 32.000°N
102.100°W / 32.000; -102.100 (32.005, −102.099), in the
Permian Basin in the plains of West
According to the
Midland features a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh or BSk) with long, hot summers and short, moderate winters. The city is occasionally subject to cold waves during the winter, but it rarely sees extended periods of below-freezing cold. Midland receives approximately 14.6 inches (370 mm) of precipitation per year, much of which falls in the summer. Highs exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on 101 days per year, and 100 °F (38 °C) on 16 days.
CLIMATE DATA FOR MIDLAND, TEXAS
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 84 (29) 90 (32) 97 (36) 101 (38) 108 (42) 116 (47) 112 (44) 107 (42) 107 (42) 101 (38) 90 (32) 85 (29) 116 (47)
AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 57.4 (14.1) 62.5 (16.9) 70.2 (21.2) 79.2 (26.2) 87.6 (30.9) 93.4 (34.1) 94.6 (34.8) 93.6 (34.2) 86.9 (30.5) 77.9 (25.5) 66.6 (19.2) 58.1 (14.5) 77.3 (25.2)
AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 30.3 (−0.9) 34.6 (1.4) 41.0 (5) 49.3 (9.6) 59.5 (15.3) 67.3 (19.6) 69.7 (20.9) 68.8 (20.4) 62.0 (16.7) 51.8 (11) 39.2 (4) 30.9 (−0.6) 50.4 (10.2)
RECORD LOW °F (°C) −8 (−22) −11 (−24) 9 (−13) 20 (−7) 34 (1) 47 (8) 49 (9) 52 (11) 36 (2) 27 (−3) 10 (−12) −1 (−18) −11 (−24)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) .56 (14.2) .71 (18) .60 (15.2) .65 (16.5) 1.75 (44.4) 1.80 (45.7) 1.82 (46.2) 1.84 (46.7) 1.86 (47.2) 1.73 (43.9) .69 (17.5) .60 (15.2) 14.61 (370.7)
AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 2.1 (5.3) .7 (1.8) .2 (0.5) .1 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) .5 (1.3) 1.4 (3.6) 5 (12.8)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 3.9 3.4 2.6 3.2 6.2 4.9 5.0 5.8 6.0 4.7 3.1 3.6 52.4
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 IN) 1.6 .7 .2 .1 0 0 0 0 0 .1 .3 .9 3.9
Source: National Weather Service
EST. 2016 134,610
At the 2010 census , 111,149 people, 41,268 households, and 32,607 families resided in Midland. The population density was 1,558.9 people per square mile (550.6/km²). There were 47,562 housing units at an average density of 667.1 per square mile (231.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 75.51% White, 8.37% African American, 0.63% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 12.49% from other races, and 1.96% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 28.99% of the population.
Of the 41,268 households, 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were opposite-sex married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.3% were made up of same-sex relationships, non-family habitations, or other habitation arrangements . About 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the city, the population was distributed as 29.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.
In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $39,320, and for a family was $48,290. Males had a median income of $37,566 versus $24,794 for females. The per capita income for the city in 2007 was $52,294. In 2000, about 10.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line , including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 8.0% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2014, Midland has the lowest unemployment rate in the United States at 2.3%. According to the city's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top ten employers in the city are:
# EMPLOYER # OF EMPLOYEES
2 Dawson Geophysical 1,244
3 Midland Memorial Hospital and Medical Center 1,670
6 Midland College 735
8 Warren Equipment Companies 597
9 Midland County 541
10 Concho Resources 509
See also: Category:Buildings and structures in Midland,
Nicknamed "The Tall City", Midland has long been known for its
downtown skyline. Most of downtown Midland's major office buildings
were built during a time of major Permian Basin oil and gas
discoveries. The surge in energy prices in the mid-1980s sparked a
building boom for downtown Midland. For many years, the 22-story Wilco
Building in downtown Midland was the tallest building between Fort
Worth and Phoenix . Today, the tallest is the 24-story Bank of America
Building , which stands at a height of 332 feet (101 m). Four
buildings over 500 feet (150 m) tall were planned in the 1980s,
including one designed by architect
I.M. Pei . The great oil bust of
the mid-1980s killed any plans for future skyscrapers. A private
development group was planning to build Energy Tower at
Another glimpse of downtown Midland *
Summit Building(center) with the Wilco Building in the background *
The Petroleum Building with Centennial Tower to the right *
Kinder Morgan Building *
Doubletree Hotel in downtown Midland *
Yucca Theater at the Petroleum Building *
First Presbyterian Church in Midland *
Another glimpse of downtown from Ohio Ave.
Midland College is home to the McCormick Gallery, located inside the Allison Fine Arts Building, on the college's main campus. Throughout the year, changing exhibits at the McCormick feature works of MC students and faculty, visiting artists, and juried exhibits. The Arts Council of Midland serves as the promotional and public relations vehicle to promote the arts and stimulate community participation and support. The McCormick is also home to the Studio 3600 Series, established in 2006 to "spotlight selected art students and provide them the opportunity to exhibit key works that identify the style they have crafted over a period of time."
The Midland-Odessa Symphony and Chorale (MOSC) has performed in the
Permian Basin for over 45 years, and is the region's largest
orchestral organization, presenting both Pops and Masterworks concerts
throughout the year. Composed of professional musicians from the area
as well as Lubbock , San Angelo and other surrounding cities, the MOSC
also is home to three resident chamber ensembles, the Lone Star Brass,
Permian Basin String Quartet and West
The Chateau Club on Wall Street hosted some musical greats in the early 1970s. Managed by D.M. Williams , Club Chateau's house band consisted of a line up of some of the nation's best known R"> Entrance to the Permian Basin Petroleum Museum , scheduled for renovation in 2014
Sitting on the southern edge of the
Llano Estacado and located near
the center of the Permian Basin oil fields, Midland's economy has long
been focused on petroleum exploration and extraction. Providing more
information about this industry is the Permian Basin Petroleum Museum
, located on the outskirts of town near Interstate 20. The museum
houses numerous displays on the history, science, and technology of
oil and gas development. The
Permian Basin Petroleum Museum houses a
collection of race cars designed by Jim Hall , a long time Midland
resident who pioneered the use of aerodynamic downforce in the design
of Formula One cars. Main Street of Midland,
Midland is also home to The Museum of the Southwest. The museum features a collection of paintings by various members of the Taos Society of Artists and Karl Bodmer as well as engravings by John J. and John W. Audubon. Located within the same museum complex are the separate Children's Museum and the Marian W. Blakemore Planetarium. The Museum of the Southwest is housed in the Turner Mansion, the historic 1934 home of Fred and Juliette Turner.
On display at the Midland County Historical Museum are reproductions of the "Midland Man," the skeleton of a Clovis female found near the city in 1953. Analysis of the remains by Dr. Curtis R. McKinney using uranium-thorium analysis showed that the bones are 11,600 ± 800 years old. Presenting his findings at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in 1992, Dr. McKinney said, "he Midland Woman was related to the earliest ancestors of every Indian who lives today, and she is very likely the only representative of those who created the Clovis cultures."
Midland is home to the
Midland RockHounds , a
Midland is home to the West
Midland College is a member of the Western Junior College Athletic Conference , and fields teams in baseball, men's basketball, women's basketball, men's golf, softball and volleyball. Midland College has won 20 national championships in sports since 1975, as well as produced 192 All-Americans.
Plans have been made to develop a 35 court tennis facility named the Bush Tennis Center .
Midland is also home to the Midland Mad Dog Rugby Club, which
competes in the
Twice each year, the Davidson Distinguished Lectures Series at
Midland College presents free public lectures by "nationally-known
speakers whose academic accomplishments, civic leadership, and/or
public achievements interest, enrich, and enlighten Midland students
and citizens." The series was endowed in 1996, and has since brought
a diverse selection of speakers to Midland, including
The former Midland County Courthouse on Wall Street looking north from the Midland Doubletree towers
According to the city's 2008 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $57.3 million in revenues, $53.0 million in expenditures, $363.4 million in total assets, $133.9 million in total liabilities, and $75.0 million in cash and investments.
STATE AND FEDERAL REPRESENTATION
On the federal level, Midland residents are represented in the US
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
Midland is the home of
Midland College (MC), which offers a variety
of over 50 programs of study for associate degrees and certificates to
more than 6,000 students who enroll each semester. MC offers programs
in health sciences, information technology, and aviation, including a
professional pilot training program. MC is one of only three community
Midland is also the home for the physician assistant program offered
Midland is the home to three local public high schools: Midland High School , Robert E. Lee High School and Early College High School (ECHS) at Midland College, all three of which are part of the Midland Independent School District . Another school district is located just outside of Midland, Greenwood Independent School District , containing Greenwood High and a middle and elementary school.
ECHS welcomed its first freshman class on August 24, 2009. The goal for ECHS is to award students their associate degrees from Midland College by the time they receive their high school diplomas.
Also, there are many private schools in Midland, including Hillcrest School, Hillander, Midland Classical Academy, Midland Christian School, Midland Montessori, St. Ann's School, and Trinity School of Midland, among others. Midland is also home to three charter schools: Richard Milburn Academy, Premier High School , and Midland Academy Charter School.
* Midland County Library http://www.co.midland.tx.us/departments/lib/Pages/default.aspx * Haley Memorial Library and History Center * Murray L. Fasken Learning Resource Center at Midland College
Midland is served by the Midland Reporter-Telegram .
* KLFB 88.1 FM (Religious) * KFRI 88.7 FM (Christian Contemporary) * KBMM 89.5 FM (Religious) * KLVW 90.5 FM (Christian Contemporary) * KVDG 90.9 FM (Spanish) * KXWT 91.3 FM (Public Radio) * WJFM 91.7 FM (Gospel Music) * KNFM 92.3 FM (Country) * KZBT 93.3 FM (Hip-Hop) * KACD 94.1 FM (Spanish) * KTXO 94.7 FM (Country) * KQRX 95.1 FM (Rock) * KMRK-FM 96.1 FM (Country) * KMCM 96.9 FM (Oldies) * KODM 97.9 FM (Adult Contemporary) * KHKX 99.1 FM (Country) * KMTH 99.5 FM (Public Radio) * KBAT 99.9 FM (Rock) * KMMZ 101.3 FM (Regional Mexican) * KFZX 102.1 FM (Classic Rock) * KCRS 103.3 FM (Top-40) * KTXC 104.7 FM (Regional Mexican) * KCHX 106.7 FM (Adult Contemporary) * KWEL 107.1 FM (Talk) * KQLM 107.9 FM (Spanish) * KCRS 550 AM (News/Talk) * KXOI 810 AM (Spanish) * KFLB 920 AM (Religious) * KWEL 1070 AM (Talk) * KLPF 1180 AM (Religious) * KMND 1510 AM (Sports)
Midland is served by nine local television stations:
KMID , an ABC
KWES-TV , an
Many major motion pictures have been filmed in and around Midland,
including Hangar 18 , Waltz Across
In the Heroes television series, the Midland-Odessa area is a focal point for many of the first season's episodes, serving as the home for the Bennet family, and as the location of a recurring restaurant, the Burnt Toast Diner.
* Midland is served by Midland International Air and Space Port (ICAO code: KMAF, IATA code: MAF), which is located between Odessa and Midland. * Midland Airpark (ICAO code: KMDD, IATA code: MDD) is a general aviation airport located on Midland's northeast side.
* I-20 (Interstate 20)
* BL I-20 (Wall Street/Front Street)
* SH 140 (Florida Street)
* SH 158 (Garden
Midland was the site of the 2012 Midland train crash , in which a train collided with a parade float carrying wounded military veterans, killing four.
Midland also has citywide public bus services provided for the Midland-Odessa Urban Transit District by Midland-Odessa Transit Management, otherwise known as E-Z Rider.
Main article: List of people from Midland,
Midland has four sister cities around the world.
* ^ A B "Table 2. Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined
Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (CBSA-EST2007-02)".
2007 Population Estimates.
See also: Bibliography of the history of Midland,
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