The Info List - Middelburg

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(Dutch: [ˈmɪdəlˌbɵrx] ( listen)) is a city and municipality in the south-western Netherlands
serving as the capital of the province of Zeeland. Situated on the central peninsula of the Zeeland
province, Midden- Zeeland
(consisting of former islands Walcheren, Noord-Beveland
and Zuid-Beveland), it has a population of about 48,000. In terms of technology, Middelburg
played a seminal role in the Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
at the early modern period. The city was historically a leading center of lens crafting in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology. The invention of the microscope and telescope are often credited to Middelburg
spectacle-makers (including Zacharias Jansen
Zacharias Jansen
and Hans Lippershey) in the late 16th century and early 17th century.


1 History 2 Notable locals 3 Geography 4 Gallery 5 Culture and recreation

5.1 Cultural institutions 5.2 Theaters and concerthalls 5.3 Sightseeing 5.4 Sports

6 Transportation 7 Twin cities 8 In popular culture 9 References

9.1 Literature

10 External links


in 1652

Middelburg's city hall around 1910

The city of Middelburg
dates back possibly to the late 8th century or early 9th century. The first mention of Middelburg
was as one of three fortified towns (borgs) erected on Walcheren
(then an island) to guard against Viking
raids. In 844 a monastery was built on the site, which remained an active Catholic foundation until the Reformation. Foundations for Middelburg's "stately and picturesque" cathedral (one of only two pre-Reformation cathedrals in The Netherlands, along with St. Martin's in Utrecht) were first laid in the 10th century; additional construction continued through the Middle Ages. Middelburg
was granted city rights in 1217. During the Middle Ages, it became an important trading centre in the commerce between England and the rising cities of Flanders. The town continued to gain in power and prestige during the 13th and 14th centuries. From 1559.05.12 to 1603, Middelburg
was the episcopal see of a Catholic bishopric covering all Zeeland. In the Eighty Years' War, Middelburg
was captured from the Spanish forces during a long siege. The northern provinces of the original Low Countries won their independence from their former Spanish Habsburg rulers and formed The Netherlands, a Protestant state. Later, in the 17th century (the Dutch Golden Age), Middelburg
became, after Holland's metropolis Amsterdam, the most important center for the East India Company of Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
(VOC) or Dutch East India Company. Middelburg
played an important role in the 17th century slave trade. Samuel Ben Israel, son of Menasseh Ben Israel, is buried in Middelburg at the Sephardic burial site located at the 'Jodengang' outside the citywall. Menasseh Ben Israel
Menasseh Ben Israel
negotiated with Cromwell the opening of England, and their colonies, to the Jews. Middelburg
also has an Ashkenazic burial site, which is located at the Walensingel inside the city wall. In 1994 the synagogue was restored, as it was partially destroyed during the Second World War. This synagogue was the third one to be built in the Netherlands
during the Golden Age. In the hall of the railway station there is a plaque of remembrance for the Jews of Zeeland
who started their journey to the death camps from the Middelburg
train station. About a third of the old city centre was devastated by bombs and fire in the early phases of World War II, on May 17, 1940, it is still not sure whether it were German bombers or French artillery.[5] The town was captured and liberated by British troops during Operation Infatuate on 5 November 1944. After the War, as much of the destroyed part of the old town center was rebuilt and restored along pre-War lines as possible. The city's archives, however, had been incinerated during the German bombardment. Modern Middelburg
has preserved and regained much of its historic and picturesque character. There are lavish 17th and 18th century merchant houses and storehouses standing along canals, of a similar style as found in cities like Amsterdam. The old city moats are still there, as are two of the city gates, the Koepoort Gate and the varkenspoort Gate. Part of the 18th century moat and defence works, however, were demolished in the 19th century to make way for a commercial canal that crosses Walcheren
from Vlissingen
to Veere. The medieval abbey is still in use today, as a museum and as the seat of the provincial government. Notable locals[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1398 6,300 —    

1576 7,000 +0.06%

1600 20,000 +4.47%

1675 27,000 +0.40%

1739 25,000 −0.12%

1795 17,687 −0.62%

Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 93–94

The painter Pieter Gaal, (1769–1819) was born and, after traveling over Europe to paint, settled and died here. Another well-known citizen of Middelburg
was the admiral and explorer Jacob Roggeveen, who was born in the city in 1659 and died there in 1729. Roggeveen discovered Easter Island
Easter Island
(Rapa Nui) in the South Pacific Ocean on Easter Sunday, April 6, 1722. Further discoveries on the same journey included islands of the Tuamotu
group, now part of French Polynesia. Geography[edit]

Topographic map of Middelburg, as of September 2014

Aside from the city of Middelburg, the municipality also includes several population centres, including: Arnemuiden, Kleverskerke, Nieuw- en Sint Joosland
Nieuw- en Sint Joosland
and Sint Laurens. Gallery[edit]

Former city hall

View at the Lange Jan from the station

The Londense Kaai

Near towngate, the Kuiperspoort

Molen de Hoop

Culture and recreation[edit] When William of Orange decided to found the first university in the Netherlands
in 1575, he initially considered locating it in Middelburg. Ultimately he chose Leiden, however, and Middelburg—as well as all of Zeeland—remained without a university until 2004 when University College Roosevelt
University College Roosevelt
(formerly known as Roosevelt Academy), affiliated with Utrecht
University, was established. Cultural institutions[edit]

Zeeuws Museum SBKM De Vleeshal Zeeuws Archief[6] Zeeuwse Bibliotheek Centrum Beeldende Kunst

Theaters and concerthalls[edit]

Schouwburg Concertzaal Zeeland Spiegeltheater Minitheater Filmtheater Schuttershof UCR Stand up comedy theatre


The Abbey Kuiperspoort The "Lange Jan" City Hall Oostkerk Damplein

Sports[edit] Middelburg
has a field hockey club, MMHC, a rugby club, Oemoemenoe, and four football (soccer) clubs: MZVC, Zeelandia Middelburg, Jong Ambon and FC Dauwendaele. Jong Ambon is translated Young Ambon, and consists of mostly Ambonese players. FC Dauwendaele is the main club in Dauwendaele. Transportation[edit]

railway station.

See also: Middelburg
railway station Middelburg
has a railway station with intercity train connections to Vlissingen, Goes, Roosendaal, Rotterdam, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol International Airport, Amsterdam, and Almere, among others. Two trains leave every hour in both directions. Twin cities[edit]

Vilvoorde, Belgium Nagasaki, Japan Głogów, Poland Simeria, Romania Teiuș, Romania Folkestone, United Kingdom

In popular culture[edit]

In Rafael Sabatini's 1929 novel "The Romantic Prince", set in the late 1460s, Middelburg
is the home town of Mister Danvelt and his son Philip. The Danvelt home is a beautiful, gabled house on the Lange Delft, not far from Middelburg's imposing abbey. Philip Danvelt inherits the house and lives there with his wife Johanna when he is arrested by Lord Claude de Rhynsault.[7]


^ "Collegeleden" [Members of the board] (in Dutch). Gemeente Middelburg. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.  ^ "Postcodetool for 4331BK". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ "Middelburg". War over Holland. Retrieved 30 April 2016.  ^ Zeeuws Archief ^ p166-178 of the House of Stratus edition, ch. 4. The Romantic Prince, Rafael Sabatini, 2001


Lourens, Piet; Lucassen, Jan (1997). Inwonertallen van Nederlandse steden ca. 1300–1800. Amsterdam: NEHA. ISBN 9057420082. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Middelburg.

travel guide from Wikivoyage Official city website (in Dutch with a limited English section) Tourism Middelburg

Places adjacent to Middelburg

Veerse Meer
Veerse Meer
/ Noord-Beveland




Vlissingen Borsele

v t e

Municipalities of Zeeland

Borsele Goes Hulst Kapelle Middelburg Noord-Beveland Reimerswaal Schouwen-Duiveland Sluis Terneuzen Tholen Veere Vlissingen

See also Netherlands Provinces Municipalities

v t e

Capital cities of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

National capital: Amsterdam Seat of government: The Hague

Constituent countries Provinces Public bodies

Oranjestad, Aruba Willemstad, Curaçao Amsterdam, Netherlands Philipsburg, Sint Maarten

Assen, Drenthe Lelystad, Flevoland Leeuwarden, Friesland Arnhem, Gelderland Groningen, Groningen Maastricht, Limburg

's-Hertogenbosch, North Brabant Haarlem, North Holland Zwolle, Overijssel The Hague, South Holland Utrecht, Utrecht Middelburg, Zeeland

Kralendijk, Bonaire The Bottom, Saba Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius

See also: List of cities in the Netherlands
by province

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 58145067088366630215 LCCN: n81035076 GND: 4115142-2 BNF: