Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish
kingdom which was created in 843 by the
Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun after an
intermittent civil war between the grandsons of
in division of the united empire. Middle
Francia was allocated to
emperor Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of emperor Louis the
Pious. His realm contained the imperial cities of Aachen, the
residence of Charlemagne, as well as
Pavia but lacked any geographic
or ethnic cohesion which prevented it from surviving and forming a
nucleus of a larger state, as was the case with West
Francia and East
Francia was situated between the realms of East and West
Francia, and comprised the Frankish territory between the rivers Rhine
and Scheldt, the Frisian coast of the North Sea, the former Kingdom of
Burgundy (except for a western portion, later known as Bourgogne) and
Provence, as well as parts of northern Italy. Following the 855
Francia became only a geographic term and the bulk
of its territory was reorganized as Lotharingia, named after Lothair
I's namesake son.
1 Partition of 855
2 Later partitions
Partition of 855
In 855, on his deathbed at Prüm Abbey, Emperor
Lothair I with the
Treaty of Prüm
Treaty of Prüm divided Middle
Francia among his three sons. The lands
in northern Italy, which extended as far south as Rome and Spoleto,
were left to the eldest son Louis II the Younger, crowned co-Emperor
in 850 and sole Emperor from 855. This eventually became the Kingdom
of Italy. Most of the lands north of the Alps, comprising the Low
Countries, the western Rhineland, the lands today on the border
France and Germany, and what is now western Switzerland,
Lothair II and were called Lotharingia, after its ruler.
Kingdom of Burgundy
Kingdom of Burgundy (
Upper Burgundy and Lower
Burgundy) and Provence, which became the Kingdom of Arles, after
Partitions of 843 and 870
Charles died early and without sons in 863. According to a Frankish
custom, his brothers Louis II and
Lothair II divided his realm.
Lothair II received the western Lower Burgundian parts (bishoprics of
Vivarais and Uzès) which were bordering his western
Upper Burgundy (remnants of his original Burgundian possessions) which
were incorporated into Lotharingia; while Louis II received the
Kingdom of Provence.
Lothair II died in 869, his only son Hugh by his mistress
Waldrada, was declared illegitimate, so his only legal heir was his
brother, Louis II. If Louis II had inherited Lotharingia, Middle
Francia would have been reunited. However, as Louis II was at that
time campaigning against the Emirate of Bari,
partitioned between his uncles
Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald and Louis the German
Treaty of Meerssen
Treaty of Meerssen in 870.
Louis the German
Louis the German took Upper
Burgundy, territory north of the Jura mountains (Bourgogne
Transjurane), while the rest went to Charles the Bald.
In 875 the last of Lothair I's children Louis II died without sons and
named as his successor in Italy his cousin Carloman of Bavaria, eldest
son of Louis the German. However, Pope John VIII, dealing with the
constant threat of raiders from the Emirate of Sicily, sided with
Charles the Bald. After much confusion and conflict, Charles the
Bald took Louis' realm in Italy. Carloman was crowned King of Bavaria
in 876 and invaded Italy in 877 to claim the Kingdom of Italy, but on
his death in 880 also without any legitimate heirs, his kingdom went
to his younger brother, king Charles the Fat. Charles was crowned
Pope John VIII
Pope John VIII in 881 and thus he reunited the entire
Carolingian Empire in 884, although it lasted only until Charles'
overthrow in 887.
^ Engreen 1945, p. 325.
John M. Riddle: A History of the Middle Ages: 300–1500. Rowman &
Littlefield Publishers, 2008. ISBN 978-0742554092.
Timothy Reuter (ed.): The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 3: c.
900–c. 1024. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Engreen, Fred E. (1945). "Pope John the Eighth and the Arabs".
Speculum. 20 (3): 318–30. doi:10.2