The Info List - Microbiology

--- Advertisement ---

(from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).[1] Microbiology
encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, parasitology, mycology and bacteriology. Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include eubacteria and archaebacteria. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means.[2] Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, example 16s rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification. Viruses have been variably classified as organisms,[3] as they have been considered either as very simple microorganisms or very complex molecules. Prions, never considered microorganisms, have been investigated by virologists, however, as the clinical effects traced to them were originally presumed due to chronic viral infections, and virologists took search—discovering "infectious proteins". The existence of microorganisms was predicted many centuries before they were first observed, for example by the Jains in India and by Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
in ancient Rome. The first recorded microscope observation was of the fruiting bodies of moulds, by Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
in 1666, but the Jesuit priest Athanasius Kircher
Athanasius Kircher
was likely the first to see microbes, which he mentioned observing in milk and putrid material in 1658. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
is considered a father of microbiology as he observed and experimented with microscopic organisms in 1676, using simple microscopes of his own design. Scientific microbiology developed in the 19th century through the work of Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
and in medical microbiology Robert Koch.


1 History 2 The birth of bacteriology 3 Branches 4 Applications 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


hypothesized the existence of microorganisms.

The existence of microorganisms was hypothesized for many centuries before their actual discovery. The existence of unseen microbiological life was postulated by Jainism
which is based on Mahavira’s teachings as early as 6th century BCE.[4] Paul Dundas notes that Mahavira
asserted the existence of unseen microbiological creatures living in earth, water, air and fire.[5] Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
describe nigodas which are sub-microscopic creatures living in large clusters and having a very short life, said to pervade every part of the universe, even in tissues of plants and flesh of animals.[6] The Roman Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
made references to microbes when he warned against locating a homestead in the vicinity of swamps "because there are bred certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes, which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and thereby cause serious diseases."[7] In the golden age of Islamic civilization, some scientists hypothesized the existence of microorganisms, such as Avicenna
in his book The Canon of Medicine, Ibn Zuhr
Ibn Zuhr
(also known as Avenzoar) who discovered scabies mites, and Al-Razi who gave the earliest known description of smallpox in his book The Virtuous Life
(al-Hawi).[8] In 1546, Girolamo Fracastoro
Girolamo Fracastoro
proposed that epidemic diseases were caused by transferable seedlike entities that could transmit infection by direct or indirect contact, or vehicle transmission.[9]

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, often cited as the first to experiment with microorganisms.[10][11][12][13]

Van Leeuwenhoek's microscopes by Henry Baker[14]

Martinus Beijerinck, the founding father of the Delft
School of Microbiology, in his laboratory. Beijerinck is often considered as a founder of virology, environmental microbiology, and industrial microbiology.[15]

In 1676, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who lived most of his life in Delft, Holland, observed bacteria and other microorganisms using a single-lens microscope of his own design.[16][1] He is considered a father of microbiology as he pioneered the use of simple single-lensed microscopes of his own design.[16] While Van Leeuwenhoek is often cited as the first to observe microbes, Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
made his first recorded microscopic observation, of the fruiting bodies of moulds, in 1665.[17] It has, however, been suggested that a Jesuit priest called Athanasius Kircher
Athanasius Kircher
was the first to observe micro-organisms.[18] Kircher was among the first to design magic lanterns for projection purposes, so he must have been well acquainted with the properties of lenses.[18] He wrote "Concerning the wonderful structure of things in nature, investigated by Microscope" in 1646, stating "who would believe that vinegar and milk abound with an innumerable multitude of worms." He also noted that putrid material is full of innumerable creeping animalcules. He published his Scrutinium Pestis (Examination of the Plague) in 1658, stating correctly that the disease was caused by microbes, though what he saw was most likely red or white blood cells rather than the plague agent itself.[18] The birth of bacteriology[edit]

Innovative laboratory glassware and experimental methods developed by Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
and other biologists contributed to the young field of bacteriology in the late 19th century.

The field of bacteriology (later a subdiscipline of microbiology) was founded in the 19th century by Ferdinand Cohn, a botanist whose studies on algae and photosynthetic bacteria led him to describe several bacteria including Bacillus
and Beggiatoa. Cohn was also the first to formulate a scheme for the taxonomic classification of bacteria, and to discover endospores.[19] Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
and Robert Koch were contemporaries of Cohn, and are often considered to be the father of microbiology[18] and medical microbiology, respectively.[20] Pasteur is most famous for his series of experiments designed to disprove the then widely held theory of spontaneous generation, thereby solidifying microbiology’s identity as a biological science.[21] One of his students, Adrien Certes, is considered the founder of marine microbiology.[22] Pasteur also designed methods for food preservation (pasteurization) and vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax, fowl cholera and rabies.[1] Koch is best known for his contributions to the germ theory of disease, proving that specific diseases were caused by specific pathogenic micro-organisms. He developed a series of criteria that have become known as the Koch's postulates. Koch was one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture resulting in his description of several novel bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis.[1] While Pasteur and Koch are often considered the founders of microbiology, their work did not accurately reflect the true diversity of the microbial world because of their exclusive focus on micro-organisms having direct medical relevance. It was not until the late 19th century and the work of Martinus Beijerinck
Martinus Beijerinck
and Sergei Winogradsky that the true breadth of microbiology was revealed.[1] Beijerinck made two major contributions to microbiology: the discovery of viruses and the development of enrichment culture techniques.[23] While his work on the tobacco mosaic virus established the basic principles of virology, it was his development of enrichment culturing that had the most immediate impact on microbiology by allowing for the cultivation of a wide range of microbes with wildly different physiologies. Winogradsky was the first to develop the concept of chemolithotrophy and to thereby reveal the essential role played by micro-organisms in geochemical processes.[24] He was responsible for the first isolation and description of both nitrifying and nitrogen-fixing bacteria.[1] French-Canadian microbiologist Felix d'Herelle co-discovered bacteriophages in 1917 and was one of the earliest applied microbiologists.[25] Joseph Lister was the first to use phenol disinfectant on the open wounds of patients.[26] Branches[edit]

A university food microbiology laboratory

Main article: Branches of microbiology The branches of microbiology can be classified into pure and applied sciences, or divided according to taxonomy, as is the case with bacteriology, mycology, protozoology, and phycology. There is considerable overlap between the specific branches of microbiology with each other and with other disciplines, and certain aspects of these branches can extend beyond the traditional scope of microbiology[27][28] Applications[edit]

Fermenting tanks with yeast being used to brew beer

While some fear microbes due to the association of some microbes with various human diseases, many microbes are also responsible for numerous beneficial processes such as industrial fermentation (e.g. the production of alcohol, vinegar and dairy products), antibiotic production and act as molecular vehicles to transfer DNA to complex organisms such as plants and animals. Scientists
have also exploited their knowledge of microbes to produce biotechnologically important enzymes such as Taq polymerase, reporter genes for use in other genetic systems and novel molecular biology techniques such as the yeast two-hybrid system.[citation needed] Bacteria
can be used for the industrial production of amino acids. Corynebacterium glutamicum is one of the most important bacterial species with an annual production of more than two million tons of amino acids, mainly L-glutamate and L-lysine.[29] Since some bacteria have the ability to synthesize antibiotics, they are used for medicinal purposes, such as Streptomyces
to make aminoglycoside antibiotics.[30] A variety of biopolymers, such as polysaccharides, polyesters, and polyamides, are produced by microorganisms. Microorganisms are used for the biotechnological production of biopolymers with tailored properties suitable for high-value medical application such as tissue engineering and drug delivery. Microorganisms are used for the biosynthesis of xanthan, alginate, cellulose, cyanophycin, poly(gamma-glutamic acid), levan, hyaluronic acid, organic acids, oligosaccharides and polysaccharide, and polyhydroxyalkanoates.[31] Microorganisms are beneficial for microbial biodegradation or bioremediation of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes and subsurface pollution in soils, sediments and marine environments. The ability of each microorganism to degrade toxic waste depends on the nature of each contaminant. Since sites typically have multiple pollutant types, the most effective approach to microbial biodegradation is to use a mixture of bacterial and fungal species and strains, each specific to the biodegradation of one or more types of contaminants.[32] Symbiotic microbial communities confer benefits to their human and animal hosts health including aiding digestion, producing beneficial vitamins and amino acids, and suppressing pathogenic microbes. Some benefit may be conferred by eating fermented foods, probiotics (bacteria potentially beneficial to the digestive system) or prebiotics (substances consumed to promote the growth of probiotic microorganisms).[33][34] The ways the microbiome influences human and animal health, as well as methods to influence the microbiome are active areas of research.[35] Research has suggested that microorganisms could be useful in the treatment of cancer. Various strains of non-pathogenic clostridia can infiltrate and replicate within solid tumors. Clostridial vectors can be safely administered and their potential to deliver therapeutic proteins has been demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models.[36] See also[edit]

Archaea Biosafety Microbes and Man

Professional organizations

American Society for Microbiology Federation of European Microbiological Societies Society for Applied Microbiology Society for General Microbiology


Critical Reviews in Microbiology International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology Journal of Bacteriology Nature Reviews Microbiology


^ a b c d e f Madigan M, Martinko J (editors) (2006). Brock Biology
of Microorganisms (13th ed.). Pearson Education. p. 1096. ISBN 0-321-73551-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Nitesh RA, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH (2011). "Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation". Microbiological Reviews. 59 (1): 143–169. PMC 239358 . PMID 7535888.  ^ Rice G (2007-03-27). "Are Viruses Alive?". Retrieved 2007-07-23.  ^ Mahavira
is dated 599 BC - 527 BC. See Dundas, Paul; John Hinnels ed. (2002). The Jain. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26606-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) p. 24 ^ Dundas, Paul (2002) p. 88 ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (1998). The Jaina Path of Purification. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 109. ISBN 81-208-1578-5.  ^ Marcus Terentius Varro. Varro on Agriculture 1, xii Loeb. ^ "فى الحضارة الإسلامية - ديوان العرب" [ Microbiology
in Islam]. Diwanalarab.com (in Arabic). Retrieved 14 April 2017.  ^ Fracastoro, Girolamo (1546), De Contagione et Contagiosis Morbis transl. Wilmer Cave Wright (1930). New York: G.P. Putnam's ^ Dobell, Clifford (1932). Antony van Leeuwenhoek and His "Little Animals": being some account of the father of protozoology and bacteriology and his multifarious discoveries in these disciplines ( Dover Publications ed.). New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.  ^ Corliss, John O (1975). "Three Centuries of Protozoology: A Brief Tribute to its Founding Father, A. van Leeuwenhoek of Delft". The Journal of Protozoology. 22 (1): 3–7. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1975.tb00934.x.  ^ Ford, Brian J. (1992). "From Dilettante to Diligent Experimenter: a Reappraisal of Leeuwenhoek as microscopist and investigator". Biology History. 5 (3).  ^ Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H.: The Strange Little Animals of Antony van Leeuwenhoek — Surgical Revolution, in Surgical Revolutions: A Historical and Philosophical View. (World Scientific Publishing, 2008, ISBN 978-9814329620) ^ Chung, King-thom; Liu, Jong-kang: Pioneers in Microbiology: The Human Side of Science. (World Scientific Publishing, 2017, ISBN 978-9813202948). "We may fairly call Leeuwenhoek “The first microbiologist” because he was the first individual to actually culture, see, and describe a large array of microbial life. He actually measured the multiplication of the bugs. What is more amazing is that he published his discoveries." ^ Bennett, J.W. (1996). Martinus Willem Beijerinck: Dutch father of industrial microbiology. (SIM News 46(2):69–72) ^ a b Lane, Nick (6 March 2015). "The Unseen World: Reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) 'Concerning Little Animal'". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 370 (1666): 20140344. doi:10.1098/rstb.2014.0344. PMC 4360124 . PMID 25750239.  ^ Gest H (2005). "The remarkable vision of Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(1635-1703): first observer of the microbial world". Perspect. Biol. Med. 48 (2): 266–72. doi:10.1353/pbm.2005.0053. PMID 15834198.  ^ a b c d Wainwright, Milton (2003). "An Alternative View of the Early History of Microbiology". Advances in Applied Microbiology. Advances in Applied Microbiology. 52: 333–55. doi:10.1016/S0065-2164(03)01013-X. ISBN 978-0-12-002654-8. PMID 12964250.  ^ Drews, G. (1999). "Ferdinand Cohn, among the Founder of Microbiology". ASM News. 65 (8): 547.  ^ Ryan, K.J.; Ray, C.G., eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.  ^ Bordenave, G. (2003). " Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
(1822-1895)". Microbes Infect. 5 (6): 553–60. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(03)00075-3. PMID 12758285.  ^ Adler, Antony; Dücker, Erik (2017-04-05). "When Pasteurian Science Went to Sea: The Birth of Marine Microbiology". Journal of the History of Biology: 1–27. doi:10.1007/s10739-017-9477-8.  ^ Johnson, J. (2001) [1998]. "Martinus Willem Beijerinck". APSnet. American Phytopathological Society. Archived from the original on 2010-06-20. Retrieved May 2, 2010.  Retrieved from Internet Archive January 12, 2014. ^ Paustian T, Roberts G (2009). "Beijerinck and Winogradsky Initiate the Field of Environmental Microbiology". Through the Microscope: A Look at All Things Small (3rd ed.). Textbook Consortia. § 1–14. Retrieved May 2, 2010.  ^ Keen, E.C. (2012). " Felix d'Herelle and Our Microbial Future". Future Microbiology. 7 (12): 1337–1339. doi:10.2217/fmb.12.115. PMID 23231482.  ^ Lister, Joseph (2010-08-01). "The Classic: On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 468 (8): 2012–2016. doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1320-x. PMC 2895849 . PMID 20361283.  ^ "Branches of Microbiology". General MicroScience. 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ Brock Biology
of Microorganisms (14th ed.). ISBN 978-0321897398.  ^ Burkovski A (editor). (2008). Corynebacteria: Genomics
and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 1-904455-30-1. Retrieved 2016-03-25.  ^ Fourmy, Dominique; Recht, Michael I.; Blanchard, Scott C; Puglisi, Joseph D. (1996). "Structure of the A site of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA complexed with an Aminoglycoside Antibiotic" (PDF). Science. 274 (5291): 1367–1371. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1367F. doi:10.1126/science.274.5291.1367. PMID 8910275. Retrieved 2016-04-05.  ^ Rehm BHA (editor). (2008). Microbial Production of Biopolymers and Polymer Precursors: Applications and Perspectives. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-36-3. Retrieved 2016-03-25.  ^ Diaz E (editor). (2008). Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics
and Molecular Biology
(1st ed.). Caister Academic Press. ISBN 1-904455-17-4. Retrieved 2016-03-25.  ^ MacFarlane, GT; Cummings, JH (1999). " Probiotics
and prebiotics: Can regulating the activities of intestinal bacteria benefit health?". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 318 (7189): 999–1003. doi:10.1136/bmj.318.7189.999. PMC 1115424 . PMID 10195977.  ^ Tannock GW, ed. (2005). Probiotics
and Prebiotics: Scientific Aspects. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-01-1. Retrieved 2016-03-25.  ^ Wenner, Melinda (30 November 2007). "Humans Carry More Bacterial Cells than Human Ones". Scientific American. Retrieved 14 April 2017.  ^ Mengesha; et al. (2009). "Clostridia in Anti-tumor Therapy". Clostridia: Molecular Biology
in the Post-genomic Era. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-38-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Microbiology.

Wikisource has original works on the topic: Microbiology

At Wikiversity, you can learn more and teach others about Microbiology at the Department of Microbiology

nature.com Latest Research, reviews and news on microbiology Microbes.info is a microbiology information portal containing a vast collection of resources including articles, news, frequently asked questions, and links pertaining to the field of microbiology. Microbiology
on In Our Time at the BBC. Immunology, Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Mycology
and Infectious Disease

Annual Review of Microbiology

Library resources about Microbiology

Resources in your library

v t e

Branches of life science and biology

Anatomy Astrobiology Biochemistry Biogeography Biohistory Biomechanics Biophysics Bioinformatics Biostatistics Botany Cell biology Cellular microbiology Chemical biology Chronobiology Computational biology Conservation biology Cytogenetics Developmental biology Ecology Embryology Epidemiology Epigenetics Evolutionary biology Freshwater biology Geobiology Genetics Genomics Histology Human biology Immunology Marine biology Mathematical biology Microbiology Molecular biology Mycology Neontology Neuroscience Nutrition Origin of life Paleontology Parasitology Pathology Pharmacology Phylogenetics Physiology Quantum biology Sociobiology Structural biology Systematics Systems biology Taxonomy Teratology Toxicology Virology Virophysics Zoology

v t e

Microbiology: Bacteria

Medical microbiology

infection Coley's toxins Exotoxin Lysogenic cycle Pathogenic bacteria resistance

Biochemistry and ecology

Oxygen preference




Facultative Obligate

Microaerophile Nanaerobe Aerotolerant


Extremophile Human flora

Gut Lung Mouth Skin Vaginal (In pregnancy) Placental Uterine Salivary

Microbial metabolism Nitrogen fixation Microbial ecology Primary nutritional groups Substrate preference

Lipophilic Saccharophilic


Bacterial cellular morphologies Coccus


Bacillus Coccobacillus Spiral


Cell envelope

Cell membrane Cell wall: Peptidoglycan


Gram-positive bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria
only: Teichoic acid Lipoteichoic acid Endospore Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
only: Bacterial outer membrane

Porin Lipopolysaccharide

Periplasmic space Mycobacteria only: Arabinogalactan Mycolic acid

Outside envelope

Bacterial capsule Slime layer S-layer Glycocalyx Pilus Fimbria Non-motile bacteria




(classifications) Bacterial phyla Former groupings: Schizomycetes Monera Prokaryota

Gracilicutes Firmicutes Mollicutes Mendosicutes

v t e

Microbiology: Fungus



teleomorph/sexual: Zygospore Ascospore/Ascus Basidiospore/Basidium/Teliospore

anamorph/asexual: Sporangium Conidium Chlamydospore Oidium Pycniospore


Hypha Haustorium Mycelium Cell wall

Growth patterns

Dimorphic fungi Mold Yeast Mushroom

v t e

Microbiology: Protistology: Protists

Former classifications


Mastigophora/Flagellates Sarcodina/Amoeboids

Testate Heliozoa

Infusoria/Ciliates Sporozoa

Algae Cryptogams Thallophytes Fungus-like organisms Slime molds Ambiregnal protists




"green algae": Phycoplast Phragmoplast Flagellar apparatus


Cyanelles Phycobilisomes

Red algae:

Pit connection Phycobilisomes



Mastigonemes Periplast


Coccolith Haptonema






Brown algae:

Lamina Pneumatocyst



Alveoli Trichocyst


Dinokaryon Dinocyst Theca


Cilium Cirrus Macronucleus Micronucleus


Rhoptry Apicoplast Microneme



Cruciform division



Kinetoplast Glycosome





Macrocyst Sorocarp



Collar of microvilli


Levels of organization


Monadoid Amoeboid Coccoid

Colonial s.s.

Colonial flagellated Tetrasporal/capsal/palmelloid Sarcinoid Coenobial

Filamentous/trichal/hyphal Parenchymatous Pseudoparenchymatous/plektenchymatic Membranous/thalloid/foliaceous Multinucleated

Syncytial Coenocytic

Siphonous Siphonocladous


Cell surface structures

Simple cell membrane Mucilage Scale Frustule Cell wall Lorica Skeleton Test Theca Periplast/pellicle


Flagellum Cilium Pseudopodia Gliding motility


Hydrogenosome Mitosome


Nucleomorph Multinucleate cells


Dikaryon Heterokaryon Mitosis
in protists

Open Closed Orthomitosis Pleuromitosis

Meiosis in protists

Gametic Zygotic Sporic


Cyst Cytostome Fimbriae Extrusome Contractile vacuole Eyespot apparatus Pyrenoid Axostyle Mastigont system

and physiology

Microbial ecology

Microbial biogeography Baas-Becking hypothesis


cycles Fertilization

Nutrition: Autotrophy



Phagotrophy Osmotrophy Saprotrophy Parasitism

Biotrophy Necrotrophy

Mixotrophy Auxotrophy

v t e

Microbiology: Virus


Viral envelope Capsid Viral protein

Viral life cycle

Viral entry Viral replication Viral shedding Virus
latency Viroplasm


Reassortment Antigenic shift Antigenic drift Phenotype mixing

By host

Bacteriophage Virophage Mycovirus Plant virus
Plant virus
(Plant to Human) Animal virus Human virome Archea virus Amoeba


Viral disease Helper virus Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections Viral load Virus-like particle Viral quantification Antiviral drug Neurotropic virus Oncovirus Social history of viruses Satellite virus Giant virus

v t e



Archaea Bacterium Cyanobacteria Fungi Nanobacterium Prokaryote Protist Protozoa Virus


Microbial biogeography Microbial genetics Microbial intelligence Microbial metabolism Microbial phylogenetics Microbial population biology Mycology Virology


Microbial cooperation Microbial ecology Microbial food web Microbial loop Microbial synergy Host microbe interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans


Dark field microscopy Impedance microbiology Microbial cytology Microbiological culture Staining


Marine microorganism


Marine microbial symbiosis International Census of Marine Microbes

Human related

Microbes in human culture Food microbiology Microbial oil Microbial symbiosis and immunity Nylon-eating Human microbiota

asthma dysbiosis fecal Human Microbiome Project gut lung mouth skin vagina

in pregnancy

placenta uterus

Protein production


Lines on the Antiquity of Microbes Microbially induced sedimentary structure Microbial dark matter Physical factors affecting microbial life

v t e

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Microscopic discoveries 1

Microscopic organisms

Bacteria Ciliate Giardia Infusoria Protist Protozoa Rotifer Volvox


(sperm cells) Red blood cells Crystals
in gouty tophi

General topics

Animalcule Bacteriology Protozoology Protistology Spontaneous generation Preformationism Microscopic discovery of microorganisms Microscopic scale History of biology History of microbiology Natural history Optical microscopy History of microscopy History of the microscope Invention of the optical microscope Timeline of microscope technology Golden Age of Dutch science and technology Science and technology in the Dutch Republic Royal Society Scientific Revolution Age of Reason

Related people

Clifford Dobell
Clifford Dobell
(Leeuwenhoek scholar) Brian J. Ford (Leeuwenhoek scholar) Galileo Galilei Regnier de Graaf Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(author of Micrographia) Nicolaas Hartsoeker Nicolas Steno Jan Swammerdam Johannes Vermeer


Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis Leeuwenhoek (crater) Leeuwenhoek Lecture Leeuwenhoek Medal Leeuwenhoeckia Levenhookia Leeuwenhoekiella List of people considered father or mother of a scientific field

1 First observed, described, and studied by van Leeuwenhoek.

Authority control

GND: 4316357-9 HDS: 44244 NDL: 00560688

Molecular and cellular biology por