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Middle Eastern studies
Middle Eastern studies
(sometimes referred to as Near Eastern studies) is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the history, culture, politics, economies, and geography of the Middle East, an area that is generally interpreted to cover a range of nations including Israel, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman. It is considered a form of area studies, taking an overtly interdisciplinary approach to the study of a region. In this sense Middle Eastern Studies is a far broader and less traditional field than classical Islamic Studies. The subject was historically regarded as part of Oriental studies, which also included East Asian studies and Egyptology
Egyptology
and other specialisms in the ancient civilizations of the region; the growth of the field of study in the West is treated at that article. Many academic faculties still cover both areas. Although some academic programs combine Middle Eastern Studies with Islamic Studies, based on the preponderance of Muslims in the region (with Israel
Israel
and Lebanon being the only exceptions), others maintain these areas of study as separate disciplines.

Contents

1 Contentious issues 2 Academic centers 3 See also 4 References

4.1 Bibliography

5 External links

5.1 Library guides to Middle-Eastern studies

Contentious issues[edit] In 1978 Edward Said, a Palestinian American professor of Comparative Literature at Columbia University, published his book Orientalism, in which he accused earlier scholars of a "subtle and persistent Eurocentric
Eurocentric
prejudice against Arabo-Islamic peoples and their culture", claiming the bias amounted to a justification for imperialism. While other academics such as Irwin challenged Said's conclusions,[1] the book soon became a standard text of literary theory and cultural studies. Israeli-American historian Martin Kramer in his 2001 book Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America accused Middle Eastern studies
Middle Eastern studies
programs of ignoring the mounting threat of Islamic terrorism. In a Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
article published in 2001, Kramer claimed that Middle Eastern studies
Middle Eastern studies
courses, as they stood, were "part of the problem, not its remedy". In a Foreign Affairs review of the book, F. Gregory Gause said his analysis was, in part, "serious and substantive" but "far too often his valid points are overshadowed by academic score-settling and major inconsistencies."[2] In 2002, American writer Daniel Pipes
Daniel Pipes
established an organisation called Campus Watch to combat what he perceived to be serious problems within the discipline, including "analytical failures, the mixing of politics with scholarship, intolerance of alternative views, apologetics, and the abuse of power over students". He encouraged students to advise the organization of problems at their campuses. In turn critics within the discipline such as John Esposito
John Esposito
accused him of "McCarthyism". In 2010, foreign policy analyst Mitchell Bard claimed in his 2010 book The Arab
Arab
Lobby: The Invisible Alliance That Undermines America's Interests in the Middle East
Middle East
that elements of the Arab
Arab
lobby particularly Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and pro-Palestinian advocates were hijacking the academic field of Middle Eastern studies
Middle Eastern studies
within several prominent American universities including Georgetown University, Harvard University, and Columbia University.[3] This has involved Saudi Arabia and other Gulf States funding centers and chairs at universities to promote a pro- Arabist
Arabist
agenda.[4] Bard has also accused several prominent Middle Eastern studies
Middle Eastern studies
academics including John Esposito
John Esposito
and Rashid Khalidi
Rashid Khalidi
of abusing positions by advancing a pro-Palestinian political agenda.[5] In addition, Bard has criticized the Middle Eastern Studies Association (MESA) for adopting a pro-Palestinian standpoint. Bard has also alleged that MESA marginalizes non-Israel-related topics including the Kurdish–Turkish conflict
Kurdish–Turkish conflict
and the persecution of religious minorities like Christians
Christians
and ethnic minorities that are non-Arabs such as Jews
Jews
and Kurds.[6] Finally, Bard has contended that since the September 11 attacks, the Arab
Arab
lobby working through Middle Eastern Studies university departments have sought to influence pre-university education by tailoring education programs and resources to reflect a pro- Arabist
Arabist
agenda.[7] Academic centers[edit]

Center for Arab
Arab
and Middle Eastern Studies at the American University of Beirut Centre for Arab
Arab
& Islamic Studies
Islamic Studies
( Middle East
Middle East
& Central Asia), The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia Center for Contemporary Arab
Arab
Studies at Georgetown University Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Metropolitan University Prague Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Chicago Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Arizona Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Lund University Middle East
Middle East
Studies Institute at Shanghai International Studies University, China Center for Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Michigan Center for Modern Oriental Studies at Humboldt University
Humboldt University
in Berlin Center for Near and Middle Eastern Studies at Marburg University Department of African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian Languages and Literatures at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Institut français du Proche-Orient (IFPO), the French Institute for the Near East, in Damascus, Beirut and Amman Institute for Middle East
Middle East
Studies at George Washington University Institute of Arab
Arab
and Islamic Studies
Islamic Studies
at University of Exeter Italian Institute for Africa and Orient - ISIAO London Middle East
Middle East
Institute at School of Oriental and African Studies Middle East
Middle East
Center at the University of Pennsylvania Middle East
Middle East
Center at the University of Washington Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies
Islamic Studies
at New York University Middle East
Middle East
Institute at Columbia University Middle East/South Asian Studies Program at UC Davis Middle East
Middle East
Studies Center at The American University in Cairo Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies at Tel Aviv University Sakarya University Middle East
Middle East
Institute, Turkey School of Oriental and African Studies
School of Oriental and African Studies
at University of London Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Texas UCLA Center for Near East Studies BYU Jerusalem for Near Eastern Studies Department of Middle Eastern Studies at King's College London, University of London THE CENTER FOR MIDDLE EASTERN STUDIES HARVARD UNIVERSITY [1] at Harvard University

See also[edit]

Orientalism

References[edit]

^ Flemming Rose: Forsvar for en profession [Defence of a profession], interview with Prof. Robert Irwin, Jyllands-Posten, 12 April 2008, section 1, page 17 (accessed via Infomedia.dk and the newspaper's website) ^ Gause, F.G. (March–April 2009). "'Who Lost Middle-Eastern Studies?'". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 December 2012.  ^ Bard 2010, pp. 284; 306–11. ^ Bard 2010, p. 284. ^ Bard 2010, pp. 293–94; 307–08. ^ Bard 2010, pp. 295–97. ^ Bard 2010, pp. 284; 322–23.

Bibliography[edit]

Bard, Mitchell (2010). The Arab
Arab
Lobby: The Invisible Alliance That Undermines America's Interests in the Middle East. Harper. ISBN 9780061726019.  Kramer, Martin (2001). Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America (PDF) (Report). Washington Institute for Near East Policy,. ISBN 0-944029-49-3.  Said, Edward (1978). Orientalism. Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-394-42814-5. . Republished by Vintage Books in 1979, ISBN 0-394-74067-X. 25th Anniversary Edition published by Penguin Classics in 2003, with 1995 afterword, ISBN 0-14-118742-5 Charles Jones; Peter Magierski, eds. (2014). "Alphabetical List of Open Access Journals in Middle Eastern Studies". Access to Mideast and Islamic Resources. USA. ISSN 2160-3049. 

External links[edit]

Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies Middle East
Middle East
Studies Association Middle East
Middle East
Institute

Library guides to Middle-Eastern studies[edit]

" Help for Researchers: Middle East". British Library.  "Middle Eastern Studies". Topic Guides. USA: Center for Research Libraries.  "Middle East". Library Guides. USA: University of Chicago.  " Middle East
Middle East
& Islamic Studies
Islamic Studies
Research Guides". New York, USA: Columbia University
Columbia University
Libraries.  " Arab
Arab
& Middle Eastern Studies". Research & Subject Guides. Washington DC: Georgetown University
Georgetown University
Library.  Library. "Middle Eastern Studies". Topic Guides. UK: London School of Economics and Political Science.  "Area Studies: Middle East". NYPL Recommendations: Best of the Web. USA: New York Public Library.  " Middle East
Middle East
and Islamic Studies
Islamic Studies
Guide". Research Guides. USA: New York University Libraries.  " Middle East
Middle East
and Islamic Studies". Oxford LibGuides. Oxford, UK: University of Oxford, Bodleia

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