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MicroProse
MicroProse
Software Inc. was an American video game publisher and developer founded by "Wild" Bill Stealey and Sid Meier
Sid Meier
in 1982. It developed and published numerous games, many of which are regarded as groundbreaking, classics and cult titles, including starting the Civilization
Civilization
and X-COM
X-COM
series. Most of their internally developed titles were vehicle simulation and strategy games. In 1993, the company lost most of their UK-based personnel and became a subsidiary of Spectrum HoloByte. Subsequent cuts and corporate policies led Sid Meier, Jeff Briggs and Brian Reynolds leaving and forming Firaxis Games
Firaxis Games
in 1996, as MicroProse
MicroProse
closed its ex-Simtex development studio in Austin, Texas. In 1998, following an unsuccessful buyout attempt by GT Interactive Software, the struggling MicroProse
MicroProse
(Spectrum HoloByte) became a wholly owned subsidiary of Hasbro Interactive
Hasbro Interactive
and its development studios in Alameda, California and Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
were closed the following year. In 2001, MicroProse
MicroProse
ceased to exist as an entity and Hasbro
Hasbro
Interactive sold the MicroProse
MicroProse
intellectual properties to Infogrames Entertainment, SA. MicroProse
MicroProse
UK's former main office in Chipping Sodbury was closed in 2002, followed by the company's former headquarters in Hunt Valley, Maryland
Hunt Valley, Maryland
in 2003. The brand was revived in 2007 when Interactive Game Group acquired it from Atari
Atari
Interactive, formerly Infogrames. The MicroProse
MicroProse
brand was licensed to the Legacy Engineering Group for consumer electronics. As of 2010, the MicroProse
MicroProse
brand is owned by Cybergun Group.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Independent company (1982–1993)

1.1.1 1980s 1.1.2 1990s

1.2 Under Spectrum HoloByte
Spectrum HoloByte
(1993–1998) 1.3 Under Hasbro Interactive
Hasbro Interactive
(1998–2001) 1.4 Under Infogrames
Infogrames
(2001–2003)

2 Games 3 Legacy

3.1 Brand name
Brand name
for Interactive Game Group

4 Financial performance 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Independent company (1982–1993)[edit] 1980s[edit] In summer 1982, mutual friends who knew of their shared interest in aviation arranged for retired military pilot Bill Stealey and computer programmer Sid Meier
Sid Meier
to meet in Las Vegas, Nevada. After Meier surprised Stealey by repeatedly defeating him when playing Red Baron, he explained that he had analyzed the game's programming to predict future actions and claimed that he could design a better home computer game in one week. Stealey promised to sell the game if Meier could develop it. Although Meier needed two months to produce Hellcat Ace, Stealey sold 50 copies in his first sales appointment and the game became the first product of their new company.[1] They planned to name it Smugger's Software, but chose MicroProse. (In 1987 the company agreed to change its name to avoid confusion with MicroPro International, but MicroPro decided to rename itself after its WordStar
WordStar
word processor).[2] MicroProse
MicroProse
became profitable in its second month and had $10 million in sales by 1986.[3] MicroProse
MicroProse
advertised its first batch of games in 1982, under the headline "Experience the MicroProse
MicroProse
Challenge!!!" All three were written by Sid Meier
Sid Meier
for the Atari 8-bit family
Atari 8-bit family
of home computers: platformer Floyd of the Jungle,[4] 2D shooter Chopper Rescue,[5] and first-person airplane combat game Hellcat Ace.[6] The two arcade-style games quickly disappeared, but Hellcat Ace began a series of increasingly sophisticated 8-bit flight simulation games, including Spitfire Ace (1982) and Solo Flight (1983). MicroProse
MicroProse
also released the air traffic control game Kennedy Approach, written by Andy Hollis, in 1985.[7]

Gregg Tavares's Gunship Design Team flight jacket

By 1987, Computer Gaming World
Computer Gaming World
considered MicroProse
MicroProse
as one of the top five computer game companies, alongside Activision, Electronic Arts and Epyx. As the industry changed over to 16-bit and 32-bit
32-bit
CPUs in the latter half of the 1980s, MicroProse
MicroProse
started supporting IBM PC compatibles and the Motorola 68000-based Amiga
Amiga
and Atari
Atari
ST. By 1987 the PC market was, along with the Commodore 64, the company's top priority. MicroProse
MicroProse
also started a branch in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to cross-publish titles in Europe,[3] and to import some European titles to be published in the United States. Notable products from this period include simulation games F-15 Strike Eagle, F-19 Stealth Fighter, Gunship, Project Stealth Fighter, Red Storm Rising and Silent Service, and action-strategy games such as Sid Meier's Pirates!
Sid Meier's Pirates!
and Sword of the Samurai. Several games from different developers were also distributed by MicroProse
MicroProse
under the labels "Firebird" and "Rainbird" (acquired after buying Telecomsoft in 1989), including Carrier Command, Midwinter and Savage. 1990s[edit] In the early 1990s, MicroProse
MicroProse
released the hit strategy games Sid Meier's Railroad Tycoon and Sid Meier's Civilization, designed by Meier and developed by its internal division, MPS Labs, on multiple platforms. Critically acclaimed, both of them quickly became two of the best-selling strategy games of all time and spawned multiple sequels. Some of MicroProse's simulation games from the 1980s received remakes in the early 1990s, such as Night Hawk: F-117A Stealth Fighter 2.0, Silent Service II
Silent Service II
and Gunship 2000, and made some first cautious attempts to expand into the console market with F-117A Stealth Fighter and Super Strike Eagle
Super Strike Eagle
( MicroProse
MicroProse
also ported several their titles to the 16- and 32-bit
32-bit
consoles during the mid-1990s). Brand new simulation and strategy titles included 1942: The Pacific Air War, Dogfight, Fields of Glory, Formula One Grand Prix, Harrier Jump Jet, Knights of the Sky, Starlord, Subwar 2050 and Task Force 1942. At the same time, MicroProse
MicroProse
attempted to diversify beyond its niche roots as a sim and strategy game company. Encouraged by the success of Pirates!, MicroProse
MicroProse
designed further action-strategy titles such as Covert Action (also designed by Sid Meier) and Hyperspeed, and experimented with the role-playing genre by developing BloodNet
BloodNet
and Darklands (in addition to publishing The Legacy: Realm of Terror). The company invested (and subsequently effectively lost) a large sum of money to create its arcade game division as well as their own graphic adventure game engine. However, the arcade division was canceled after making only two games: F-15 Strike Eagle: The Arcade Game and Battle of the Solar System (both of which featured high-end 3D graphics but failed to become popular as they were too different from existing machines), while the adventure game engine was used for just three games: Rex Nebular and the Cosmic Gender Bender, Return of the Phantom and Dragonsphere, before it was sold off to Sanctuary Woods.[citation needed] In August 1991, MicroProse
MicroProse
filed for an Initial Public Offering. The company hoped to raise $18 million to help repay debts from its unsuccessful arcade games.[8] During the same period, MicroProse created two labels: MicroStyle (UK), and MicroPlay Software (US), using them for publishing a variety of externally developed games, such as Challenge of the Five Realms, Command HQ, Global Conquest, Elite Plus, Flames of Freedom, Rick Dangerous, Stunt Car Racer, Xenophobe and XF5700 Mantis.[9][10] In 1992 MicroProse
MicroProse
acquired Paragon Software.[11] It also acquired Leeds-based flight simulation developer Vektor Grafix,[12] which had already developed titles for them (such as B-17 Flying Fortress), turning it into a satellite development studio named MicroProse
MicroProse
Leeds. Under Spectrum HoloByte
Spectrum HoloByte
(1993–1998)[edit] In December 1993, following Black Wednesday
Black Wednesday
in the UK, MicroProse Software Inc. merged with Spectrum HoloByte, another game company that specialized in simulation games, to form MicroProse
MicroProse
Inc.[13] Bill Stealey, who was good friends with Spectrum HoloByte
Spectrum HoloByte
president Gilman Louie, convinced Louie to help MicroProse
MicroProse
as Stealey was afraid that some bank would not understand the company culture. MicroProse
MicroProse
UK was forced to close its two satellite studios of MicroProse
MicroProse
in northern England and dispose of over 40 staff at its Chipping Sodbury
Chipping Sodbury
head office (Microprose Chipping Sodbury). A core group of artists, designers, and programmers left MicroProse
MicroProse
UK to join Psygnosis, which opened an office in Stroud
Stroud
specifically to attract ex-MicroProse employees. In 1994, Stealey departed MicroProse
MicroProse
and Spectrum HoloByte agreed to buy out his shares. He later commented, "Spectrum Holobyte had a lot of cash and very few products. Microprose had a lot of products and no cash. It was a great marriage, but the new company only needed one chairman, so I resigned."[14] Stealey went on to found an independent game company Interactive Magic (also specializing in vehicle simulators and strategy games), while Andy Hollis departed for Origin Systems, and Sandy Petersen
Sandy Petersen
joined id Software. Despite cuts, Spectrum Holobyte managed to line up several big name licenses, including Top Gun
Top Gun
(Top Gun: Fire At Will), Magic: The Gathering (Magic: The Gathering), Star Trek: The Next Generation (A Final Unity, Birth of the Federation, Klingon Honor Guard) and MechWarrior (MechCommander, MechWarrior 3). Strategy game UFO: Enemy Unknown (X-COM: UFO
UFO
Defense) proved to be an unanticipated hit in 1994, spawning multiple sequels. In 1996, Spectrum HoloByte/MicroProse bought out Simtex, earlier a developer of MicroProse-published bestsellers Master of Orion
Master of Orion
and Master of Magic. Simtex
Simtex
was re-branded as MicroProse
MicroProse
Texas ( Master of Orion
Master of Orion
II: Battle at Antares), based in Austin, Texas. Other MicroProse
MicroProse
developed and/or published games during that period included 7th Legion, Addiction Pinball, AEGIS: Guardian of the Fleet, Civilization
Civilization
II, Dark Earth, F-15 Strike Eagle III, Fleet Defender, Grand Prix 2, Pizza Tycoon, Sid Meier's Colonization, Tinhead, Transport Tycoon, X-COM: Apocalypse, X-COM: Interceptor and X-COM: Terror from the Deep. Insufficient financial resources largely prevented MicroProse
MicroProse
from developing games for other game platforms, therefore MicroProse
MicroProse
concentrated on the PC game market.[15] MicroProse
MicroProse
Software continued as separate subsidiary company under Spectrum HoloByte
Spectrum HoloByte
until 1996. That year, Spectrum HoloByte
Spectrum HoloByte
started cutting a majority of the MicroProse
MicroProse
staff to reduce costs. Soon after, it consolidated all of its titles under the MicroProse
MicroProse
brand (essentially renaming itself MicroProse). MicroProse's remaining co-founder Sid Meier, along with Jeff Briggs and Brian Reynolds, departed the company after the staff cut, forming a new company named Firaxis Games.[16] On October 5, 1997, GT Interactive Software
GT Interactive Software
announced that it had signed a definitive agreement to acquire MicroProse
MicroProse
for $250 million in stock, the deal had even been unanimously approved by the Board of Directors of both companies. After the announcement MicroProse's stock price reached $7 a share. GT Interactive expected the deal to be completed by the end of that year.[17][18] But the acquisition was cancelled on December 5, as according to both CEOs "the time is simply not right" for the deal. MicroProse's stock plummeted to just $2.31 after the announcement of the deal's cancellation.[19] According to Computer Gaming World, the merger was annulled due to a "fundamental" disagreement over how the joint company would be writing off its research and development costs, as MicroProse
MicroProse
insisted to keep their method of paying off the developer immediately.[20] In November 1997, MicroProse
MicroProse
was sued by both Avalon Hill
Avalon Hill
(who had the U.S. publishing rights to the name Civilization)[21] and Activision for copyright infringement. MicroProse
MicroProse
responded by buying Hartland Trefoil, which was the original designer and manufacturer of the Civilization
Civilization
board game, and then sued Avalon Hill
Avalon Hill
and Activision
Activision
for trademark infringement and unfair business practices as a result of Activision's decision to develop and publish Civilization
Civilization
video games.[22] Because Hasbro
Hasbro
was negotiating the acquisition of both Avalon Hill
Avalon Hill
and MicroProse, the lawsuits were settled in July 1998. Under the terms of the settlement MicroProse
MicroProse
became the sole owner of the rights of the name Civilization
Civilization
and Activision
Activision
acquired a license to publish a Civilization
Civilization
video game which was later titled Civilization: Call to Power.[21][23] Under Hasbro Interactive
Hasbro Interactive
(1998–2001)[edit] In preparation for its sale, MicroProse
MicroProse
closed down its studio in Austin in June 1998; as a result of the closure, 35 employees lost their jobs.[24] On August 14, 1998, Hasbro
Hasbro
issued a $70 million cash tender offer to purchase all MicroProse's shares for $6 each.[25] This deal was completed on September 14, when Hasbro
Hasbro
bought 91% of MicroProse's shares and announced that MicroProse
MicroProse
had become a wholly owned subsidiary.[26][27] The remaining shares would also be acquired for $6 in cash. MicroProse
MicroProse
was merged with Hasbro
Hasbro
Interactive.[28] At the time of Hasbro's acquisition, MicroProse
MicroProse
had 343 employees, including 135 at Alameda, California
Alameda, California
( MicroProse
MicroProse
Alameda), with a total operating cost of $20 million per year.[29] Besides the development studio in Alameda, MicroProse
MicroProse
had three other studios: Hunt Valley, Maryland
Hunt Valley, Maryland
(Microprose, Hunt Valley); Chapel Hill, North Carolina; and Chipping Sodbury, England. In December 1998, MicroProse
MicroProse
finally managed to publish Falcon 4.0
Falcon 4.0
(in development by Spectrum HoloByte
Spectrum HoloByte
since 1992), to disappointing sales. In December 1999, Hasbro Interactive
Hasbro Interactive
closed down former MicroProse studios in Alameda and Chapel Hill.[30][31] Among titles in development that got canceled during that period was X-COM: Genesis. The last MicroProse
MicroProse
developed game under Hasbro, B-17 Flying Fortress: The Mighty 8th, was published in 2000. Under Infogrames
Infogrames
(2001–2003)[edit] In January 2001, after French game publisher Infogrames
Infogrames
Entertainment, SA (IESA) took over Hasbro Interactive
Hasbro Interactive
for $100 million,[32] MicroProse
MicroProse
ceased to exist and the long development of X-COM: Alliance was finally aborted. Their latest title in the U.S., European Air War, was reissued with Infogrames' logo instead of the MicroProse
MicroProse
logo. The final 2 games published with the MicroProse
MicroProse
name were Tactical Ops: Assault on Terror and the European version of Grand Prix 4. Infogrames shut down the former MicroProse
MicroProse
studio in Chipping Sodbury
Chipping Sodbury
in September 2002.[33] Hasbro Interactive
Hasbro Interactive
was renamed to Infogrames Interactive and then to Atari
Atari
Interactive.[34] Infogrames
Infogrames
intermittently used the Atari
Atari
name as a brand name for selected titles before officially changing the U.S. subsidiary's name to Atari, Inc. in 2003.[35] In November 2003, Atari
Atari
Inc. closed the last former MicroProse
MicroProse
development studio in Hunt Valley,[36] which was MicroProse's original location and had just completed work on Dungeons & Dragons: Heroes. However, several game developers now exist in the area, including Firaxis Games
Firaxis Games
and BreakAway Games, who all owe their origin to MicroProse. Games[edit] Main article: List of MicroProse
MicroProse
games Some of the most notable (best-selling, critically acclaimed and/or regarded as revolutionary) games by MicroProse
MicroProse
include Civilization (1991), Civilization II
Civilization II
(1996), Darklands (1992), F-15 Strike Eagle (1985), F-19 Stealth Fighter
F-19 Stealth Fighter
(1988), Formula One Grand Prix (1992), Gunship (1986), M1 Tank Platoon
M1 Tank Platoon
(1989), Master of Magic
Magic
(1994), Master of Orion (1993), Master of Orion
Master of Orion
II (1996), Midwinter (1989), Pirates! (1987), Project Stealth Fighter
Project Stealth Fighter
(1987), Railroad Tycoon (1990), Red Storm Rising (1988), Silent Service (1985), and UFO: Enemy Unknown (1994). Legacy[edit]

It was a great run. We should've done better. We had great people. I think all our people are still very proud of their MicroProse
MicroProse
days.

Bill Stealey in 2013[37]

Sid Meier, who now works at Firaxis Games, eventually got the rights of most of his games back under his control from Atari
Atari
Inc. Railroad Tycoon series rights was sold to PopTop Software, who developed Railroad Tycoon II
Railroad Tycoon II
and Railroad Tycoon 3. Eventually, Poptop was acquired by Take-Two Interactive, which later also acquired Firaxis as well, thus returning the rights to the series to Meier, resulting in Sid Meier's Railroads!, released by Take-Two's 2K Games
2K Games
along with a new Sid Meier's Pirates!
Sid Meier's Pirates!
and the new Civilization
Civilization
games, including Sid Meier's Civilization
Civilization
III, Sid Meier's Civilization
Civilization
IV, Sid Meier's Civilization
Civilization
V, Sid Meier's Civilization
Civilization
IV: Colonization and Sid Meier's Civilization
Civilization
Revolution. Firaxis Games
Firaxis Games
also developed the X-COM
X-COM
series' reboot XCOM: Enemy Unknown, which was followed by 2K Marin's spin-off The Bureau: XCOM
XCOM
Declassified. Master of Orion
Master of Orion
III was developed by Quicksilver Software
Quicksilver Software
and released under the Infogrames
Infogrames
label. Falcon 4.0
Falcon 4.0
rights were sold to Graphsim Entertainment, who developed Falcon 4.0: Allied Force. Brand name
Brand name
for Interactive Game Group[edit] In 2007, Interactive Game Group acquired the MicroProse
MicroProse
brand from Atari Interactive
Atari Interactive
Inc, which filed for transfer of trademark protection on December 27, 2007.[38] Interactive Game Group then shared a percentage of the MicroProse
MicroProse
brand to I-Drs At in January 2008.[39][40] Originally, claims as to what titles and other intellectual properties were also acquired by the Interactive Game Group from Infogrames
Infogrames
were originally unverified, and the last verified owner of MicroProse
MicroProse
properties was Infogrames.[41] Later on, however, MicroProse's IPs that remained with Atari/ Infogrames
Infogrames
were eventually included as part of asset sale and sold to Tommo, who now republish the titles under their "Retroism" brand.[42] The Interactive Game Group also licensed the MicroProse
MicroProse
brand to the Legacy Engineering Group (LEG), which used the license to form subsidiaries called Microprose Systems and Microprose Consumer Electronics Division, selling consumer electronics from February 2008 to the second half of 2008. In October 2008, the licensing agreement between LEG and Frederic Chesnais, owner of Interactive Game Group, was discontinued, forcing LEG to rebrand its subsidiaries to Legacy Consumer Electronics.[43] In 2010, the Cybergun Group, manufacturer of airsoft gun products, merged with Interactive Game Group and MicroProse,[44] giving them access to officially licensed weapons. As of 2012[update], the name is used by a video game studio Microprose (with no capital "P" in the name).[45] Financial performance[edit] The tables below contain selected financial data extracted from MicroProse's Annual Report of 1998 and 1997 (fiscal years).[28][46]

MicroProse's revenue (in millions)

Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Revenue[47][48] $13.6 $40.9 $84.3 $59.6 $100.3 $60.0

Variation

200% 106% 29% 68% 40%

As it can be seen from the table above, MicroProse's revenue performance varied according to game releases. The release in February 1996 of Civilization II
Civilization II
is one of the factor that weighed positively on 1997's financial result, that year revenues rose 68% to $100 million. MicroProse
MicroProse
recognized that deficiency, the Annual Report of 1998 informed:[49]

"The Company depends on both the timely introduction of successful new products or sequels to existing products to replace declining revenue from older products. [...] If for any reason revenue from new products or other activities fails to replace declining revenue from existing products, or if revenue from back-catalog titles declines significantly, the Company's operating results may be adversely affected."

That is why MicroProse's revenue varied so wildly, and in order to grow stably an ever-increasing number of major game titles would have to be released in a timely basis and just maintaining revenues on the level of the previous year was a challenge.

MicroProse's net income/loss (in millions)

Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Net income (loss)[48][47] $−4.0 $−58.4 $−18.0 $−39.8 $7.9 $−33.1

MicroProse
MicroProse
lost $145 million between the years 1993 and 1998. The incapacity of MicroProse
MicroProse
to operate profitably explains why the company could not stay as an independent one for much longer and sought acquisition from GT Interactive and Hasbro
Hasbro
Interactive. In addition, MicroProse's over-dependence on new releases for both profits and revenues helps explain why MicroProse's market value went from $250 million in October 1997 to just $70 million 10 months later. In the first quarter of 1999, MicroProse
MicroProse
posted revenues of $12.1 million and net losses of $7.8 million.[50] References[edit]

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Captures "Red Baron" as Corporate Momento". Computer Gaming World. June 1988. p. 9. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013.  ^ Wilson, Johnny L. (November 1991). "A History of Computer Games". Computer Gaming World. p. 10. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2013.  ^ a b Brooks, M. Evan (November 1987). "Titans of the Computer Gaming World / MicroProse". Computer Gaming World. No. 41. pp. 16–18, 54. Archived from the original on July 2, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2016.  ^ Kaltman, Eric (July 30, 2008). "Sid Meier's First(?) Game and an Early Look at MicroProse". Archived from the original on January 30, 2016.  ^ "Chopper Hunt". Atari
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Mania. Archived from the original on 2016-02-08.  ^ "Floyd of the Jungle Manual". archive.org.  ^ "The Giant List of Classic Game Programmers". dadgum.com. Archived from the original on 2016-01-01.  ^ " MicroProse
MicroProse
Files for Initial Public Offering". Computer Gaming World. November 1991. p. 12. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2013.  ^ "MicroStyle". MobyGames. Archived from the original on August 2, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.  ^ "Microplay Software". MobyGames. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.  ^ " MicroProse
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Acquires Paragon Software". Computer Gaming World. October 1992. p. 16. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved July 4, 2014.  ^ " MicroProse
MicroProse
buys Vektor Grafix", Computer Business Review Online ^ "Spectrum + MicroProse
MicroProse
= MicroProse
MicroProse
Inc". GamePro
GamePro
(56). IDG. March 1994. p. 186.  ^ "Interactive Magic". Next Generation. No. 21. Imagine Media. September 1996. pp. 109–110.  ^ " Hasbro
Hasbro
Buying Alameda's MicroProse" Archived 2008-04-28 at the Wayback Machine. from San Francisco Chronicle ^ "Sid starts up. Again". Forbes. July 25, 1997. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012.  ^ "GT Interactive to Expand as World's Fastest Growing Interactive Entertainment Company Through Acquisition of MicroProse" from BNET Research Center ^ "$250 Million Stock Deal for Microprose" Archived 2009-02-10 at the Wayback Machine. from The New York Times ^ "Company News; Microprose And Gt Interactive End Merger Talks" Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine. from The New York Times ^ Computer Gaming World
Computer Gaming World
164 (March 1998), page 40. ^ a b The Fall of Avalon Hill
Avalon Hill
Archived 2013-02-03 at the Wayback Machine. from Academic Gaming Review ^ " MicroProse
MicroProse
Buys out Hartland Trefoil". Mimgames. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012.  ^ MICROPROSE INC/DE Quarterly Report (10-Q) ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS Archived 2008-06-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Microprose Inc/DE · 10-Q · For 6/30/98 Archived 2012-05-24 at the Wayback Machine. from SEC Info ^ Hasbro
Hasbro
MicroProse
MicroProse
acquisition information (SC 14D1) Archived 2012-05-24 at the Wayback Machine. from SEC Info (secinfo.com) ^ Hasbro
Hasbro
MicroProse
MicroProse
acquisition information (SC 14D1/A) Archived 2012-05-24 at the Wayback Machine. from SEC Info ^ "Hasbro, Inc. Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire MicroProse, Inc". Hasbro
Hasbro
Inc. August 12, 1998. Retrieved September 30, 2010.  ^ a b Secinfo.com Archived 2008-06-18 at the Wayback Machine., Hasbro quarterly report for 9/27/98 from SEC Info ^ MBA.tuck.dartmouth.edu Archived 2005-05-29 at the Wayback Machine., Hasbro Interactive
Hasbro Interactive
study from Tuck School of Business
Tuck School of Business
at Dartmouth (PDF) ^ Query.NYtimes.com Archived 2008-06-21 at the Wayback Machine., " Hasbro
Hasbro
to Cut 20% of Its Jobs and Take $97 Million Charge", from The New York Times ^ Gamasutra.com Archived 2008-12-21 at the Wayback Machine., "Hasbro Restructures" from Gamasutra NewsWire (December 7, 1999) ^ Query.NYtimes.com Archived 2008-06-21 at the Wayback Machine. "Company News; Hasbro
Hasbro
Completes Sale of Interactive Business" from The New York Times ^ Gamespot.com Archived 2005-01-23 at the Wayback Machine., " Infogrames
Infogrames
closes UK MicroProse
MicroProse
studio", from GameSpot ^ "((( Atari
Atari
Interactive, Inc. > Overview )))". Allgame.com. October 3, 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ "BBC NEWS - Technology - Atari
Atari
lives again". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2004-07-15.  ^ Atari
Atari
closes former MicroProse
MicroProse
studio from GamesIndustry.biz ^ "Sid Meier: The Father of Civilization". Kotaku.com. Archived from the original on September 7, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2013.  ^ "Assignments 1". United States
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Patent and Trademark Office. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ "Assignments 2". United States
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Patent and Trademark Office. July 8, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ "Assignments 3". United States
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Patent and Trademark Office. July 8, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ "Gamasutra.com". Gamasutra.com. June 9, 2005. Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ "Purchase Agreement between Atari, Inc. and Rebellion Developments, Stardock & Tommo" (PDF). BMC Group. 2013-07-22.  ^ "Legacy Engineering Group Parts Ways With Microprose Brand". New York, NY: Media Syndicate. October 20, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2011.  ^ "Cybergun 2010 Key Figures". Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2013.  ^ "Microprose". Microprose.com. Archived from the original on August 24, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ "Microprose Inc/DE - 10-K - For 3/31/98". SEC Info. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ a b "Microprose Inc/DE - 10-K - For 3/31/97, On 6/30/97 - Table in Document 1 of 5 - 10-K - Annual Report". SEC Info. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ a b Microprose Inc/DE · 10-K · For 3/31/98, On 6/29/98 from SEC Info ^ "Microprose Inc/DE - 10-K - For 3/31/98". SEC Info. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ "Microprose Inc/DE - 10-Q - For 6/30/98". SEC Info. Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 

External links[edit]

MicroProse
MicroProse
company profile at MobyGames

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137434325 LCCN: n93077337 ISNI: 0000 0001 0724 2799 GND: 4373044-9 BNF:

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