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(i)

MIDDLE DUTCH is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch ) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500. Until the advent of Modern Dutch after 1500, there was no overarching standard language but the dialects were all mutually intelligible. During this period a rich Medieval Dutch literature developed, not yet present during the period of Old Dutch . The various literary works of that time are often very readable for modern Dutch speakers, since Dutch is a rather conservative language. By many non-linguists, Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
is often referred to as Diets .

CONTENTS

* 1 Phonology

* 1.1 Differences with Old Dutch * 1.2 Consonants

* 1.3 Vowels

* 1.3.1 Short vowels * 1.3.2 Long vowels and diphthongs

* 1.4 Changes during the Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
period

* 2 Dialects

* 2.1 Brabantian * 2.2 Flemish * 2.3 Hollandic * 2.4 Limburgish * 2.5 Rhinelandic

* 3 Orthography

* 3.1 Vowels * 3.2 Consonants

* 4 Grammar

* 4.1 Nouns

* 4.1.1 Strong nouns * 4.1.2 Weak nouns

* 4.2 Adjectives * 4.3 Pronouns * 4.4 Determiners

* 4.5 Verbs

* 4.5.1 Strong verbs * 4.5.2 Weak verbs

* 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links

PHONOLOGY

DIFFERENCES WITH OLD DUTCH

Several phonological changes occurred leading up to the Middle Dutch period.

* /uː/ > /yː/.

* This change did not occur in all dialects; in some, /uː/ remained syllable-finally or before /w/.

* /iu/ > /yː/, merging with the phoneme originating from Old Dutch /uː/.

* This change did not occur in all dialects; some instead show /iu/ merging with /io/. This results in later pairs such as _dietsc_ /diətsk/ versus _duitsc_ /dyːtsk/. * Various dialects also show /iw/ > /yw/, while others retain /iw/. Compare southeastern Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
_hiwen_ /hiwən/ with modern Dutch _huwen_ /hywən/. * In word-initial position, some northern dialects also show a change from a falling to a rising diphthong (/iu/ > /ju/) like Old Frisian . Cf. the accusative second-person plural pronoun _iu_ /iu/ > northern _jou_ /jɔu/ versus southern _u_ /yː/.

* Old Dutch /ie/, /ia/, /io/ merge into a centralising diphthong /iə/, spelled ⟨ie⟩. * Likewise, Old Dutch /uo/ (from Proto-Germanic /oː/) becomes a centralising diphthong /uə/, spelled ⟨oe⟩ or ⟨ou⟩. * Phonemisation of umlaut for back vowels, resulting in a new phoneme /ʏ/ (from earlier Old Dutch /u/ before /i/ or /j/). Unlike most other Germanic languages, umlaut was only phonemicised for short vowels in all but the easternmost areas; long vowels and diphthongs are unaffected. * Voiceless fricatives become voiced syllable-initially: /s/ > /z/, /f/ > /v/ (merging with /v/ from Proto-Germanic /b/), /θ/ > /ð/. (10th or 11th century) * Vocal reduction: Vowels in unstressed syllables are weakened and merge into /ə/, spelled ⟨e⟩. (11th or 12th century) Long vowels seem to have remained as such, at least /iː/ is known to have remained in certain suffixes (such as _-kijn_ /kiːn/). * /ft/ > /xt/

* Dental fricatives become stops: /ð/ > /d/, /θ/ > /t/, merging with existing /t/ and /d/. (around 12th century)

* The geminate /θθ/ (originating from Germanic _*-þj-_) develops into /ss/: _*withtha_ > _wisse_, _*smiththa_ > _smisse_.

* All remaining /u/ > /o/, except in the southeast.

* Along with the previous change, /uː/, /uw/ > /ɔu/.

* This occurred only in those words where /uː/ and /iu/ had not developed into /yː/ earlier. E.g. _būan_ /buːan/ > _bouwen_ /bɔu(w)ən/. * The discrepancy in occurrences of /uː/ resulted in pairs such as modern Dutch _duwen_ /dywən/ versus _douwen_ /dɔu(w)ən/, or _nu_ /ny/ versus _nou_ /nɔu/.

* L-vocalisation : /ol/ and /al/ > /ɔu/ before dentals. * Before dentals /ar/ and /er/ > /aːr/, /or/ > /oːr/. E.g. _farth_ /farθ/ > _vaert_ /vaːrt/, _ertha_ /erθa/ > _aerde_ /aːrdə/, _wort_ /wort/ > _woort_ /woːrt/.

* Open syllable lengthening : Short vowels in stressed open syllables become long.

* In descriptions of Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
phonology, Old Dutch (original) long vowels are called "sharp-long" and indicated with a circumflex (â, ê, î, ô). Lengthened vowels are "soft-long" and are indicated with a macron (ā, ē, ī, ō). * Lengthened vowels initially remained distinct from original long vowels, but â and ā usually merge early, and ī merges into ē. Thus, for Middle Dutch, only the distinction between ê/ô and ē/ō generally remains. * /ʏ/ lengthens to /œː/ or /øː/ (spelled ⟨o⟩, ⟨eu⟩ or ⟨ue⟩), but this does not result in any new phonemic contrasts until later on. * As a result, all stressed syllables in polysyllabic words become heavy . This also introduces many length alternations in grammatical paradigms, e.g. singular _dag_ /dax/, plural _dag(h)e_ /daːɣə/.

CONSONANTS

The consonants of Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
differed little from those of Old Dutch. The most prominent change is the loss of dental fricatives. The sound was also phonemicised during this period, judging from loanwords that retain to this day.

For descriptions of the sounds and definitions of the terms, follow the links on the headings.

Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
consonant phonemes

LABIAL Dental / Alveolar PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

NASAL m n

PLOSIVE VOICELESS p t

k

VOICED b d

FRICATIVE VOICELESS f s

x h

VOICED v z

ɣ

APPROXIMANT

l j w

RHOTIC

r

Notes:

* All obstruents underwent final-obstruent devoicing as in Old and Modern Dutch. * During the first part of the Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
period, geminated varieties of most consonants still occurred. Geminated /ɣ/ was a plosive /ɡɡ/, retained in modern Limburgish as /ɡ/. * /m, p, b/ were most likely bilabial , whereas /f, v/ were most likely labiodental .

* /n, t, d, s, z, l/ could have been either dental or alveolar .

* /n/ had a velar allophone when it occurred before the velars /k, ɣ/. * After /n/, /ɣ/ was realized as a plosive .

* /r/ was most likely alveolar , either a trill or a tap .

VOWELS

Most notable in the Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
vowel system, when compared to Old Dutch, is the appearance of phonemic rounded front vowels, and the merger of all unstressed short vowels.

Short Vowels

Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
short vowels

Front unr. Front rnd. CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE ɪ ʏ

MID e ə o

OPEN a

* The exacty height of /ʏ/ is not certain, and may have varied between actual and a lower or even . * /e/ and /o/ could have also been and , as in modern Dutch. * /a/ was a back in most varieties, but front probably occurred in some western dialects.

Long Vowels And Diphthongs

Long vowels and diphthongs cannot be clearly distinguished in Middle Dutch, as many long vowels had or developed a diphthongal quality, while existing diphthongs could also develop into monophtongs. Sometimes, this occurred only in restricted dialects, other developments were widespread.

Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
long vowels

Front unr. Front rnd. BACK

CLOSE iː yː (uː)

CLOSE -OPENING ie̯ (yø̯) uo̯

MID -OPENING eɛ̯ (øœ̯) oɔ̯

MID eː øː oː

OPEN aː

ɑː

CLOSING ɛi̯ (œy̯) ɔu̯

* The rounded front vowels in brackets only occurred in the eastern dialects, where umlaut of long vowels and diphthongs occurred. * The rounded back vowel /uː/ only occurred in the Limburgish dialects.

Many details of the exact phonetics are uncertain, and seemed to have differed by dialect. The overal system is clear, however, as almost all the vowels remain distinct in modern Limburgish: /iː/, /iə̯/, /eɛ̯/, /eː/ and /aː/ appear in modern Limburgish as /iː/, /eː/, /iə̯/, /æː/ and /aː/ respectively.

The vowels /ie̯/, /yø̯/ and /uo̯/ developed from Old Dutch opening diphthongs, but their exact character in Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
is unclear. The following can be said:

* In eastern Brabant, and all of Limburg, the pronunciation remained diphthongal. * /ie̯/ is frequently found written with just ⟨i⟩, which may indicate a monophthongal pronunciation. /ie̯/ never merged with the long vowel /iː/, however, as no rhyme pairs between these vowels are found. * In the coastal areas (Flanders, Holland), /uo̯/ seems to have been a monophthong or . Before velar and labial consonants, the pronunciation was a close . This is revealed by the distinction in spelling between ⟨oe⟩ and ⟨ou⟩. * In western Brabant, the pronunciation of /uo̯/ was more close, probably monophthongal /uː/.

The vowels /eɛ̯/, /øœ̯/ and /oɔ̯/, termed "sharp-long" and denoted with a circumflex _ê_ _ô_, developed from Old Dutch long vowels. The opening diphthong pronunciation was probably widespread, and perhaps once universal, as it is nowadays still found in both West Flemish and in Limburgish, at opposite ends of the Middle Dutch language area. In the general area in between, including standard Dutch, the vowels merged with the "soft-long" vowels during the early modern Dutch period.

* In southern Flanders, southern Brabant and Holland, /eɛ̯/ appears spelled with ⟨ie⟩ (e.g. _stien_ for _steen_), while /ie̯/ appears with ⟨e⟩ (e.g. _speghel_ for _spieghel_), suggesting a merger between these phonemes. * /oɔ̯/ is sometimes found to rhyme with /oː/. It's possible that the two vowels merged under some conditions, while remaining distinct in other cases. * In Brabant, /oɔ̯/ occasionally rhymes with /uo̯/. In western Brabant, this implies a close monophthongal pronunciation .

The vowels /eː/, /œː/ and /oː/, termed "soft-long" and denoted with a macron _ē_ _ō_, developed through the lengthening of Old Dutch short vowels in open syllables, but also frequently before /r/. They were simple monophthongs in all Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
dialects, with the exception of western Flanders where /eː/ later developed into /ei̯/. They might have been close-mid but also perhaps open-mid , and , as in modern Limburgish.

There were two open vowels, with "sharp-long" _â_ developed from the Old Dutch long _ā_, and "soft-long" _ā_ being the result of lengthening. These two vowels were distinguished only in Limburgish and Low Rhenish at the eastern end, and in western Flemish and coastal Hollandic on the western end. The relative backness of the two vowels was opposite in the two areas that distinguished them.

* On the coast, _â_ was front /aː/ or /æː/, while _ā_ was central or back /ɑː/. * In the eastern varieties, _â_ was back /ɑː/, while _ā_ was front or central /aː/. /ɑː/ merged into /oː/ during Middle Dutch, first in Low Rhenish, then later also in Limburgish further south. * In all dialects between, the two vowels were not distinguished. The phonetic realisation ranged from back (in Brabant) to front (Holland further inland).

The closing diphthong /ɛi̯/ remained from the corresponding Old Dutch diphthong. It occurred primarily in umlauting environments, with /eɛ̯/ appearing otherwise. Some dialects, particularly further west, had /eɛ̯/ in all environments (thus _cleene_ next to _cleine_). Limburgish preserved the diphthong wherever it was preserved in High German.

The closing diphthong /ɔu̯/ has two different origins. In the vast majority of the Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
area, it developed through l-vocalization from older /ol/ and /al/ followed by a dental consonant. In the eastern area, Limburg in particular, it was a remnant of the older diphthong as in High German, which had developed into /oɔ̯/ elsewhere. L-vocalization occurred only in the modern period in Limburgish, and the distinction between /ol/ and /al/ was preserved, being reflected as _ów_ and _aa_ respectively.

CHANGES DURING THE MIDDLE DUTCH PERIOD

Phonological changes that occurred during Middle Dutch:

* /mb/ > /mː/, /ŋɡ/ > /ŋː/. This eliminated the sound /ɡ/ from the language altogether.

* /p/ and /k/ originating from /b/ and /ɡ/ through final devoicing were not affected. This therefore resulted in alternations such as singular _coninc_ /koːniŋk/ versus plural _coninghe_ /koːniŋːə/, singular _lamp_ /lamp/ versus plural _lammere_ /lamː(ə)rə/.

* /sk/ > /sx/ (spelled ⟨sc⟩ or later ⟨sch⟩). It's unclear when this change happened, as the spelling doesn't seem to differentiate the two sounds (that is, ⟨sc⟩ and ⟨sch⟩ could both represent either sound). * /ɛ/ > /ɛi/ before /n/ plus another consonant, merging with original Old Dutch /ɛi/ (< Proto-Germanic /ɑi/). E.g. _ende_ > _einde_, _pensen_ > _peinsen_ (from Old French _penser_). This change is found sporadically in Old Dutch already, but becomes more frequent in some Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
areas. * Epenthesis of /d/ in various clusters of sonorants. E.g. _donre_ > _donder_, _solre_ > _solder_, _bunre_ > _bunder_. In modern Dutch, this change has become grammaticalised for the _-er_ (comparative, agent noun) suffix when attached to a word ending in -r. * Shortening of geminate consonants, e.g. for _bidden_ /bɪdːən/ > /bɪdən/, which reintroduces stressed light syllables in polysyllabic words.

* Early diphthonisation of long high vowels: /iː/ > /ɪi/ and /yː/ > /ʏy/ except before /r/, probably beginning around the 14th century.

* The diphthongal quality of these vowels became stronger over time, and eventually the former merged with /ɛi/ _ei_. But the diphthongal pronunciation was still perceived as unrefined and 'southern' by educated speakers in the sixteenth century, showing that the change had not yet spread to all areas and layers of Dutch society by that time.

* Following the previous change, monophthongisation of opening diphthongs: /iə/ > /iː/, /uə/ > /uː/. The result might have also been a short vowel (as in most Dutch dialects today), but they are known to have remained long at least before /r/.

* Beginning in late Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
and continuing into the early Modern Dutch period, schwa /ə/ was slowly lost word-finally and in some other unstressed syllables: _vrouwe_ > _vrouw_, _hevet_ > _heeft_. This did not apply consistently however, and sometimes both forms continued to exist side by side, such as _mate_ and _maat_.

* Word-final schwa was restored in the past singular of weak verbs, to avoid homophony with the present third-person singular because of word-final devoicing. However, it was lost in all irregular weak verbs, in which this homophony was not an issue: irregular _dachte_ > _dacht_ (present tense _denkt_), but regular _opende_ did not become *_opend_ /oːpənt/ because it would become indistinguishable from _opent_.

* During the 15th century at the earliest, /d/ begins to disappear when between a non-short vowel and a schwa .

* The actual outcome of this change differed between dialects. In the more northern varieties and in Holland, the /d/ was simply lost, along with any schwa that followed it: _luyden_ > _lui_, _lade_ > _la_, _mede_ > _mee_. In the southeast, intervocalic /d/ instead often became /j/: _mede_ > _meej_. * The change was not applied consistently, and even in modern Dutch today many words have been retained in both forms. In some cases the forms with lost /d/ were perceived as uneducated and disappeared again, such as in _Nederland_ and _neer_, both from _neder_ (the form _Neerland_ does exist, but is rather archaic in modern Dutch).

DIALECTS

Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
was not a single homogenous language. The language differed by area, with different areas having a different pronunciation and often using different vocabulary. The dialect areas were affected by political boundaries. The sphere of political influence of a certain ruler also created a sphere of linguistic influence, with the language within the area becoming more homogenous. Following, more or less, the political divisions of the time, several large dialect groups can be distinguished. However, the borders between them were not strong, and a dialect continuum existed between them, with spoken varieties near the edges of each dialect area showing more features of the neighbouring areas.

BRABANTIAN

Brabantian was spoken primarily in the Duchy of Brabant
Duchy of Brabant
. It was an influential dialect during most of the Middle Ages, during the so-called " Brabantian expansion" in which the influence of Brabant was extended outwards into other areas. Compared to the other dialects, Brabantian was a kind of "middle ground" between the coastal areas on one hand, and the Rhineland and Limburg on the other. Brabantian Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
has the following characteristics compared to other dialects:

* Merger of â and ā, articulated as a back vowel. * Use of the form _g(h)i_ for the second-person plural pronoun. * /ft/ > /xt/ * Early diphthongization of /iː/ and /yː/. * Tended towards Rhinelandic and/or Limburgish in the easternmost areas, with umlaut of long vowels and diphthongs. This in turn led to stronger use of umlaut as a grammatical feature, in for example diminutives. * Lack of umlaut /a/ > /e/ before /xt/, in western varieties.

FLEMISH

Flemish, consisting today of West and East Flemish and Zealandic , was spoken in the County of Flanders . Though due to their intermediary position between West Flemish and Brabantian , the East Flemish dialects have also been grouped with the latter. Flemish had been influential during the earlier Middle Ages (the "Flemish expansion") but lost prestige to the neighbouring Brabantian in the 13th century. Its characteristics are:

* Fronted realisation /æː/ for â. * Unrounding of rounded front vowels. * Loss of /h/, with the occasional hypercorrection found in texts. * Opening diphthong articulation of ê and ô, often spelled ⟨ee⟩ and ⟨oe⟩. * Old Dutch /iu/ developed into /iə/ instead of /yː/, thus giving forms such as _vier_ ("fire") where other dialects have _vuur_. * Lowering of /e/ to /a/ before /r/ + consonant, often also with lengthening. The change is generally limited to West Flemish before dentals, while before labials and velars it is more widespread. * Lack of umlaut /a/ > /e/ before /xt/. * /i/ > /e/ in some words. * /o/ > /e/ sometimes before /r/ + consonant in West Flemish.

HOLLANDIC

Hollandic was spoken in the County of Holland
County of Holland
. It was less influential during most of the Middle Ages but became more so in the 16th century during the " Hollandic expansion", during which the Eighty Years\' War took place in the south. It shows the following properties:

* Strong Ingvaeonic influence from earlier Frisian presence in the area. This became more apparent closer to the coast and further north (West Friesland ). * â and ā merged and had a fronted articulation (which forms the basis for the modern standard Dutch pronunciation). * Occasional occurrence of the Ingvaeonic nasal-spirant law . Seen in some place names, such as _-mude_ ("mouth") where more southwestern areas retain the nasal: _-monde_. * Use of the form _ji_ for the second-person plural pronoun. * Retention of /ft/. * Lack of umlaut /a/ > /e/ before /xt/.

LIMBURGISH

Limburgish was spoken by the people in the provinces of modern Dutch and Belgian Limburg . It was not clearly tied to one political area, instead being divided among various areas, including the Duchy of Limburg (which was south of modern Limburg). It was also the most divergent of the dialects.

* Generally, a strong "southeastern" influence, tying it more to Middle High German in some respects ("Colognian expansion"). The effects of the High German consonant shift are occasionally found. * umlaut affects all vowels and is morphologically significant. * Retention of the older Germanic diphthongs /ɛi/ and /ɔu/ where other Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
dialects have monophthongized these to ê and ô. * Retention of /u/ (did not merge with /o/) and /uː/ (remained as a back vowel). * Orthography is also more eastern. ⟨u⟩ represents a back vowel, and vowel length in closed syllables is not marked. * Full use of _du_ as the second-person singular pronoun. * Long a in words ending in a single consonant, e.g. _blaet_ for _blat_, _gaef_ for _gaf_, etc. and before /l/, /n/, /s/, /x/ + dental,

RHINELANDIC

Rhinelandic ("Kleverlands") was spoken around the area of the Duchy of Cleves , around the Lower Rhine . It represented a transitional dialect between Limburgish and Middle Low German .

* Like Limburgish, it had an eastern influence, with a more eastern-tinted orthography. Umlaut was a regular grammatical feature. * Stronger Middle Low German influence. * Back and often rounded articulation of â, with a tendency to confuse it with ō, a feature shared with Low German, to the north.

ORTHOGRAPHY

Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
was written in the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which was not designed for writing Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
so different scribes used different methods of representing the sounds of their language in writing. The traditions of neighbouring scribes and their languages led to a multitude of ways to write Middle Dutch. Consequently, spelling was not standardised but was highly variable and could differ by both time and place as various "trends" in spelling waxed and waned. Furthermore, a word could be found spelled differently in different occurrences within the same text. There was the matter of personal taste, and many writers thought it was more aesthetic to follow French or Latin practice, leading to sometimes rather unusual spellings.

The spelling was generally phonetic, and words were written based on how they were spoken rather than based on underlying phonemes or morphology. Final-obstruent devoicing was reflected in the spelling, and clitic pronouns and articles were frequently joined to the preceding or following word. Scribes wrote in their own dialect, and their spelling reflected the pronunciation of that particular scribe or of some prestige dialect by which the scribe was influenced. The modern Dutch word _maagd_ ("maiden ") for example was sometimes written as _maghet_ or _maegt_, but also _meget_, _magt_, _maget_, _magd_, and _mecht_. Some spellings, such as _magd_, reflect an early tendency to write the underlying phonemic value. However, by and large, spelling was phonetic, which is logical as people usually read texts out loud.

Modern dictionaries tend to represent words in a normalised spelling to form a compromise between the variable spellings on one hand and to represent the sounds of the language consistently. Thus, normalised spellings attempt to be a general or "average" spelling but still being accurate and true to the language.

VOWELS

The general practice was to write long vowels with a single letter in an open syllable and with two letters in a closed syllable. Which two letters were used varied among texts. Some texts, especially those in the east, do not do so and write long vowels with a single letter in all cases (as is the predominant rule in modern German).

PHONEME NORMALISED OTHER SPELLINGS NOTES

/a/ a

/e/ e

/ɪ/ i j, y

/o/ o

/ʏ/ u

/ə/ e a (rare and early)

/aː/ a (open) ae (closed) ai (occasionally, in closed syllables) In discussions about pronunciation, originally-long a is represented as â, lengthened a as ā.

/ɛː/ e (open) ee (closed) ei (West Flemish) In discussions about pronunciation, written as ē.

/eː/ e (open) ee (closed) ee (frequently in open syllables, especially in Flanders), i.e. (occasionally in some dialects) In discussions about pronunciation, written as ê.

/øː/ ue o, oe, eu (rare), u, uu (both very rare) ⟨oe⟩ and ⟨o⟩ are perhaps the most common, but normalisation uses ⟨ue⟩ to avoid confusion with /uə/. Normalisation generally undoes the umlaut of older /oː/, which was only present in the eastern dialects.

/iː/ i (open) ij (closed) ii (actually graphical variant of ij), i.e. (rare)

/iə/ ie ye (rare), i (fairly rare)

/ɔː/ o (open) oo (closed) oe, a (Rhinelandic), oi, oy In discussions about pronunciation, written as ō.

/oː/ o (open) oo (closed) oe, oi, oy In discussions about pronunciation, written as ô.

/uə/ oe ou (Flanders), u, ue (both in Limburg), o (before /j/)

/yː/, /uː/ u (open) uu (closed) ue (usually before /r/), ui, uy /uː/ only in Limburg.

/ei/ ei ey Occurs in place of ê in Limburg.

/ou/ ou au (rare) Occurs in place of ô in Limburg.

CONSONANTS

PHONEME NORMALISED OTHER SPELLINGS NOTES

/j/ j i, y, ij (very rare)

/w/ w uu, u, v

/l/ l

/r/ r

/m/ m

/n/, n

/p/ p

/b/ b

/f/ f

/v/ v u

/t/ t th (occasionally)

/d/ d

/s/ s

/sk/, /sx/ sch sc (in some normalisations) sk, ssc(h) (medially), s (occasionally)

/z/ s z (occasionally)

/k/ k (before e, i, y) c (elsewhere) qu (representing /kw/) ck (for geminated /kː/) ch (Flanders, Brabant), k (eastern, in all positions)

/x/ ch g, gh (when /ɣ/ devoices)

/ɣ/, g gh (before e, i, y, only in some normalisations) cg(h) (for geminated /ɡː/)

/h/ h

GRAMMAR

NOUNS

Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
nouns inflected for number as well as case . The weakening of unstressed syllables merged many different Old Dutch classes of nominal declension. The result was a general distinction between strong and weak nouns. Eventually even these started to become confused, with the strong and weak endings slowly beginning to merge into a single declension class by the beginning of the modern Dutch period.

Strong Nouns

The strong nouns generally originated from the Old Dutch a-stem, i-stem and u-stem inflections. They mostly had a nominative singular with no ending, and a nominative plural in _-e_ or, for some neuter nouns, with no ending. Most strong nouns were masculine or neuter. Feminines in this class were former i-stems, and could lack an ending in the dative singular, a remnant of the late Old Dutch inflection. In some rare occasions, the genitive singular was also endingless. Some nouns ended in _-e_ in the singular also; these were primarily former ja-stems, which were masculine or neuter. A few were former i-stems with short stems. Nouns of this type tended to be drawn into the weak inflection by analogy.

The following table shows the inflection of the masculine noun _dach_ "day", feminine _dâet_ "deed" and neuter _brôot_ "bread".

SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

NOMINATIVE dach dāge dâet dâde brôot brôot, brôde

ACCUSATIVE dach dāge dâet dâde brôot brôot, brôde

GENITIVE dāechs, dāges dāge dâets, dâdes dâde brôots, brôdes brôde

DATIVE dāge dāgen dâet, dâde dâden brôde brôden

Weak Nouns

Weak nouns were characterised by the ending _-en_ throughout the plural. The singular ended in _-e_.

The following table shows the inflection of the masculine noun _bōge_ "bow, arc".

SINGULAR PLURAL

NOMINATIVE bōge bōgen

ACCUSATIVE bōge bōgen

GENITIVE bōgen bōgen

DATIVE bōge bōgen

ADJECTIVES

Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
adjectives inflected according to the gender, case and number of the noun they modified.

The Germanic distinction between strong and weak, or indefinite and definite inflection, was fairly minimal in Middle Dutch, appearing only in the masculine and neuter nominative singular. These forms received an _-e_ ending when a definite word (demonstrative, article) preceded, and had no ending otherwise. Adjectives were uninflected when connected through a copula. Thus, even for feminine nouns, no ending appeared: _die vrouwe is goet_ "the lady is good".

Some adjectives, namely the former ja-stems, had an _-e_ even in the strong and copular form, e.g. _die vrouwe is cleinE_ "the lady is small".

MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER PLURAL

NOMINATIVE goet (indef) goede (defn) goede goet (indef) goede (defn) goede

ACCUSATIVE goeden goede goede goede

GENITIVE goets goeder goets goeder

DATIVE goeden goeder goeden goeden

PRONOUNS

Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
pronouns differed little from their modern counterparts. The main differences were in the second person with the development of a T-V distinction . The second-person plural pronoun _ghi_ slowly gained use as a respectful second-person singular form. The original singular pronoun _du_ gradually fell out of use during the Middle Dutch period. A new second person plural pronoun was created by contracting _gij/jij_ and _lui_ ('people') forming _gullie/jullie_ (which this literally means 'you people').

SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST 2ND 3RD 1ST 2ND 3RD

MASC. FEM. NEUT.

NOMINATIVE ic, icke du hi si het/'t wi ghi si

ACCUSATIVE mi di hem/hen/'n haer/se ons u hem/hen/'n

DATIVE haer hem

GENITIVE mijns dijns sijns harer 'es onser uwer haer/'re

Note: There are several other forms.

DETERMINERS

DEFINITE ARTICLE (_die_, _dat_ = the)

GRAMMATICAL CASE MALE FEMALE NEUTER

SINGULAR

NOMINATIVE die die dat

ACCUSATIVE den

DATIVE der den

GENITIVE des des

PLURAL

NOMINATIVE die

ACCUSATIVE

DATIVE den

GENITIVE der

VERBS

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Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
mostly retained the Old Dutch verb system. Like all Germanic languages, it distinguished strong , weak and preterite-present verbs as the three main inflectional classes. Verbs were inflected in present and past tense, and in three moods: indicative, subjunctive and imperative.

The weakening of unstressed vowels affected the distinction between the indicative and subjunctive moods, which had largely been determined by the vowel of the inflectional suffix in Old Dutch. In Middle Dutch, with all unstressed vowels merging into one, the subjunctive became distinguished from the indicative only in the singular but was identical to it in the plural, and also in the past tense of weak verbs. That led to a gradual decline in the use of the subjunctive, and it has been all but lost entirely in modern Dutch.

Strong Verbs

The seven classes of strong verb common to the Germanic languages were retained. The four principal parts were the present tense, first- and third-person singular past tense, remaining past tense, and the past participle.

CLASS PRESENT Past 1/3 sg Past rest PTCP. EXAMPLE VERBS

1 î ê ē ē _bliven_

2 ie, û ô ō ō _bieden_, _bugen_

3 e, i a o o _helpen_, _binden_

4 ē a â ō _stelen_

5 ē, i a â ē _lesen_, _liggen_

6 ā oe oe â _dragen_

7 (any) ie ie (any) _slapen_

In classes 6 and 7, there was no distinction between the two different vowels of the past tense. In classes 4 and 5, the difference was primarily one of length, since _ā_ and _â_ were not distinguished in most dialects. The difference between _ê_ and _ē_, and between _ô_ and _ō_, found in classes 1 and 2, was a bit more robust, but also eventually waned in the development to modern Dutch. Consequently, the distinction was mostly lost. Class 3, which retained a clear distinction that did not rely on vowel length, was levelled in favour of the _o_ of the plural.

In classes with a lengthened vowel in the present, the singular imperative often appears with a short vowel instead, e.g. _les_, _drach_. An alternative form, with final _-e_ by analogy with the weak verbs, also occurs.

The eastern dialects occasionally show _i_ in the second- and third-person singular present indicative forms, instead of _e_. This is a remnant of older i-mutation in these forms. Umlaut is also sometimes found in the past subjunctive in the east.

INFINITIVE bliven

GERUND blivene

INDICATIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. blive blêef

2ND SING. blijfs, blives blēefs, blēves

3RD SING. blijft, blivet blêef

1ST PLUR. bliven blēven

2ND PLUR. blijft, blivet blēeft, blēvet

3RD PLUR. bliven blēven

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. blive blēve

2ND SING. blijfs, blives blēefs, blēves

3RD SING. blive blēve

1ST PLUR. bliven blēven

2ND PLUR. blijft, blivet blēeft, blēvet

3RD PLUR. bliven blēven

IMPERATIVE MOOD

SING. blijf, blive

PLUR. blijft, blivet

PARTICIPLE

blivende geblēven

INFINITIVE binden

GERUND bindene

INDICATIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. binde bant

2ND SING. bints, bindes bonts, bondes

3RD SING. bint, bindet bant

1ST PLUR. binden bonden

2ND PLUR. bint, bindet bont, bondet

3RD PLUR. binden bonden

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. binde bonde

2ND SING. bints, bindes bonts, bondes

3RD SING. binde bonde

1ST PLUR. binden bonden

2ND PLUR. bint, bindet bont, bondet

3RD PLUR. binden bonden

IMPERATIVE MOOD

SING. bint, binde

PLUR. bint, bindet

PARTICIPLE

bindende gebonden

INFINITIVE drāgen

GERUND drāgene

INDICATIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. drāge droech

2ND SING. drāechs, drāges droechs, droeges

3RD SING. drāecht, drāget droech

1ST PLUR. drāgen droegen

2ND PLUR. drāecht, drāget droecht, droeget

3RD PLUR. drāgen droegen

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. drāge droege

2ND SING. drāechs, drāges droechs, droeges

3RD SING. drāge droege

1ST PLUR. drāgen droegen

2ND PLUR. drāecht, drāget droecht, droeget

3RD PLUR. drāgen droegen

IMPERATIVE MOOD

SING. drach, drāge

PLUR. drāecht, drāget

PARTICIPLE

drāgende gedrāgen

Weak Verbs

Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
retained weak verbs as the only productive class of verbs. While Old Dutch still had two different classes of weak verbs (and remnants of a third), this distinction was lost in Middle Dutch with the weakening of unstressed syllables.

The past tense was formed with a suffix _-ed-_, which generally lost its _e_ through syncope and thus came to be directly attached to the preceding stem. This triggered voicing assimilation, so that _t_ appeared whenever the preceding stem ended in a voiceless consonant. This phenomenon remains in modern Dutch. Unsyncopated forms, which retain the fuller suffix _-ed-_, are sometimes found, especially with stems ending in a labial or velar consonant.

Some former class 1 weak verbs retained so-called _ Rückumlaut _. These verbs had undergone umlaut in the present tense, but the umlaut-triggering vowel was syncopated in the past tense already in Old Dutch, preventing umlaut from taking hold there. Thus, _senden_ had the first- and third-person singular past tense _sande_. These verbs tended to be reinterpreted as strong verbs in later Middle Dutch; _sande_ itself gave rise to the modern _zond_, mirroring strong class 3.

INFINITIVE māken

GERUND mākene

INDICATIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. māke māecte

2ND SING. māecs, mākes māectes

3RD SING. māect, māket māecte

1ST PLUR. māken māecten

2ND PLUR. māect, māket māectet

3RD PLUR. māken māecten

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. māke māecte

2ND SING. māecs, mākes māectes

3RD SING. māke māecte

1ST PLUR. māken māecten

2ND PLUR. māect, māket māectet

3RD PLUR. māken māecten

IMPERATIVE MOOD

SING. māke

PLUR. māect, māket

PARTICIPLE

mākende gemāect, gemāket

INFINITIVE senden

GERUND sendene

INDICATIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. sende sende, sande

2ND SING. sents, sendes sende, sandes

3RD SING. sent, sendet sende, sande

1ST PLUR. senden senden, sanden

2ND PLUR. sent, sendet sendet, sandet

3RD PLUR. senden senden, sanden

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

PRESENT PAST

1ST SING. sende sende

2ND SING. sents, sendes sende

3RD SING. sende sende

1ST PLUR. senden senden

2ND PLUR. sent, sendet sendet

3RD PLUR. senden senden

IMPERATIVE MOOD

SING. sende

PLUR. sent, sendet

PARTICIPLE

sendende gesent, gesendet, gesant

SEE ALSO

* Medieval Dutch literature * Low German * Germanic languages

NOTES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Middle Dutch". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/loey001midd03_01/loey001midd03_01_0005.php * ^ ed, Keith Brown (2007). _Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics_ (2. ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4 .

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RECONSTRUCTED

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