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MICROSOFT POWERPOINT is a presentation program currently developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
, for use on both Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems. PowerPoint, initially named "Presenter", was created by Forethought Inc. . Microsoft's version of PowerPoint was officially launched on May 22, 1990, as a part of the Microsoft
Microsoft
Office suite. PowerPoint is useful for helping develop the slide-based presentation format and is currently one of the most commonly used slide-based presentation programs available. Microsoft
Microsoft
has also released the PowerPoint mobile application for use on Apple and Android mobile operating systems.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Operation

* 3 Cultural impact

* 3.1 Military excess in the United States * 3.2 Artistic medium

* 4 PowerPoint Viewer

* 5 Versions

* 5.1 Release history * 5.2 Descriptions

* 6 File
File
formats * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

Originally designed for the Macintosh computer, the initial release was called "Presenter", developed by Thomas Rudkin and Dennis Austin of Forethought, Inc. In 1987, it was renamed to "PowerPoint" due to problems with trademarks, the idea for the name coming from Robert Gaskins .

By then some experts believed that "desktop presentations", using computers to create flip charts and overhead transparencies , could become as large a market as desktop publishing . That year Forethought was bought by Microsoft
Microsoft
for $14 million ($29.5 million in present-day terms ), and became Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit, which continued to develop the software further. Microsoft's version of PowerPoint was officially launched on May 22, 1990, the same day that Microsoft
Microsoft
released Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
.

PowerPoint introduced many new changes with the release of PowerPoint 97. It incorporated the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) language, underlying all macro generation in Office 97.

PowerPoint 2000 (and the rest of the Microsoft
Microsoft
Office 2000 suite) introduced a clipboard that could hold multiple objects at once, and the Office Assistant was made less intrusive.

PowerPoint 2002 massively overhauled the animation engine, allowing users to create more advanced and custom animations.

PowerPoint 2007 makes it possible to remove image backgrounds, and provides additional special effects for pictures, such as "Pencil effects".

As of 2012 , various versions of PowerPoint claim about 95% of the presentation software market share, with installations on at least 1 billion computers. .

OPERATION

PowerPoint presentations consist of a number of individual pages or "slides". The "slide" analogy is a reference to the slide projector . Slides may contain text, graphics, sound, movies, and other objects, which may be arranged freely. The presentation can be printed, displayed live on a computer, or navigated through at the command of the presenter. For larger audiences the computer display is often a video projector . Slides can also form the basis of webcasts .

PowerPoint provides three types of movements:

* Entrance, emphasis, and exit of elements on a slide itself are controlled by what PowerPoint calls custom animations . * Transitions, on the other hand, there are movements between slides. These can be animated in a variety of ways. * Custom animation can be used to create small story boards by animating pictures to enter, exit or move.

PowerPoint provides numerous features that offer flexibility and the ability to create a professional presentation. One of the features provides the ability to create a presentation that includes music which plays throughout the entire presentation or sound effects for particular slides. In addition to the ability to add sound files, the presentation can be designed to run, like a movie, on its own. PowerPoint allows the user to record the slide show with narration and a pointer. The user may customize slide shows to show the slides in a different order than originally designed and to have slides appear multiple times. Microsoft
Microsoft
also offers the ability to broadcast the presentation to specific users via a link and Windows Live.

CULTURAL IMPACT

A PowerPoint presentation in progress

Jerry Pournelle
Jerry Pournelle
in 1989 praised PowerPoint for the Macintosh, stating that "if you're in the business of putting on briefings and otherwise making presentations, you might want to seriously contemplate getting a Mac II just so you can use this program; it's that good. Highly recommended". Supporters say that the ease of use of presentation software can save a lot of time for people who otherwise would have used other types of visual aid—hand-drawn or mechanically typeset slides, blackboards or whiteboards, or overhead projections. Ease of use also encourages those who otherwise would not have used visual aids, or would not have given a presentation at all, to make presentations. As PowerPoint's style, animation , and multimedia abilities have become more sophisticated, and as the application has generally made it easier to produce presentations (even to the point of having an "AutoContent Wizard" that was discontinued in PowerPoint 2007, suggesting a structure for a presentation), the difference in needs and desires of presenters and audiences has become more noticeable. Experienced PowerPoint designers point out that the "AutoContent Wizard" caused a glitch which contributed greatly to on-screen freezing of slides. Many designers opt to use the "blank slide layout" in lieu of the other layout choices for this reason. Nevertheless, in normal business use, most presentations created using PowerPoint are based on its default layout and font choices.

The benefit of PowerPoint is continually debated, though most people believe that the benefit may be to present structural presentations to business workers, such as Raytheon Elcan does. Its use in classroom lectures has influenced investigations of PowerPoint's effects on student performance in comparison to lectures based on overhead projectors, traditional lectures, and online lectures. There are no compelling results to prove or disprove that PowerPoint is more effective for learner retention than traditional presentation methods. Statistician and designer Edward Tufte suggests that as PowerPoint on its own has limited ability to present complex tables and graphics, a better approach is to provide the audience with printed data and a written report for them to read at the start of the meeting, before leading them through the report with a talk. He noted that after the Columbia disaster , a report on the accident recommended that PowerPoint should never be used as the sole method for presenting scientific material.

MILITARY EXCESS IN THE UNITED STATES

A "PowerPoint Ranger" is a military member who relies heavily on presentation software to the point of excess. Some junior officers spend the majority of their time preparing PowerPoint slides. Because of its usefulness for presenting mission briefings, it has become part of the culture of the military, but is regarded as a poor decision-making tool. As a result, some generals, such as Brigadier-General Herbert McMaster , have banned the use of PowerPoint in their operations. In September 2010, Colonel Lawrence Sellin was fired from his post at the ISAF
ISAF
for publishing a piece critical of the over-dependence of military staffs on the presentation method and bloated bureaucracy.

ARTISTIC MEDIUM

Musician David Byrne
David Byrne
has been using PowerPoint as a medium for art for years, producing a book and DVD and showing at galleries his PowerPoint-based artwork. The expressions "PowerPoint Art" or "pptArt " are used to define a contemporary Italian artistic movement which believes that the corporate world can be a unique and exceptional source of inspiration for the artist.

POWERPOINT VIEWER

Microsoft
Microsoft
Office PowerPoint Viewer is a program used to run presentations on computers that do not have PowerPoint installed.

PowerPoint Viewer is installed by default with a Microsoft
Microsoft
Office 2003 installation for use with the Package for CD presentation file format. It is added by default to the same disk or network location that contains one or more such presentations. Beginning in PowerPoint 2007, the PowerPoint Viewer is instead provided as a download link from the Microsoft
Microsoft
Office Online
Office Online
Web site for Windows 2000 and newer systems. The latest version is PowerPoint Viewer 2010, available for Windows XP Service Pack 3 and newer.

Presentations password-protected for opening or modifying can be opened by PowerPoint Viewer. The Package for CD feature allows packaging any password-protected file or setting a new password for all packaged presentations. PowerPoint Viewer prompts for a password if the file is open password-protected.

PowerPoint Viewer supports opening presentations created using PowerPoint 97 and later. In addition, it supports all file content except OLE objects and scripting. The latest version of PowerPoint Viewer is only available for Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows computers. Support for Macintosh computers ended with PowerPoint 98 Viewer for the Classic Mac OS and Classic Environment , supporting System 7.5 to Mac OS X Tiger (10.4). As of 17 July 2017 , it remains available for download. PowerPoint 2016 functions as a read-only viewer if it is not activated.

VERSIONS

Microsoft
Microsoft
PowerPoint 2010 running on Windows 7 Icon for PowerPoint for Mac 2008 Microsoft
Microsoft
PowerPoint for Mac 2011

RELEASE HISTORY

LEGEND: Old version Older version, still supported CURRENT STABLE VERSION Latest preview version Future release

PowerPoint Release History DATE NAME VERSION SYSTEM COMMENTS

000000001987-04-01-0000April 1987 PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 1.0 Macintosh Shipped by Forethought, Inc.

000000001987-10-01-0000October 1987 PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 1.01 Macintosh Relabeled and shipped by Microsoft

000000001988-05-01-0000May 1988 PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 2.0 Macintosh

000000001988-12-01-0000December 1988 PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 2.01 Macintosh Added Genigraphics software and services

000000001990-05-01-0000May 1990 PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 2.0 Windows Announced with Windows 3.0, numbered to match contemporary Macintosh version

000000001992-05-01-0000May 1992 PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 3.0 Windows Announced with Windows 3.1

000000001992-09-01-0000September 1992 PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 3.0 Macintosh

000000001994-02-01-0000February 1994 PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 4.0 Windows

000000001994-10-01-0000October 1994 PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 4.0 Macintosh Native for Power Mac

000000001995-07-01-0000July 1995 PowerPoint 95 Old version, no longer supported: 7.0 Windows Versions 5.0 and 6.0 were skipped on Windows, so all apps in Office 95 were 7.0

000000001997-01-01-0000January 1997 PowerPoint 97 Old version, no longer supported: 8.0 Windows

000000001998-03-01-0000March 1998 PowerPoint 98 Old version, no longer supported: 8.0 Macintosh Versions 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 were skipped on Macintosh, to match Windows

000000001999-06-01-0000June 1999 PowerPoint 2000 Old version, no longer supported: 9.0 Windows Will up date presentations made in Power Point 95.

000000002000-08-01-0000August 2000 PowerPoint 2001 Old version, no longer supported: 9.0 Macintosh

000000002001-05-01-0000May 2001 PowerPoint XP Old version, no longer supported: 10.0 Windows

000000002001-11-01-0000November 2001 PowerPoint v. X Old version, no longer supported: 10.0 Macintosh For Mac OS X

000000002003-10-01-0000October 2003   PowerPoint 2003 Old version, no longer supported: 11.0 Windows

000000002004-06-01-0000June 2004 PowerPoint 2004 Old version, no longer supported: 11.0 Macintosh

000000002005-05-01-0000May 2005 PowerPoint Mobile Old version, no longer supported: 11.0 Windows Mobile 5

000000002007-01-01-0000January 2007 PowerPoint 2007 Older version, yet still supported: 12.0 Windows

000000002007-09-01-0000September 2007 PowerPoint Mobile Old version, no longer supported: 12.0 Windows Mobile 6

000000002008-01-01-0000January 2008 PowerPoint 2008 Old version, no longer supported: 12.0 Macintosh

000000002010-06-01-0001June 2010 PowerPoint 2010 Older version, yet still supported: 14.0 Windows Version 13.0 was skipped as unlucky

000000002010-06-01-0002June 2010 PowerPoint 2010 Web App Old version, no longer supported: 14.0 Web

000000002010-06-01-0003June 2010 PowerPoint Mobile 2010 Old version, no longer supported: 14.0 Windows Phone 7
Windows Phone 7

000000002010-11-01-0000November 2010 PowerPoint 2011 Older version, yet still supported: 14.0 Macintosh Version 13.0 was skipped as unlucky

000000002012-04-01-0000April 2012 PowerPoint Mobile 2010 Old version, no longer supported: 14.0 Nokia Symbian

000000002012-10-01-0000October 2012 PowerPoint Web App 2013 Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Web

000000002012-11-01-0001November 2012 PowerPoint Mobile 2013 Old version, no longer supported: 15.0 Windows Phone 8
Windows Phone 8

000000002012-11-01-0002November 2012 PowerPoint RT 2013 Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Windows RT

000000002013-01-01-0000January 2013 PowerPoint 2013 Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Windows

000000002013-06-01-0000June 2013 PowerPoint Mobile 2013 for iPhone Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 iPhone

000000002013-07-01-0000July 2013 PowerPoint Mobile 2013 for Android Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Android

000000002014-02-01-0000February 2014 PowerPoint 2013 Online Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Web

000000002014-03-01-0000March 2014 PowerPoint 2013 for iPad Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 iPad

000000002014-11-01-0000November 2014 PowerPoint Mobile 2013 for iOS Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 iOS

000000002015-06-01-0000June 2015 PowerPoint Mobile 2016 for Android Current stable version: 16.0 Android

000000002015-07-01-0001July 2015 PowerPoint 2016 for Macintosh Current stable version: 15.0 Macintosh (There had been no PowerPoint 2013 for Mac. )

000000002015-07-01-0002July 2015 PowerPoint Mobile 2016 Current stable version: 16.0 Windows 10 Mobile
Windows 10 Mobile

000000002015-07-01-0003July 2015 PowerPoint Mobile 2016 for iOS Current stable version: 16.0 iOS

000000002015-09-01-0000September 2015 PowerPoint 2016 for Windows Current stable version: 16.0 Windows

000000002017-06-01-0000June 2017 PowerPoint 2016 for Windows Store Latest preview version of a future release: 16.0 Windows 10 S

DATE NAME VERSION SYSTEM COMMENTS

DESCRIPTIONS

PowerPoint 1.0 (for Macintosh, April 1987 ) Innovations included: multiple slides in a single file, organizing slides with a slide sorter view and a title view (precursor of outline view), speakers' notes pages attached to each slide, printing of audience handouts with multiple slides per page, text with outlining styles and full word-processor formatting, graphic shapes with attached text for drawing diagrams and tables. It also shipped with a hardbound book as its manual.

"It produced overhead transparencies on a black-and-white Macintosh for laser printing. Presenters could now directly control their own overheads and would no longer have to work through the person with the typewriter. PowerPoint handled the task of making the overheads all look alike; one change reformats them all. Typographic fonts were better than an Orator typeball, and charts and diagrams could be imported from MacDraw, MacPaint, and Excel, thanks to the new Mac clipboard."

System requirements: (Mac) Original Macintosh or better, System 1.0 or higher, 512K RAM. PowerPoint 2.0 (for Macintosh, May 1988, and for Windows, May 1990 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Mac and Microsoft Office for Windows . Innovations included: color, more word processing features, find and replace, spell checking, color schemes for presentations, guide to color selection, ability to change color scheme retrospectively, shaded coloring for fills.

"It added color 35mm slides, transmitting the resulting file over a modem to Genigraphics for imaging on Genigraphics' film recorders and photo processing in Genigraphics' labs overnight. Genigraphics was the leading professional service bureau, having developed its own Digital Equipment Corp. PDP-11-based computer systems for its artists. After a short time, though, Genigraphics itself switched to PowerPoint."

System requirements: (Mac) Original Macintosh or better, System 4.1 or higher, 1 MB RAM. (Windows) 286 PC or higher, Windows 3.0, 1 MB RAM. PowerPoint 3.0 (for Windows, May 1992, and for Mac, September 1992 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
and Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Mac 3.0 . Innovations included: the first application designed exclusively for the new Windows 3.1 platform, full support for TrueType fonts (new in Windows 3.1), presentation templates, editing in outline view, new drawing, including freeform tool, autoshapes, flip, rotate, scale, align, and transforming imported pictures into their drawing primitives to make them editable, transitions between slides in slide show, progressive builds, incorporating sound and video. Animations included "flying bullets" where bullet points "flew" into the slide one by one, and some degree of Pen Computing support was included.

"It added video-out to feed the new video projectors, with effects that could replace a bank of synchronized slide projectors. This version added fades, dissolves, and other transitions, as well as animation of text and pictures, and could incorporate video clips with synchronized audio."

System requirements: (Windows) 286 PC or higher, Windows 3.1, 2 MB RAM. (Mac) Macintosh Plus or better, System 7 or higher, 4 MB RAM. PowerPoint 4.0 (for Windows, February 1994, and for Mac, October 1994 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 4.0 and Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Mac 4.2 . Innovations included: autolayouts, Word tables, rehearsal mode, hidden slides, and the "AutoContent Wizard."

Introduced a standard " Microsoft
Microsoft
Office" look and feel (shared with Word and Excel), with status bar, toolbars, tooltips. Full OLE 2.0 with in-place activation.

System requirements: (Windows) 386 PC or higher, Windows 3.1, 8 MB RAM. (Mac) 68020 Mac or better, System 7 or higher, 8 MB RAM. PowerPoint 7.0 (for Windows, July 1995 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 95 . Innovations included: new animation effects, real curves and textures, black and white view, autocorrect, insert symbol, meeting support features such as "Meeting Minder."

"A complete rewrite of the product from the ground up in C++, full object model with internal VBA programmability."

System requirements: (Windows) 386 DX PC or higher, Windows 95, 6 MB RAM. PowerPoint 8.0 (for Windows, January 1997, and for Mac, March 1998 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 97 and Microsoft
Microsoft
Office 98 Macintosh Edition . Innovations included: "Office Assistant," file compression, save to HTML, "Pack and Go," "AutoClipArt," transparent GIFs.

System requirements: (Windows) 486 PC or higher, 8 MB RAM. (Mac) PowerPC Mac or better, 16 MB RAM. PowerPoint 9.0 (for Windows, June 1999, and for Mac, August 2000 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 2000 and Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Mac 2001 . Innovations included: three-pane "browser" view (selectable list of slide miniatures or titles, large single slide, notes), autofit text, real tables, presentation conferencing, save to web, picture bullets, animated GIFs, aliased fonts.

System requirements: (Windows) Pentium 75MHz+, Windows 95 or higher, 20 MB RAM. (Mac) PowerPC Mac 120MHz+ or better, MacOS 8.5 or higher, minimum 48 MB RAM. PowerPoint 10.0 (for Windows, May 2001, and for Mac, November 2001 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows XP and Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Mac v.X . Innovations included: install from web, most clipart on web, use of Exchange and SharePoint
SharePoint
for storage and collaboration.

System requirements: (Windows) Pentium III, Windows 98 or higher, 40 MB RAM. (Mac) OS X (will not run under OS 9). PowerPoint 11.0 (for Windows, October 2003, for Mac, June 2004, and for Mobile, May 2005 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 2003 and Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Mac 2004 . Innovations included: tools visible to presenter during slide show (notes, thumbnails, time clock, re-order and edit slides), "Package for CD" to write presentation and viewer app to CD. " Microsoft
Microsoft
Producer for PowerPoint 2003" was a free plug-in from Microsoft, using a video camera, "that creates Web page presentations, with talking head narration, coordinated and timed to your existing PowerPoint presentation" for delivery over the web. The Genigraphics software to send a presentation for imaging as 35mm slides was removed from this version.

System requirements: (Windows) Pentium 233Mhz+, Windows XP or later, 128 MB RAM. (Mac) Power Mac G3 or better, OS X 10.2.8 or later, 256 MB RAM. PowerPoint 12.0 (for Windows, January 2007, for Mobile, September 2007, and for Mac, January 2008 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 2007 and Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Mac 2008 . Innovations included: new user interface ("Office Fluent") employing a changeable "ribbon" of tools across the top to replace menus and toolbars, SmartArt graphics, many graphical improvements in text and drawing, improved "Presenter View" (from 2003), widescreen slide formats. The "AutoContent Wizard" was removed from this version.

A major change in PowerPoint 2007 was from a binary file format, used from 1997 to 2003, to a new XML
XML
file format which evolved over further versions. See File
File
formats , below.

System requirements: (Windows) 500 MHz processor or higher, Windows XP with SP2 or later, 256 MB RAM. (Mac) 500 MHz processor or higher, MacOS X 10.4.9 or later, 512 MB RAM. PowerPoint 14.0 (for Windows, June 2010, for Web, June 2010, for Mobile, June 2010, for Mac, November 2010, and for Symbian, April 2012 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 2010 and Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Mac 2011 . Innovations included: Single document interface (SDI), sections within presentations, reading view, redesign of "Backstage" functions (under File
File
menu), save as video, insert video from web, embed video and audio, enhanced editing for video and for pictures, broadcast slideshow.

System requirements: (Windows) 500 MHz processor or higher, Windows XP with SP3 or later, 256 MB RAM, 512 MB RAM recommended for video. (Mac) Intel processor, Mac OS X 10.5.8 or later, 1 GB RAM. PowerPoint 15.0 (for Web, October 2012, for Mobile, November 2012, for Windows RT, November 2012, for Windows, January 2013, for iPhone, June 2013, for Android, July 2013, for Online, February 2014, for iPad, March 2014, for iOS, November 2014, and for Mac, July 2015, ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 2013 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2016 . Innovations included: Change default slide shape to 16:9 aspect ratio, online collaboration by multiple authors, user interface redesigned for multi-touch screens, improved audio, video, animations, and transitions, further changes to Presenter View. Clipart collections (and insertion tool) were removed, but available online.  

System requirements: (Windows) 1 GHz processor or faster, x86- or x64-bit processor with SSE2 instruction set, Windows 7 or later, 1 GB RAM (32-bit), 2 GB RAM (64-bit). (Mac) Intel processor, Mac OS X 10.10 or later, 4 GB RAM. PowerPoint 16.0 (for Android, June 2015, for Mobile, July 2015, for iOS, July 2015, for Windows, September 2015, , and for Windows Store, June 2017 ) Part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office for Windows 2016 . Innovations included: "Tell me" to search for program controls, "PowerPoint Designer" pane, Morph transition, real-time collaboration, "Zoom" to slides or sections in slideshow, and " Presentation
Presentation
Translator" for real-time translation of a presenter's spoken words to on-screen captions in any of 60+ languages, with the system analyzing the text of the PowerPoint presentation as context to increase the accuracy and relevance of the translations.  

System requirements: (Windows) 1 GHz processor or faster, x86- or x64-bit processor with SSE2 instruction set, Windows 7 with SP 1 or later, 2 GB RAM.

FILE FORMATS

PowerPoint Presentation
Presentation
FILENAME EXTENSION .ppt, .pptx, .pps, or .ppsx

INTERNET MEDIA TYPE application/vnd.ms-powerpoint

TYPE CODE uniforcom.microsoft.powerpoint.ppt

DEVELOPED BY Microsoft
Microsoft

TYPE OF FORMAT Presentation
Presentation

Since February 2008 the .ppt format specification can be freely downloaded, along with the specification for other Microsoft
Microsoft
Office formats.

In Microsoft
Microsoft
Office 2007, the binary file formats were replaced as the default format by the new XML
XML
-based Office Open XML
XML
formats, which are published as an open standard .

SEE ALSO

Similar apps

* Google Slides * Keynote (presentation software) * LibreOffice Impress
LibreOffice Impress
* OpenOffice Impress * Calligra Stage * Prezi * AppleWorks , a discontinued office suite that included a presentation program meant to compete with PowerPoint

Related topics

* Microsoft
Microsoft
Office password protection * Powerpoint-Karaoke

REFERENCES

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BBC News Online
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BBC
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Archive.org
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Microsoft
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Microsoft
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FURTHER READING

* Reuss, Elke I.; Signer, Beat; Norrie, Moira C. (2008). "PowerPoint Multimedia Presentations in Computer Science Education: What do Users Need?". Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Usability color:#555">(Registration required (help)).

* Also available at:

* Lowenthal, Patrick R. (2009). "Improving the Design of PowerPoint Presentations" (PDF). In Lowenthal, Patrick R.; Thomas, David; Thai, Anna; Yuhnke, Brian. The CU Online Handbook 2009. University of Colorado Denver. pp. 61–66.

* Kalyuga, Slava; Chandler, Paul; Sweller, John (2004). "When Redundant On-Screen Text in Multimedia Technical Instruction Can Interfere With Learning". Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 46 (3): 567–581. PMID 15573552 . doi :10.1518/hfes.46.3.567.50405 .

* Also available at: (Feb 2015).

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