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Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic[1]) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man from the 10th to 12th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English
Old English
and early Middle English.[2][3] The modern Goidelic languages—Irish, Scottish and Manx—are all descendants of Middle Irish. The Lebor Bretnach, the "Irish Nennius", survives only from manuscripts preserved in Ireland; however, Thomas Owen Clancy has argued that it was written in Scotland, at the monastery in Abernethy.[4]

Contents

1 Grammar 2 Notes 3 Further reading 4 See also

Grammar[edit] Middle Irish is a fusional, VSO, nominative-accusative language. Nouns decline for two genders: masculine, feminine, though traces of neuter declension persist; three numbers: singular, dual, plural; and five cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, prepositional, vocative. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number, and case. Verbs conjugate for three tenses: past, present, future; four moods: indicative, subjunctive, conditional, imperative; independent and dependent forms. Verbs conjugate for three persons and an impersonal, agentless form (agent). There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative, interrogative, subjunctive, relative clauses, etc. Prepositions inflect for person and number. Different prepositions govern different cases, depending on intended semantics. Notes[edit]

^ Mittleman, Josh. "Concerning the name Deirdre". Medieval Scotland. Retrieved 13 February 2013. Early Gaelic (a.k.a. Old Irish) is the form of Gaelic used in Ireland
Ireland
and parts of Scotland
Scotland
from roughly 600–900 AD. Middle Gaelic (a.k.a. Middle Irish) was used from roughly 900–1200 AD, while Common Classical Gaelic (a.k.a. Early Modern Irish, Common Literary Gaelic, etc.) was used from roughly 1200–1700 AD  ^ Mac Eoin, Gearóid (1993). "Irish". In Martin J. Ball. The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 101–44. ISBN 0-415-01035-7.  ^ Breatnach, Liam (1994). "An Mheán-Ghaeilge". In K. McCone; D. McManus; C. Ó Háinle; N. Williams; L. Breatnach. Stair na Gaeilge in ómós do Pádraig Ó Fiannachta (in Irish). Maynooth: Department of Old Irish, St. Patrick's College. pp. 221–333. ISBN 0-901519-90-1.  ^ Clancy, Thomas Owen (2000). "Scotland, the 'Nennian' recension of the Historia Brittonum, and the Lebor Bretnach". In Simon Taylor. Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500-1297. Dublin & Portland: Four Courts Press. pp. 87–107. ISBN 1-85182-516-9. 

Further reading[edit]

MacManus, Damian (1983). "A chronology of the Latin loan words in early Irish". Ériu. 34: 21–71.  McCone, Kim (1978). "The dative singular of Old Irish consonant stems". Ériu. 29: 26–38.  McCone, Kim (1981). "Final /t/ to /d/ after unstressed vowels, and an Old Irish sound law". Ériu. 31: 29–44.  McCone, Kim (1996). "Prehistoric, Old and Middle Irish". Progress in medieval Irish studies. pp. 7–53.  McCone, Kim (2005). A First Old Irish Grammar and Reader, Including an Introduction to Middle Irish. Maynooth Medieval Irish Texts 3. Maynooth. 

See also[edit]

For a list of words relating to Middle Irish, see the Middle Irish language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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