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Michigan
Michigan
(/ˈmɪʃɪɡən/ ( listen)) is a state in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, Michigan, originates from the ( Ojibwe
Ojibwe
word) mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake".[3][7] Michigan
Michigan
is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, and the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River.[b] Michigan's capital is Lansing, and its largest city is Detroit. Michigan
Michigan
is the only state to consist of two peninsulas. The Lower Peninsula, to which the name Michigan
Michigan
was originally applied, is often noted to be shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
(often referred to as "the U.P.") is separated from the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile (8 km) channel that joins Lake Huron
Lake Huron
to Lake Michigan. The Mackinac Bridge
Mackinac Bridge
connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair.[8] As a result, it is one of the leading U.S. states for recreational boating.[9] Michigan
Michigan
also has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds.[10] A person in the state is never more than six miles (9.7 km) from a natural water source or more than 85 miles (137 km) from a Great Lakes shoreline.[11] The area was first settled by Native American tribes and later colonized by French explorers in the 17th century and became part of New France. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
in 1762, the region came under British rule and was ceded to the newly independent United States
United States
after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War. The area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800 when western Michigan
Michigan
became part of the Indiana
Indiana
Territory. In 1805, the Michigan Territory
Michigan Territory
was formed, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union as the 26th state. It soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region
Great Lakes region
and a popular immigrant destination. Although Michigan
Michigan
developed a diverse economy, it is widely known as the center of the U.S. automotive industry, being home to the country's three major automobile companies (whose headquarters are all within the Detroit
Detroit
metropolitan area). While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources[citation needed], while the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
is a center of manufacturing, services, and high-tech industry.

Contents

1 History

1.1 17th century 1.2 18th century 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th and 21st centuries

2 Government

2.1 State government 2.2 Law 2.3 Politics 2.4 Administrative divisions

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Geology

4 Demographics

4.1 Population 4.2 Birth data 4.3 Languages 4.4 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Taxation 5.2 Agriculture 5.3 Tourism

6 Transportation

6.1 Canadian international crossings 6.2 Railroads 6.3 Roadways 6.4 Airports

7 Large cities, townships, and metropolitan areas 8 Education 9 Culture

9.1 Arts

9.1.1 Music 9.1.2 Performance arts

9.2 Sports

10 State symbols and nicknames 11 Sister regions 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 External links

History See also: Timeline of Michigan history
Timeline of Michigan history
and History of Michigan When the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
groups of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(called "Chippewa" in French), Odaawaa/Odawa (Ottawa), and the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi (Potawatomi). The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires. The Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
and northern and central Michigan, and also inhabited Ontario, northern Wisconsin, southern Manitoba, and northern and north-central Minnesota. The Ottawa lived primarily south of the Straits of Mackinac
Straits of Mackinac
in northern, western and southern Michigan, but also in southern Ontario, northern Ohio
Ohio
and eastern Wisconsin, while the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac (or Sauk), and the Fox, and the non-Algonquian Wyandot, who are better known by their French name, the Huron. 17th century

Père Marquette and the Indians (1869), Wilhelm Lamprecht

French voyageurs and coureurs des bois explored and settled in Michigan
Michigan
in the 17th century. The first Europeans to reach what became Michigan
Michigan
were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette
Jacques Marquette
established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions.[12][13] Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present day city of Niles. 18th century

Approximate area of Michigan
Michigan
highlighted in Guillaume de L'Isle's 1718 map

In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit
Detroit
River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and discourage British aspirations. The hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent[14][15] (about 0.85 acres (3,400 m2), the equivalent of just under 200 feet (61 m) per side) and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in the Michigan
Michigan
wilderness. The town quickly became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne (Church of Saint Ann) was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac later departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana
Louisiana
from 1710 to 1716. French attempts to consolidate the fur trade led to the Fox Wars involving the Meskwaki (Fox) and their allies versus the French and their Native allies. At the same time, the French strengthened Fort Michilimackinac
Fort Michilimackinac
at the Straits of Mackinac
Straits of Mackinac
to better control their lucrative fur-trading empire. By the mid-18th century, the French also occupied forts at present-day Niles and Sault Ste. Marie, though most of the rest of the region remained unsettled by Europeans. France offered free land to attract families to Detroit, which grew to 800 people in 1765, the largest city between Montreal
Montreal
and New Orleans.[16]

The Province of Quebec in 1774

From 1660 until the end of French rule, Michigan
Michigan
was part of the Royal Province of New France.[c] In 1760, Montreal
Montreal
fell to the British forces ending the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–1763). Under the 1763 Treaty of Paris, Michigan
Michigan
and the rest of New France
New France
east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
passed to Great Britain.[17] After the Quebec Act was passed in 1774, Michigan
Michigan
became part of the British Province of Quebec. By 1778, Detroit's population was up to 2,144 and it was the third largest city in Quebec.[18] During the American Revolutionary War, Detroit
Detroit
was an important British supply center. Most of the inhabitants were French-Canadians or Native Americans, many of whom had been allied with the French. Because of imprecise cartography and unclear language defining the boundaries in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British retained control of Detroit
Detroit
and Michigan
Michigan
after the American Revolution. When Quebec split into Lower and Upper Canada
Canada
in 1791, Michigan
Michigan
was part of Kent County, Upper Canada. It held its first democratic elections in August 1792 to send delegates to the new provincial parliament at Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake).[19] Under terms negotiated in the 1794 Jay Treaty, Britain withdrew from Detroit
Detroit
and Michilimackinac in 1796. Questions remained over the boundary for many years, and the United States
United States
did not have uncontested control of the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
and Drummond Island
Drummond Island
until 1818 and 1847, respectively. 19th century During the War of 1812, Michigan Territory
Michigan Territory
(effectively consisting of Detroit
Detroit
and the surrounding area) was surrendered after a nearly bloodless siege in 1812. An attempt to retake Detroit
Detroit
resulted in a severe American defeat in the River Raisin Massacre. This battle, still the bloodiest ever fought in the state, had the highest number of American casualties of any battle in the war. Michigan
Michigan
was recaptured by Americans in 1813 after the Battle of Lake Erie. An invasion of Canada
Canada
which culminated in the Battle of the Thames
Battle of the Thames
was then launched from Michigan. The more northern areas were held by the British until the peace treaty restored the old boundaries. A number of forts, including Fort Wayne were built in Michigan
Michigan
during the 19th century out of fears of renewed fighting with Britain.

Lumbering
Lumbering
pines in the late 1800s

The population grew slowly until the opening in 1825 of the Erie Canal connecting the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the Hudson River and New York City. The new route brought a large influx of settlers who became farmers and merchants and shipped out grain, lumber, and iron ore. By the 1830s, Michigan
Michigan
had 80,000 residents, more than enough to apply and qualify for statehood. A Constitutional Convention of Assent, led by Gershom Mott Williams, was held to lead the territory to statehood.[20] In October 1835 the people approved the Constitution of 1835, thereby forming a state government, although Congressional recognition was delayed pending resolution of a boundary dispute with Ohio
Ohio
known as the Toledo War. Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio. Michigan
Michigan
received the western part of the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
as a concession and formally entered the Union on January 26, 1837. The Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
proved to be a rich source of lumber, iron, and copper. Michigan
Michigan
led the nation in lumber production from the 1850s to the 1880s. Railroads became a major engine of growth from the 1850s onward, with Detroit
Detroit
the chief hub. A second wave of French Canadian immigrants settled in Michigan
Michigan
during the late 19th to early 20th century, particularly in lumbering areas in counties on the Lake Huron
Lake Huron
side of the Lower Peninsula, such as the Saginaw Valley, Alpena, and Cheboygan counties as well as throughout the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
with large concentrations in Escanaba and the Keweenaw Peninsula.[21] The first statewide meeting of the Republican Party took place July 6, 1854, in Jackson, Michigan, where the party adopted its platform. The state was heavily Republican until the 1930s. Michigan
Michigan
made a significant contribution to the Union in the American Civil War
American Civil War
and sent more than forty regiments of volunteers to the federal armies. Modernizers and boosters set up systems for public education, including founding the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
(1817; moved to Ann Arbor in 1837), for a classical academic education; and Michigan
Michigan
State Normal School, (1849) now Eastern Michigan
Michigan
University, for the training of teachers. In 1899, it became the first normal college in the nation to offer a four-year curriculum. Michigan
Michigan
Agricultural College (1855), now Michigan State University
Michigan State University
in East Lansing, was founded as the pioneer land-grant college, a model for those authorized under the Morrill Act (1862). Many other private colleges were founded as well, and the smaller cities formed high schools late in the century.[22] 20th and 21st centuries See also: History of Ford Motor Company

B-24s under construction at Ford's Willow Run
Willow Run
line, 1942

Michigan's economy underwent a transformation at the turn of the 20th century. Many individuals, including Ransom E. Olds, John and Horace Dodge, Henry Leland, David Dunbar Buick, Henry Joy, Charles King, and Henry Ford, provided the concentration of engineering know-how and technological enthusiasm to start the birth of the automotive industry.[23] Ford's development of the moving assembly line in Highland Park marked a new era in transportation. Like the steamship and railroad, it was a far-reaching development. More than the forms of public transportation, the automobile transformed private life. It became the major industry of Detroit
Detroit
and Michigan, and permanently altered the socio-economic life of the United States
United States
and much of the world. With the growth, the auto industry created jobs in Detroit
Detroit
that attracted immigrants from Europe and migrants from across the United States, including those from the South. By 1920, Detroit
Detroit
was the fourth-largest city in the US. Residential housing was in short supply, and it took years for the market to catch up with the population boom. By the 1930s, so many immigrants had arrived that more than 30 languages were spoken in the public schools, and ethnic communities celebrated in annual heritage festivals. Over the years immigrants and migrants contributed greatly to Detroit's diverse urban culture, including popular music trends, such as the influential Motown
Motown
Sound of the 1960s led by a variety of individual singers and groups.

Skyscrapers in downtown Detroit

Grand Rapids, the second-largest city in Michigan, is also an important center of manufacturing. Since 1838, the city has also been noted for its furniture industry and is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies. Grand Rapids
Grand Rapids
is home to a number of major companies including Steelcase, Amway, and Meijer. Grand Rapids is also an important center for GE Aviation Systems. Michigan
Michigan
held its first United States
United States
presidential primary election in 1910. With its rapid growth in industry, it was an important center of union industry-wide organizing, such as the rise of the United Auto Workers. In 1920 WWJ (AM)
WWJ (AM)
in Detroit
Detroit
became the first radio station in the United States
United States
to regularly broadcast commercial programs. Throughout that decade, some of the country's largest and most ornate skyscrapers were built in the city. Particularly noteworthy are the Fisher Building, Cadillac Place, and the Guardian Building, each of which is a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
(NHL). In 1927 a school bombing took place in Clinton County; the Bath School disaster, which resulted in the deaths of 38 schoolchildren, constitutes the deadliest mass murder in a school in U.S. history. Michigan
Michigan
manufactured 10.9 percent of the United States
United States
military armaments produced during World War II, ranking second (behind New York) among the 48 states.[24] Detroit
Detroit
continued to expand through the 1950s, at one point doubling its population in a decade. After World War II, housing was developed in suburban areas outside city cores; newly constructed U.S. Interstate Highways allowed commuters to navigate the region more easily. Modern advances in the auto industry have led to increased automation, high tech industry, and increased suburban growth since 1960. Michigan
Michigan
is the leading auto-producing state in the US, with the industry primarily located throughout the Midwestern United States, Ontario, Canada, and the Southern United States.[25] With almost ten million residents, Michigan
Michigan
is a large and influential state, ranking tenth in population among the fifty states. Detroit
Detroit
is the centrally located metropolitan area of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Megalopolis and the second-largest metropolitan area in the U.S. linking the Great Lakes system.

Biomedical Science Research Building at the UM Medical School supports the Michigan
Michigan
Life Sciences Corridor.

The Metro Detroit
Detroit
area in Southeast Michigan
Southeast Michigan
is the state's largest metropolitan area (roughly 50% of the population resides there) and the eleventh largest in the USA. The Grand Rapids metropolitan area
Grand Rapids metropolitan area
in Western Michigan
Western Michigan
is the state's fastest-growing metro area, with over 1.3 million residents as of 2006. Metro Detroit
Detroit
receives more than 15 million visitors each year. Michigan
Michigan
has many popular tourist destinations, including areas such as Frankenmuth in The Thumb, and Traverse City
Traverse City
on the Grand Traverse Bay
Grand Traverse Bay
in Northern Michigan. Tourists spend about $17 billion annually in Michigan
Michigan
supporting 193,000 jobs.[26] Michigan
Michigan
typically ranks third or fourth in overall Research & development (R&D) expenditures in the US.[27][28] The state's leading research institutions include the University of Michigan, Michigan State University
Michigan State University
and Wayne State University
Wayne State University
which are important partners in the state's economy and the state's University Research Corridor.[29] Michigan's public universities attract more than $1.5 B in research and development grants each year.[30] Agriculture also serves a significant role, making the state a leading grower of fruit in the US, including blueberries, cherries, apples, grapes, and peaches.[31] Government See also: List of Governors of Michigan
List of Governors of Michigan
and United States congressional delegations from Michigan

Michigan State Capitol
Michigan State Capitol
in Lansing

Michigan State Capitol
Michigan State Capitol
Muses

Michigan Supreme Court
Michigan Supreme Court
at the Hall of Justice

State government Main article: Government of Michigan Michigan
Michigan
is governed as a republic, with three branches of government: the executive branch consisting of the Governor of Michigan
Governor of Michigan
and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate; and the judicial branch. The Michigan Constitution
Michigan Constitution
allows for the direct participation of the electorate by statutory initiative and referendum, recall, and constitutional initiative and referral (Article II, § 9,[32] defined as "the power to propose laws and to enact and reject laws, called the initiative, and the power to approve or reject laws enacted by the legislature, called the referendum. The power of initiative extends only to laws which the legislature may enact under this constitution"). Lansing
Lansing
is the state capital and is home to all three branches of state government. The governor and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The governor is Rick Snyder. Michigan
Michigan
has two official Governor's Residences; one is in Lansing, and the other is at Mackinac Island. The other constitutionally elected executive officers are the lieutenant governor, who is elected on a joint ticket with the governor, the secretary of state, and the attorney general. The lieutenant governor presides over the Senate but only voting when ties occur, and is also a member of the cabinet. The secretary of state is the chief elections officer and is charged with running many licensure programs including motor vehicles, all of which are done through the branch offices of the secretary of state. The Michigan
Michigan
Legislature
Legislature
consists of a 38-member Senate and 110-member House of Representatives. Members of both houses of the legislature are elected through first past the post elections by single-member electoral districts of near-equal population that often have boundaries which coincide with county and municipal lines. Senators serve four-year terms concurrent to those of the governor, while representatives serve two-year terms. The Michigan State Capitol
Michigan State Capitol
was dedicated in 1879 and has hosted the executive and legislative branches of the state ever since. The Michigan
Michigan
judiciary consists of two courts with primary jurisdiction (the Circuit Courts and the District Courts), one intermediate level appellate court (the Michigan
Michigan
Court of Appeals), and the Michigan
Michigan
Supreme Court. There are several administrative courts and specialized courts. District courts are trial courts of limited jurisdiction, handling most traffic violations, small claims, misdemeanors, and civil suits where the amount contended is below $25,000. District courts are often responsible for handling the preliminary examination and for setting bail in felony cases. District court judges are elected to terms of six years. In a few locations, municipal courts have been retained to the exclusion of the establishment of district courts. There are 57 circuit courts in the State of Michigan, which have original jurisdiction over all civil suits where the amount contended in the case exceeds $25,000 and all criminal cases involving felonies. Circuit courts are also the only trial courts in the State of Michigan
Michigan
which possess the power to issue equitable remedies. Circuit courts have appellate jurisdiction from district and municipal courts, as well as from decisions and decrees of state agencies. Most counties have their own circuit court, but sparsely populated counties often share them. Circuit court judges are elected to terms of six years. State appellate court judges are elected to terms of six years, but vacancies are filled by an appointment by the governor. There are four divisions of the Court of Appeals in Detroit, Grand Rapids, Lansing, and Marquette. Cases are heard by the Court of Appeals by panels of three judges, who examine the application of the law and not the facts of the case unless there has been grievous error pertaining to questions of fact. The Michigan Supreme Court consists of seven members who are elected on non-partisan ballots for staggered eight-year terms. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction only in narrow circumstances but holds appellate jurisdiction over the entire state judicial system. Law See also: Law of Michigan Michigan
Michigan
has had four constitutions, the first of which was ratified on October 5 and 6, 1835.[33] There were also constitutions from 1850 and 1908, in addition to the current constitution from 1963. The current document has a preamble, 11 articles, and one section consisting of a schedule and temporary provisions. Michigan, like every U.S. state
U.S. state
except Louisiana, has a common law legal system. Politics See also: Elections in Michigan
Elections in Michigan
and Political party strength in Michigan

Michigan
Michigan
Governor Rick Snyder
Rick Snyder
(R) (2011–present)

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Voters in the state elect candidates from both major parties. Economic issues are important in Michigan
Michigan
elections. The three-term Republican Governor John Engler
John Engler
(1991–2003) preceded the former two-term Democratic Governor Jennifer Granholm (2003–2011). The state has elected successive Republican attorneys general twice since 2003. The Republican Party holds a majority in both the House and Senate of the Michigan
Michigan
Legislature. Michigan supported the election of Republican Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Donald Trump. The Governor Rick Snyder (2011–present) is a Republican. In contrast, the state-supported Democratic candidates in each presidential election from 1992 to 2012. In 2012, Barack Obama
Barack Obama
carried the state over Mitt Romney, winning Michigan's 16 electoral votes with 54% of the vote. Michigan's two U.S. Senators are both Democrats, while Republicans hold nine of the state's fourteen US House seats. Michigan's senior U.S. Senator Debbie Stabenow, a Democrat, has served since 2001 after narrowly beating former Republican U.S. Senator Spencer Abraham
Spencer Abraham
in the 2000 elections. Democratic U.S. Senator Gary Peters was elected in 2014, beating former Republican Michigan Secretary of State Terri Lynn Land. Congressman Fred Upton, a Republican, serves as Chairman of the US House Committee on Energy and Commerce. Congresswoman Debbie Dingell, a Democrat, became the first person to succeed a living spouse when she replaced former Dean of the House of Representatives John Dingell
John Dingell
in 2015. Republican strongholds of the state include rural areas of Western and Northern Michigan, the Grand Rapids
Grand Rapids
metropolitan area, and Livingston County. Areas of Democratic strength include Wayne County, home to Detroit, Washtenaw County (Ann Arbor), Ingham County (Lansing), and Genesee County (Flint). Much of suburban Detroit—which includes parts of Oakland, Macomb, and Wayne counties—is politically competitive between the two parties. Historically, the first county-level meeting of the Republican Party took place in Jackson on July 6, 1854,[34] and the party thereafter dominated Michigan
Michigan
until the Great Depression. In the 1912 election, Michigan
Michigan
was one of the six states to support progressive Republican and third-party candidate Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
for president after he lost the Republican nomination to William Howard Taft. Michigan
Michigan
remained fairly reliably Republican at the presidential level for much of the 20th century. It was part of Greater New England, the northern tier of states settled chiefly by migrants from New England who carried their culture with them. The state was one of only a handful to back Wendell Willkie
Wendell Willkie
over Franklin Roosevelt
Franklin Roosevelt
in 1940, and supported Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
in his losing bid against Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
in 1948. Michigan
Michigan
went to the Democrats in presidential elections during the 1960s and voted for the Republican candidate in every election from 1972 to 1988. Between 1992 and 2012 it supported the Democrats; early on in 2016, it was pegged as a swing state, and was narrowly won by the G.O.P. candidate, Donald Trump. Michigan
Michigan
was the home of Gerald Ford, the 38th President of the United States. Born in Nebraska, he moved as an infant to Grand Rapids.[35][36] The Gerald R. Ford Museum
Gerald R. Ford Museum
is in Grand Rapids, and the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library
Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library
is on the campus of his alma mater, the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
in Ann Arbor. In 1846 Michigan
Michigan
became the first state in the Union, as well as the first English-speaking government in the world,[37][38] to abolish the death penalty. Historian David Chardavoyne has suggested the movement to abolish capital punishment in Michigan
Michigan
grew as a result of enmity toward the state's neighbor, Canada. Under British rule, it made public executions a regular practice. Michigan
Michigan
has recognized and performed same-sex marriages since June 26, 2015, following the Supreme Court ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges.[39] Previously, such unions were prohibited under a 2004 state constitutional amendment.[40] Michigan
Michigan
has approved plans to expand Medicaid
Medicaid
coverage in 2014 to adults with incomes up to 133% of the federal poverty level (approximately $15,500 for a single adult in 2014).[41] Administrative divisions

Michigan
Michigan
welcome sign

Main article: Administrative divisions of Michigan See also: List of Michigan
Michigan
county seats, List of counties in Michigan, and List of municipalities in Michigan
Michigan
(by population) State government is decentralized among three tiers—statewide, county and township. Counties are administrative divisions of the state, and townships are administrative divisions of a county. Both of them exercise state government authority, localized to meet the particular needs of their jurisdictions, as provided by state law. There are 83 counties in Michigan. Cities, state universities, and villages are vested with home rule powers of varying degrees. Home rule cities can generally do anything not prohibited by law. The fifteen state universities have broad power and can do anything within the parameters of their status as educational institutions that is not prohibited by the state constitution. Villages, by contrast, have limited home rule and are not completely autonomous from the county and township in which they are located. There are two types of township in Michigan: general law township and charter. Charter township status was created by the Legislature
Legislature
in 1947 and grants additional powers and stream-lined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation by a city. As of April 2001, there were 127 charter townships in Michigan. In general, charter townships have many of the same powers as a city but without the same level of obligations. For example, a charter township can have its own fire department, water and sewer department, police department, and so on—just like a city—but it is not required to have those things, whereas cities must provide those services. Charter townships can opt to use county-wide services instead, such as deputies from the county sheriff's office instead of a home-based force of ordinance officers. Geography Further information: Geography of Michigan, Protected areas
Protected areas
of Michigan, and List of Michigan
Michigan
state parks

Marquette Park on Mackinac Island

Michigan
Michigan
consists of two peninsulas that lie between 82°30' to about 90°30' west longitude, and are separated by the Straits of Mackinac. The 45th parallel north
45th parallel north
runs through the state—marked by highway signs and the Polar-Equator Trail[42]—along a line including Mission Point Light near Traverse City, the towns of Gaylord and Alpena in the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
and Menominee
Menominee
in the Upper Peninsula. With the exception of two small areas that are drained by the Mississippi
Mississippi
River by way of the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
River in the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
and by way of the Kankakee- Illinois River
Illinois River
in the Lower Peninsula, Michigan
Michigan
is drained by the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence watershed and is the only state with the majority of its land thus drained.

View of Sleeping Bear Dunes

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
that border Michigan
Michigan
from east to west are Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
and Lake Superior. It has more public golf courses, registered boats, and lighthouses than any other state. The state is bounded on the south by the states of Ohio
Ohio
and Indiana, sharing land and water boundaries with both. Michigan's western boundaries are almost entirely water boundaries, from south to north, with Illinois
Illinois
and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
in Lake Michigan; then a land boundary with Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and the Upper Peninsula, that is principally demarcated by the Menominee
Menominee
and Montreal
Montreal
Rivers; then water boundaries again, in Lake Superior, with Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Minnesota
Minnesota
to the west, capped around by the Canadian province of Ontario
Ontario
to the north and east.

Tahquamenon Falls
Tahquamenon Falls
in the Upper Peninsula

The heavily forested Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
is relatively mountainous in the west. The Porcupine Mountains, which are part of one of the oldest mountain chains in the world,[43] rise to an altitude of almost 2,000 feet (610 m) above sea level and form the watershed between the streams flowing into Lake Superior
Lake Superior
and Lake Michigan. The surface on either side of this range is rugged. The state's highest point, in the Huron Mountains
Huron Mountains
northwest of Marquette, is Mount Arvon
Mount Arvon
at 1,979 feet (603 m). The peninsula is as large as Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
combined but has fewer than 330,000 inhabitants. They are sometimes called "Yoopers" (from "U.P.'ers"), and their speech (the "Yooper dialect") has been heavily influenced by the numerous Scandinavian and Canadian immigrants who settled the area during the lumbering and mining boom of the late 19th century.

The Pointe Mouillee State Game Area

The Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
is shaped like a mitten and many residents hold up a hand to depict where they are from.[44] It is 277 miles (446 km) long from north to south and 195 miles (314 km) from east to west and occupies nearly two-thirds of the state's land area. The surface of the peninsula is generally level, broken by conical hills and glacial moraines usually not more than a few hundred feet tall. It is divided by a low water divide running north and south. The larger portion of the state is on the west of this and gradually slopes toward Lake Michigan. The highest point in the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
is either Briar Hill at 1,705 feet (520 m), or one of several points nearby in the vicinity of Cadillac. The lowest point is the surface of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
at 571 feet (174 m). The geographic orientation of Michigan's peninsulas makes for a long distance between the ends of the state. Ironwood, in the far western Upper Peninsula, lies 630 highway miles (1,015 km) from Lambertville in the Lower Peninsula's southeastern corner. The geographic isolation of the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
from Michigan's political and population centers makes the U.P. culturally and economically distinct. Occasionally U.P. residents have called for secession from Michigan
Michigan
and establishment as a new state to be called "Superior". A feature of Michigan
Michigan
that gives it the distinct shape of a mitten is the Thumb. This peninsula projects out into Lake Huron
Lake Huron
and the Saginaw Bay. The geography of the Thumb is mainly flat with a few rolling hills. Other peninsulas of Michigan
Michigan
include the Keweenaw Peninsula, making up the Copper Country
Copper Country
region of the state. The Leelanau Peninsula
Peninsula
lies in the Northern Lower Michigan
Michigan
region. See Also Michigan
Michigan
Regions

Little Sable Point Light
Little Sable Point Light
south of Pentwater

Numerous lakes and marshes mark both peninsulas, and the coast is much indented. Keweenaw Bay, Whitefish Bay, and the Big and Little Bays De Noc are the principal indentations on the Upper Peninsula. The Grand and Little Traverse, Thunder, and Saginaw bays indent the Lower Peninsula. Michigan
Michigan
has the second longest shoreline of any state—3,288 miles (5,292 km),[45] including 1,056 miles (1,699 km) of island shoreline.[46]

Michigan
Michigan
map, including territorial waters

The state has numerous large islands, the principal ones being the North Manitou and South Manitou, Beaver, and Fox groups in Lake Michigan; Isle Royale
Isle Royale
and Grande Isle in Lake Superior; Marquette, Bois Blanc, and Mackinac islands in Lake Huron; and Neebish, Sugar, and Drummond islands in St. Mary's River. Michigan
Michigan
has about 150 lighthouses, the most of any U.S. state. The first lighthouses in Michigan
Michigan
were built between 1818 and 1822. They were built to project light at night and to serve as a landmark during the day to safely guide the passenger ships and freighters traveling the Great Lakes. See Lighthouses in the United States. The state's rivers are generally small, short and shallow, and few are navigable. The principal ones include the Detroit
Detroit
River, St. Marys River, and St. Clair River
St. Clair River
which connect the Great Lakes; the Au Sable, Cheboygan, and Saginaw, which flow into Lake Huron; the Ontonagon, and Tahquamenon, which flow into Lake Superior; and the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Grand, Muskegon, Manistee, and Escanaba, which flow into Lake Michigan. The state has 11,037 inland lakes—totaling 1,305 square miles (3,380 km2) of inland water—in addition to 38,575 square miles (99,910 km2) of Great Lakes
Great Lakes
waters. No point in Michigan
Michigan
is more than six miles (9.7 km) from an inland lake or more than 85 miles (137 km) from one of the Great Lakes.[47] The state is home to several areas maintained by the National Park Service including: Isle Royale
Isle Royale
National Park, in Lake Superior, about 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario. Other national protected areas in the state include: Keweenaw National Historical Park, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Huron National Forest, Manistee National Forest, Hiawatha National Forest, Ottawa National Forest
Ottawa National Forest
and Father Marquette National Memorial. The largest section of the North Country National Scenic Trail passes through Michigan. With 78 state parks, 19 state recreation areas, and 6 state forests, Michigan
Michigan
has the largest state park and state forest system of any state. These parks and forests include Holland State Park, Mackinac Island State Park, Au Sable State Forest, and Mackinaw State Forest. Climate

Köppen climate types in Michigan

Detroit, MI
Detroit, MI
(L.P.)

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    1.2     32 21

    1.4     35 22

    1.8     45 29

    2.2     58 40

    3.7     70 50

    2.6     79 61

    2.5     84 66

    2.4     82 64

    2.6     74 56

    2.5     61 45

    2.5     49 36

    2     37 25

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Source: [48]

Metric conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    31     0 −6

    36     2 −6

    45     7 −2

    56     14 4

    94     21 10

    65     26 16

    65     29 19

    61     28 18

    65     23 13

    62     16 7

    63     9 2

    52     3 −4

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Marquette, MI
Marquette, MI
(U.P.)

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    1.8     26 13

    1.3     29 14

    2     37 22

    2.3     48 32

    2.6     60 41

    2.7     69 51

    2.6     75 57

    2.6     75 58

    3.3     67 51

    3.1     55 40

    2.6     41 29

    2     30 18

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Source: [49]

Metric conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    46     −3 −11

    33     −2 −10

    51     3 −6

    59     9 0

    65     16 5

    68     21 11

    66     24 14

    67     24 14

    83     19 11

    80     13 4

    67     5 −2

    50     −1 −8

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Michigan
Michigan
has a continental climate, although there are two distinct regions. The southern and central parts of the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
(south of Saginaw Bay
Saginaw Bay
and from the Grand Rapids
Grand Rapids
area southward) have a warmer climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Dfa) with hot summers and cold winters. The northern part of Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
and the entire Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
has a more severe climate (Köppen Dfb), with warm, but shorter summers and longer, cold to very cold winters. Some parts of the state average high temperatures below freezing from December through February, and into early March in the far northern parts. During the winter through the middle of February, the state is frequently subjected to heavy lake-effect snow. The state averages from 30–40 inches (76–102 cm) of precipitation annually, however, some areas in the northern lower peninsula and the upper peninsula average almost 160" of snowfall per year.[50] Michigan's highest recorded temperature is 112 °F (44 °C) at Mio on July 13, 1936, and the coldest recorded temperature is −51 °F (−46 °C) at Vanderbilt on February 9, 1934.[51] The state averages 30 days of thunderstorm activity per year. These can be severe, especially in the southern part of the state. The state averages 17 tornadoes per year, which are more common in the state's extreme southern section. Portions of the southern border have been almost as vulnerable historically as states further west and in Tornado
Tornado
Alley. For this reason, many communities in the very southern portions of the state have tornado sirens to warn residents of approaching tornadoes. Farther north, in Central Michigan, Northern Michigan, and the Upper Peninsula, tornadoes are rare.[52][53]

Geology The geological formation of the state is greatly varied, with the Michigan Basin
Michigan Basin
being the most major formation. Primary boulders are found over the entire surface of the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
(being principally of primitive origin), while Secondary deposits cover the entire Lower Peninsula. The Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
exhibits Lower Silurian sandstones, limestones, copper and iron bearing rocks, corresponding to the Huronian system of Canada. The central portion of the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
contains coal measures and rocks of the Pennsylvanian period. Devonian
Devonian
and sub-Carboniferous deposits are scattered over the entire state. Michigan
Michigan
rarely experiences earthquakes, thus far mostly smaller ones that do not cause significant damage. A 4.6-magnitude earthquake struck in August 1947. More recently, a 4.2-magnitude earthquake occurred on Saturday, May 2, 2015, shortly after noon, about 5 miles south of Galesburg, Michigan
Galesburg, Michigan
(9 miles southeast of Kalamazoo) in central Michigan, about 140 miles west of Detroit, according to the Colorado-based U.S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center. No major damage or injuries were reported, according to Governor Rick Snyder's office.[54] Demographics See also: Michigan
Michigan
statistical areas

Michigan
Michigan
population distribution

Historical population

Census Pop.

1800 3,757

1810 4,762

26.8%

1820 7,452

56.5%

1830 28,004

275.8%

1840 212,267

658.0%

1850 397,654

87.3%

1860 749,113

88.4%

1870 1,184,059

58.1%

1880 1,636,937

38.2%

1890 2,093,890

27.9%

1900 2,420,982

15.6%

1910 2,810,173

16.1%

1920 3,668,412

30.5%

1930 4,842,325

32.0%

1940 5,256,106

8.5%

1950 6,371,766

21.2%

1960 7,823,194

22.8%

1970 8,875,083

13.4%

1980 9,262,078

4.4%

1990 9,295,297

0.4%

2000 9,938,444

6.9%

2010 9,883,640

−0.6%

Est. 2017 9,962,311

0.8%

Sources: 1910–2010[55][56] 2015 estimate[4]

Population The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates the population of Michigan was 9,962,311 on July 1, 2017, an increase of 0.79% from 9,883,635 recorded at the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[4] The center of population of Michigan
Michigan
is in Shiawassee County, in the southeastern corner of the civil township of Bennington, which is northwest of the village of Morrice.[57] As of the 2010 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
for the U.S. Census, the state had a foreign-born population of 592,212, or 6.0% of the total. Michigan
Michigan
has the largest Dutch, Finnish, and Macedonian populations in the United States. The 2010 Census reported:

White American: 78.9% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 76.6%, White Hispanic: 2.3%) Black or African American: 14.2% American Indian: 0.6% Asian American: 2.4% Pacific Islander: <0.1% Some other race: 1.5% Multiracial: 2.3%

In the same year Hispanics or Latinos (of any race) made up 4.4% of the population.

Michigan
Michigan
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1970[58] 1990[58] 2000[59] 2010[60]

White 88.3% 83.4% 80.1% 79.0%

Black 11.2% 13.9% 14.2% 14.2%

Asian 0.2% 1.1% 1.8% 2.4%

Native 0.2% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander — — — —

Other race 0.2% 0.9% 1.3% 1.5%

Two or more races — — 1.9% 2.3%

Thirteen Largest Ancestries in Michigan
Michigan
(2016)[61]

Ancestry Percent

German 19.5%

Irish 10.6%

English 8.5%

Polish 8.2%

American 5.6%

Italian 4.7%

Dutch 4.5%

French 4.0%

Scottish 2.2%

Arab 1.9%

French-Canadian 1.6%

Swedish 1.4%

Hungarian 1.0%

Map showing the largest ancestry group in each county (2008)

The large majority of Michigan's population is Caucasian. Americans of European descent live throughout Michigan
Michigan
and most of Metro Detroit. Large European American
European American
groups include those of German, British, Irish, Polish and Belgian ancestry. People of Scandinavian descent, and those of Finnish ancestry, have a notable presence in the Upper Peninsula. Western Michigan
Western Michigan
is known for the Dutch heritage of many residents (the highest concentration of any state), especially in Holland and metropolitan Grand Rapids. African-Americans, who came to Detroit
Detroit
and other northern cities in the Great Migration of the early 20th century, form a majority of the population of the city of Detroit
Detroit
and of other cities, including Flint and Benton Harbor. As of 2007 about 300,000 people in Southeastern Michigan
Southeastern Michigan
trace their descent from the Middle East.[62] Dearborn has a sizeable Arab community, with many Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac, and Lebanese who immigrated for jobs in the auto industry in the 1920s along with more recent Yemenis and Iraqis.[63] As of 2007, almost 8,000 Hmong people
Hmong people
lived in the State of Michigan, about double their 1999 presence in the state.[64] As of 2007 most lived in northeastern Detroit, but they had been increasingly moving to Pontiac and Warren.[65] By 2015 the number of Hmong in the Detroit city limits had significantly declined.[66] Lansing
Lansing
hosts a statewide Hmong New Year Festival.[65] The Hmong community also had a prominent portrayal in the 2008 film Gran Torino, which was set in Detroit. As of 2015, 80% of Michigan's Japanese population lived in the counties of Macomb, Oakland, Washtenaw, and Wayne in the Detroit
Detroit
and Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
areas.[67] As of April 2013, the largest Japanese national population is in Novi, with 2,666 Japanese residents, and the next largest populations are respectively in Ann Arbor, West Bloomfield Township, Farmington Hills, and Battle Creek. The state has 481 Japanese employment facilities providing 35,554 local jobs. 391 of them are in Southeast Michigan, providing 20,816 jobs, and the 90 in other regions in the state provide 14,738 jobs. The Japanese Direct Investment Survey of the Consulate-General of Japan, Detroit
Detroit
stated over 2,208 additional Japanese residents were employed in the State of Michigan
Michigan
as of October 1, 2012, than in 2011.[68] During the 1990s the Japanese population of Michigan
Michigan
experienced an increase, and many Japanese people with children moved to particular areas for their proximity to Japanese grocery stores and high-performing schools.[67] A person from Michigan
Michigan
is called a Michigander
Michigander
or Michiganian;[69] also at times, but rarely, a "Michiganite".[70] Residents of the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
are sometimes referred to as "Yoopers" (a phonetic pronunciation of "U.P.ers"), and Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
residents sometimes refer to those from the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
as "trolls" because they live below the bridge.[71][72][73] Birth data As of 2011, 34.3% of Michigan's children under the age of one belonged to racial or ethnic minority groups, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.[74] Note: Percentages in the table can exceed 100% as Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[75] 2014[76] 2015[77]

White: 85,994 (75.7%) 87,070 (76.1%) 85,838 (75.7%)

> Non-Hispanic White 79,107 (69.7%) 80,304 (70.2%) 78,960 (69.7%)

Black 22,645 (20.0%) 22,237 (19.4%) 22,394 (19.8%)

Asian 4,136 (3.6%) 4,284 (3.7%) 4,294 (3.8%)

Native 714 (0.6%) 784 (0.7%) 786 (0.7%)

Hispanic (of any race) 7,318 (6.4%) 7,352 (6.4%) 7,431 (6.5%)

Total Michigan 113,489 (100%) 114,375 (100%) 113,312 (100%)

Languages

Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Michigan

Language Percentage of population (as of 2010)[78]

Spanish 2.93%

Arabic 1.04%

German 0.44%

Chinese (including Mandarin) 0.36%

French 0.31%

Polish 0.29%

Syriac languages (such as Modern Aramaic and Northeastern Neo-Aramaic) 0.25%

Italian 0.21%

Albanian 0.19%

Hindi, Tagalog, Vietnamese, Japanese, and Korean (tied) 0.16%

As of 2010, 91.11% (8,507,947) of Michigan
Michigan
residents age five and older spoke only English at home, while 2.93% (273,981) spoke Spanish, 1.04% (97,559) Arabic, 0.44% (41,189) German, 0.36% (33,648) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), 0.31% (28,891) French, 0.29% (27,019) Polish, and Syriac languages (such as Modern Aramaic and Northeastern Neo-Aramaic) was spoken as a main language by 0.25% (23,420) of the population over the age of five. In total, 8.89% (830,281) of Michigan's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[78] Religion The Roman Catholic Church has six dioceses and one archdiocese in Michigan; Gaylord, Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Lansing, Marquette, Saginaw and Detroit.[79] The Roman Catholic Church is the largest denomination by number of adherents, according to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) 2010 survey, with 1,717,296 adherents.[80] The Roman Catholic Church was the only organized religion in Michigan
Michigan
until the 19th century, reflecting the territory's French colonial roots. Detroit's Saint Anne's parish, established in 1701 by Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, is the second-oldest Roman Catholic parish in the United States.[81] On March 8, 1833, the Holy See formally established a diocese in the Michigan territory, which included all of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the Dakotas east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. When Michigan
Michigan
became a state in 1837, the boundary of the Diocese of Detroit
Detroit
was redrawn to coincide with that of the State; the other dioceses were later carved out from the Diocese of Detroit
Detroit
but remain part of the Ecclesiastical Province of Detroit.[82] In 2010, the largest Protestant
Protestant
denominations were the United Methodist Church with 228,521 adherents; followed by the Lutheran Church– Missouri
Missouri
Synod with 219,618, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 120,598 adherents. The Christian Reformed Church in North America had almost 100,000 members and over 230 congregations in Michigan.[83] The Reformed Church in America
Reformed Church in America
had 76,000 members and 154 congregations in the state.[84] In the same survey, Jewish adherents in the state of Michigan
Michigan
were estimated at 44,382, and Muslims at 120,351.[85] The Lutheran Church
Lutheran Church
was introduced by German and Scandinavian immigrants; Lutheranism is the second largest religious denomination in the state. The first Jewish synagogue in the state was Temple Beth El, founded by twelve German Jewish families in Detroit
Detroit
in 1850.[86] In West Michigan, Dutch immigrants fled from the specter of religious persecution and famine in the Netherlands around 1850 and settled in and around what is now Holland, Michigan, establishing a "colony" on American soil that fervently held onto Calvinist doctrine that established a significant presence of Reformed churches.[87] Islam
Islam
was introduced by immigrants from the Near East during the 20th century.[88] Michigan
Michigan
is home to the largest mosque in North America, the Islamic Center of America
Islamic Center of America
in Dearborn. Battle Creek, Michigan
Battle Creek, Michigan
is also the birthplace of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, which was founded on May 21, 1863.[89][90]

Religious affiliation in Michigan
Michigan
(2014)[91]

Affiliation % of Michigan
Michigan
population

Christianity 70 70  

Protestant 51 51  

Evangelical Protestant 25 25  

Mainline Protestant 18 18  

Black Protestant 8 8  

Roman Catholic 18 18  

Mormon 0.5 0.5  

Jehovah's Witnesses 1 1  

Orthodox 0.5 0.5  

Other Christianity 1 1  

Judaism 1 1  

Buddhism 1 1  

Islam 1 1  

Hinduism 0.5 0.5  

Other Faiths 1 1  

Unaffiliated 24 24  

Don't Know / No Answer 1 1  

Total 100 100  

Economy See also: List of companies based in Michigan, Economy of metropolitan Detroit, and Michigan
Michigan
locations by per capita income

Michigan
Michigan
is the center of the American automotive industry. Pictured is the Ford Shelby GT500 at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. The GT500 is manufactured in Ford's Flat Rock, Michigan, assembly plant.

The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis estimated Michigan's 2016 gross state product to be $490.238 billion, ranking 13th out of the 50 states.[92] According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of October 2015, the state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate is estimated at 5.0%.[93][94]

Top publicly traded companies in Michigan according to revenues with State and U.S. rankings

State

Corporation

US

1

General Motors

6

2

Ford

9

3

Dow

48

4

Whirlpool

148

5

Lear

174

6

TRW Automotive

175

7

Penske Automotive

177

8

Kellogg

210

9

DTE Energy

245

10

Ally

295

11

Stryker

300

12

Autoliv

312

13

Masco

334

14

Visteon

344

15

BorgWarner

347

16

SpartanNash

359

17

CMS Energy

383

18

Auto-Owners

425

19

Con-way

456

20

Kelly Services

471

21

Meritor

641

22

American Axle

657

23

Cooper-Standard Automotive

707

24

Steelcase

759

25

WABCO

785

26

Wolverine
Wolverine
World Wide

806

27

Metaldyne
Metaldyne
Performance

812

28

Universal Forest

821

29

Diplomat Pharmacy

946

30

Tower International

956

Further information: List of Michigan
Michigan
companies Source: Fortune[95]

Products and services include automobiles, food products, information technology, aerospace, military equipment, furniture, and mining of copper and iron ore. Michigan
Michigan
is the third leading grower of Christmas trees with 60,520 acres (245 km2) of land dedicated to Christmas tree farming.[96][97] The beverage Vernors
Vernors
was invented in Michigan
Michigan
in 1866, sharing the title of oldest soft drink with Hires Root Beer. Faygo
Faygo
was founded in Detroit
Detroit
on November 4, 1907. Two of the top four pizza chains were founded in Michigan
Michigan
and are headquartered there: Domino's Pizza
Domino's Pizza
by Tom Monaghan and Little Caesars
Little Caesars
Pizza by Mike Ilitch. Michigan
Michigan
became the 24th Right to Work state in U.S. in 2012. Since 2009, GM, Ford and Chrysler have managed a significant reorganization of their benefit funds structure after a volatile stock market which followed the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
and early 2000s recession impacted their respective U.S. pension and benefit funds (OPEB).[98][99] General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler reached agreements with the United Auto Workers Union to transfer the liabilities for their respective health care and benefit funds to a 501(c)(9) Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA). Manufacturing
Manufacturing
in the state grew 6.6% from 2001 to 2006,[100] but the high speculative price of oil became a factor for the U.S. auto industry during the economic crisis of 2008 impacting industry revenues. In 2009, GM and Chrysler emerged from Chapter 11
Chapter 11
restructurings with financing provided in part by the U.S. and Canadian governments.[101][102] GM began its initial public offering (IPO) of stock in 2010.[103] For 2010, the Big Three domestic automakers have reported significant profits indicating the beginning of rebound.[104][105][106][107] As of 2002[update], Michigan
Michigan
ranked fourth in the U.S. in high tech employment with 568,000 high tech workers, which includes 70,000 in the automotive industry.[108] Michigan
Michigan
typically ranks third or fourth in overall Research & development (R&D) expenditures in the United States.[27][28] Its research and development, which includes automotive, comprises a higher percentage of the state's overall gross domestic product than for any other U.S. state.[109] The state is an important source of engineering job opportunities. The domestic auto industry accounts directly and indirectly for one of every ten jobs in the U.S.[110] Michigan
Michigan
was second in the U.S. in 2004 for new corporate facilities and expansions. From 1997 to 2004, Michigan
Michigan
was the only state to top the 10,000 mark for the number of major new developments;[25][111] however, the effects of the late 2000s recession have slowed the state's economy. In 2008, Michigan
Michigan
placed third in a site selection survey among the states for luring new business which measured capital investment and new job creation per one million population.[112] In August 2009, Michigan
Michigan
and Detroit's auto industry received $1.36 B in grants from the U.S. Department of Energy for the manufacture of electric vehicle technologies which is expected to generate 6,800 immediate jobs and employ 40,000 in the state by 2020.[113] From 2007 to 2009, Michigan
Michigan
ranked 3rd in the U.S. for new corporate facilities and expansions.[114][115] As leading research institutions, the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, and Wayne State University
Wayne State University
are important partners in the state's economy and its University Research Corridor.[29] Michigan's public universities attract more than $1.5 B in research and development grants each year.[30] The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory is at Michigan
Michigan
State University. Michigan's workforce is well-educated and highly skilled, making it attractive to companies. It has the third highest number of engineering graduates nationally.[116] Detroit
Detroit
Metropolitan Airport is one of the nation's most recently expanded and modernized airports with six major runways, and large aircraft maintenance facilities capable of servicing and repairing a Boeing 747
Boeing 747
and is a major hub for Delta Air Lines. Michigan's schools and colleges rank among the nation's best. The state has maintained its early commitment to public education. The state's infrastructure gives it a competitive edge; Michigan
Michigan
has 38 deep water ports.[117] In 2007, Bank of America announced that it would commit $25 billion to community development in Michigan
Michigan
following its acquisition of LaSalle Bank in Troy.[118] Michigan
Michigan
led the nation in job creation improvement in 2010.[119]

Distribution of Michigan's jobs as percentages of entire workforce.

Taxation Michigan's personal income tax is set to a flat rate of 4.25%. In addition, 22 cities impose income taxes; rates are set at 1% for residents and 0.5% for non-residents in all but four cities.[120] Michigan's state sales tax is 6%, though items such as food and medication are exempted from sales tax. Property taxes are assessed on the local level, but every property owner's local assessment contributes six mills (a rate of $6 per $1000 of property value) to the statutory State Education Tax. Property taxes are appealable to local boards of review and need the approval of the local electorate to exceed millage rates prescribed by state law and local charters. In 2011, the state repealed its business tax and replaced it with a 6% corporate income tax which substantially reduced taxes on business.[121][122] Article IX of the Constitution of the State of Michigan
Michigan
also provides limitations on how much the state can tax. The state also levies a 6% sales tax within the state and a Use tax
Use tax
on goods purchased outside the state (that are brought in and used in state).[123] The use tax applies to internet sales/purchases from outside Michigan
Michigan
and is equivalent to the sales tax.[124] Agriculture

Michigan
Michigan
is the leading U.S. producer of tart cherries, blueberries, pickling cucumbers, navy beans and petunias.

See also: Cherry production in Michigan A wide variety of commodity crops, fruits, and vegetables are grown in Michigan, making it second only to California
California
among U.S. states in the diversity of its agriculture.[125] The state has 54,800 farms utilizing 10,000,000 acres (40,000 km2) of land which sold $6.49 billion worth of products in 2010.[126] The most valuable agricultural product is milk. Leading crops include corn, soybeans, flowers, wheat, sugar beets, and potatoes. Livestock in the state included 1 million cattle, 1 million hogs, 78,000 sheep and over 3 million chickens. Livestock products accounted for 38% of the value of agricultural products while crops accounted for the majority. Michigan
Michigan
is a leading grower of fruit in the U.S., including blueberries, tart cherries, apples, grapes, and peaches.[31][127] Plums, pears, and strawberries are also grown in Michigan. These fruits are mainly grown in West Michigan
West Michigan
due to the moderating effect of Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
on the climate. There is also significant fruit production, especially cherries, but also grapes, apples, and other fruits, in Northwest Michigan
Michigan
along Lake Michigan. Michigan
Michigan
produces wines, beers and a multitude of processed food products. Kellogg's cereal is based in Battle Creek, Michigan
Battle Creek, Michigan
and processes many locally grown foods. Thornapple Valley, Ball Park Franks, Koegel Meat Company, and Hebrew National
Hebrew National
sausage companies are all based in Michigan. Michigan
Michigan
is home to very fertile land in the Saginaw Valley and "Thumb" areas. Products grown there include corn, sugar beets, navy beans, and soybeans. Sugar beet harvesting usually begins the first of October. It takes the sugar factories about five months to process the 3.7 million tons of sugarbeets into 485,000 tons of pure, white sugar.[128] Michigan's largest sugar refiner, Michigan
Michigan
Sugar Company[129] is the largest east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and the fourth largest in the nation. Michigan
Michigan
Sugar brand names are Pioneer Sugar and the newly incorporated Big Chief Sugar. Potatoes are grown in Northern Michigan, and corn is dominant in Central Michigan. Alfalfa, cucumbers, and asparagus are also grown. Tourism See also: List of National Historic Landmarks in Michigan, List of Registered Historic Places in Michigan, and List of museums in Michigan Michigan's tourists spend $17.2 billion per year in the state, supporting 193,000 tourism jobs.[130] Michigan's tourism website ranks among the busiest in the nation.[131] Destinations draw vacationers, hunters, and nature enthusiasts from across the United States
United States
and Canada. Michigan
Michigan
is fifty percent forest land, much of it quite remote. The forests, lakes and thousands of miles of beaches are top attractions. Event tourism draws large numbers to occasions like the Tulip Time Festival
Tulip Time Festival
and the National Cherry Festival. In 2006, the Michigan
Michigan
State Board of Education mandated all public schools in the state hold their first day of school after the Labor Day holiday, in accordance with the new Post Labor Day School law. A survey found 70% of all tourism business comes directly from Michigan
Michigan
residents, and the Michigan
Michigan
Hotel, Motel, & Resort Association claimed the shorter summer in between school years cut into the annual tourism season in the state.[132] Tourism in metropolitan Detroit
Detroit
draws visitors to leading attractions, especially The Henry Ford, the Detroit
Detroit
Institute of Arts, the Detroit Zoo, and to sports in Detroit. Other museums include the Detroit Historical Museum, the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, museums in the Cranbrook Educational Community, and the Arab American National Museum. The metro area offers four major casinos, MGM Grand Detroit, Greektown, Motor City, and Caesars Windsor
Caesars Windsor
in Windsor, Ontario, Canada; moreover, Detroit
Detroit
is the largest American city and metropolitan region to offer casino resorts.[133]

Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
beach at Holland State Park

Hunting and fishing are significant industries in the state. Charter boats are based in many Great Lakes
Great Lakes
cities to fish for salmon, trout, walleye, and perch. Michigan
Michigan
ranks first in the nation in licensed hunters (over one million) who contribute $2 billion annually to its economy. Over three-quarters of a million hunters participate in white-tailed deer season alone. Many school districts in rural areas of Michigan
Michigan
cancel school on the opening day of firearm deer season, because of attendance concerns. Michigan's Department of Natural Resources manages the largest dedicated state forest system in the nation. The forest products industry and recreational users contribute $12 billion and 200,000 associated jobs annually to the state's economy. Public hiking and hunting access has also been secured in extensive commercial forests. The state has the highest number of golf courses and registered snowmobiles in the nation.[134] The state has numerous historical markers, which can themselves become the center of a tour.[135] The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system connecting all of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the St. Lawrence River.[136] With its position in relation to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the countless ships that have foundered over the many years they have been used as a transport route for people and bulk cargo, Michigan
Michigan
is a world-class scuba diving destination. The Michigan Underwater Preserves are 11 underwater areas where wrecks are protected for the benefit of sport divers. Transportation Canadian international crossings

Welcome sign

Michigan
Michigan
has nine international road crossings with Ontario, Canada:

Ambassador Bridge, North America's busiest international border, crossing the Detroit
Detroit
River Blue Water Bridge, a twin-span bridge (Port Huron, Michigan, and Point Edward, Ontario, but the larger city of Sarnia
Sarnia
is usually referred to on the Canadian side) Blue Water Ferry (Marine City, Michigan, and Sombra, Ontario) Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
tunnel Detroit–Windsor Truck Ferry ( Detroit
Detroit
and Windsor) Detroit–Windsor Tunnel International Bridge (Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario) St. Clair River
St. Clair River
Railway Tunnel (Port Huron and Sarnia) Walpole Island
Walpole Island
Ferry (Algonac, Michigan, and Walpole Island
Walpole Island
First Nation, Ontario)

A second international bridge between Detroit
Detroit
and Windsor is under consideration.[137] Railroads See also: List of Michigan railroads and History of railroads in Michigan Michigan
Michigan
is served by four Class I railroads: the Canadian National Railway, the Canadian Pacific Railway, CSX Transportation, and the Norfolk Southern Railway. These are augmented by several dozen short line railroads. The vast majority of rail service in Michigan
Michigan
is devoted to freight, with Amtrak
Amtrak
and various scenic railroads the exceptions.[138] Main article: Michigan
Michigan
Services Amtrak
Amtrak
passenger rail services the state, connecting many southern and western Michigan
Michigan
cities to Chicago, Illinois. There are plans for commuter rail for Detroit
Detroit
and its suburbs (see SEMCOG Commuter Rail).[139][140][141] Roadways

Mackinac Bridge

See also: Michigan State Trunkline Highway System
Michigan State Trunkline Highway System
and County-Designated Highways in Michigan

Interstate 75 (I-75) is the main thoroughfare between Detroit, Flint, and Saginaw extending north to Sault Ste. Marie and providing access to Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. The freeway crosses the Mackinac Bridge between the Lower and Upper Peninsulas. Auxiliary highways include I-275 and I-375 in Detroit; I-475 in Flint; and I-675 in Saginaw. I-69 enters the state near the Michigan–Ohio– Indiana
Indiana
border, and it extends to Port Huron and provides access to the Blue Water Bridge crossing into Sarnia, Ontario. I-94 enters the western end of the state at the Indiana
Indiana
border, and it travels east to Detroit
Detroit
and then northeast to Port Huron and ties in with I-69. I-194 branches off from this freeway in Battle Creek. I-94 is the main artery between Chicago
Chicago
and Detroit. I-96 runs east–west between Detroit
Detroit
and Muskegon. I-496 loops through Lansing. I-196 branches off from this freeway at Grand Rapids and connects to I-94 near Benton Harbor. I-696 branches off from this freeway at Novi and connects to I-94 near St Clair Shores. US Highway 2 (US 2) enters Michigan
Michigan
at the city of Ironwood and travels east to the town of Crystal Falls, where it turns south and briefly re-enters Wisconsin
Wisconsin
northwest of Florence. It re-enters Michigan
Michigan
north of Iron Mountain and continues through the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
of Michigan
Michigan
to the cities of Escanaba, Manistique, and St. Ignace. Along the way, it cuts through the Ottawa and Hiawatha national forests and follows the northern shore of Lake Michigan. Its eastern terminus lies at exit 344 on I-75, just north of the Mackinac Bridge.

Airports See also: List of airports in Michigan The Detroit
Detroit
Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, in the western suburb of Romulus, was in 2010 the 16th busiest airfield in North America measured by passenger traffic.[142] The Gerald R. Ford International Airport in Grand Rapids
Grand Rapids
is the next busiest airport in the state, served by eight airlines to 23 destinations. Flint Bishop International Airport is the third largest airport in the state, served by four airlines to several primary hubs. Smaller regional and local airports are located throughout the state including on several islands. Cherry Capital Airport
Cherry Capital Airport
is in Traverse City. Large cities, townships, and metropolitan areas

The Detroit
Detroit
skyline along the International Riverfront

The Grand Rapids
Grand Rapids
skyline centered on the Grand River

A Lansing
Lansing
sunset

Downtown Flint as seen from the Flint River

The Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
skyline as seen from Michigan
Michigan
Stadium

Southfield Town Center skyline

Further information: List of cities, villages, and townships in Michigan

The 20 largest municipalities in Michigan
Michigan
by 2011 Census estimates[143]

Rank City Population Image

1 Detroit 706,585

Map showing largest Michigan
Michigan
municipalities

2 Grand Rapids 189,815

3 Warren 134,243

4 Sterling Heights 129,880

5 Ann Arbor 114,925

6 Lansing 114,605

7 Flint 101,558

8 Dearborn 97,114

9 Clinton 96,796

10 Livonia 95,958

11 Canton 90,173

12 Westland 83,239

13 Troy 81,508

14 Farmington Hills 80,258

15 Macomb 79,850

16 Kalamazoo 74,743

17 Shelby 73,804

18 Wyoming 72,833

19 Southfield 72,201

20 Waterford 71,707

Largest metropolitan areas in Michigan

Rank Combined Statistical Area Population

1 Detroit 5,318,744

2 Grand Rapids 1,379,237

3 Lansing 534,684

4 Kalamazoo 524,030

5 Saginaw 391,569

Other economically significant cities include:

Battle Creek, known as "Cereal City", is the headquarters of Kellogg. Benton Harbor–St. Joseph is the headquarters of Whirlpool Corporation. East Lansing
Lansing
is the home of Michigan
Michigan
State University. Holland is the home of Tulip Time, the largest tulip festival in the US. Jackson is the headquarters of CMS Energy. Manistee is home to the world's largest salt plant, owned by Morton Salt. Marquette is the largest city in the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
with 19,661 people and home of Northern Michigan
Northern Michigan
University. Midland is the headquarters of the Dow Chemical
Dow Chemical
Company and the Dow Corning Corporation. Sault Ste. Marie is the home of the Soo Locks
Soo Locks
and Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge. Traverse City
Traverse City
is the "Cherry Capital of the World", making Michigan the nation's largest producer of cherries and is also the largest city in Northern Michigan.

Half of the wealthiest communities in the state are in Oakland County, just north of Detroit. Another wealthy community is just east of the city, in Grosse Pointe. Only three of these cities are outside of Metro Detroit. The city of Detroit, with a per capita income of $14,717, ranks 517th on the list of Michigan
Michigan
locations by per capita income. Benton Harbor is the poorest city in Michigan, with a per capita income of $8,965, while Barton Hills is the richest with a per capita income of $110,683. Education See also: List of colleges and universities in Michigan
List of colleges and universities in Michigan
and List of high schools in Michigan Michigan's education system provides services to 1.6 million K-12 students in public schools. More than 124,000 students attend private schools and an uncounted number are home-schooled under certain legal requirements.[144][145] The public school system has a $14.5 billion budget in 2008–2009.[146] Michigan
Michigan
has a number of public universities spread throughout the state and numerous private colleges as well. Michigan State University
Michigan State University
has the eighth largest campus population of any U.S. school. Seven of the state's universities— Central Michigan
Central Michigan
University, University of Michigan, Michigan
Michigan
State University, Michigan
Michigan
Technological University, Oakland University, Wayne State University, and Western Michigan University—are classified as research universities by the Carnegie Foundation.[147] Culture Arts Music Michigan
Michigan
music is known for three music trends: early punk rock, Motown/soul music and techno music. Michigan
Michigan
musicians include Bill Haley & His Comets, The Supremes, The Marvelettes, The Temptations, The Four Tops, Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
"The Prince of Soul", Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, Aretha Franklin, Mary Wells, Tommy James and the Shondells, ? and the Mysterians, Al Green, The Spinners, Grand Funk Railroad, The Stooges, the MC5, The Knack, Madonna "The Queen of Pop", Bob Seger, Ray Parker Jr., Aaliyah, Eminem, Kid Rock, Jack White
Jack White
and Meg White
Meg White
(The White Stripes), Big Sean, and Alice Cooper. Performance arts Major theaters in Michigan
Michigan
include the Fox Theatre, Music Hall, Gem Theatre, Masonic Temple Theatre, the Detroit
Detroit
Opera House, Fisher Theatre, The Fillmore Detroit, Saint Andrew's Hall, Majestic Theater, and Orchestra Hall. The Nederlander Organization, the largest controller of Broadway productions in New York City, originated in Detroit.[148] Detroit Symphony Orchestra Motown
Motown
Motion Picture Studios with 535,000 square feet (49,700 m2) produces movies in Detroit
Detroit
and the surrounding area based at the Pontiac Centerpoint Business Campus.[149] Sports Main article: List of Michigan
Michigan
professional sports teams See also: List of Michigan
Michigan
sport championships Michigan's major-league sports teams include: Detroit
Detroit
Tigers baseball team, Detroit
Detroit
Lions football team, Detroit
Detroit
Red Wings ice hockey team, and the Detroit
Detroit
Pistons men's basketball team. All of Michigan's major league teams play in the Metro Detroit
Detroit
area. The Pistons played at Detroit's Cobo Arena
Cobo Arena
until 1978 and at the Pontiac Silverdome
Pontiac Silverdome
until 1988 when they moved into The Palace of Auburn Hills. In 2017, the team moved to the newly built Little Caesars Arena in downtown Detroit. The Detroit
Detroit
Lions played at Tiger Stadium in Detroit
Detroit
until 1974, then moved to the Pontiac Silverdome where they played for 27 years between 1975 and 2002 before moving to Ford Field
Ford Field
in Detroit
Detroit
in 2002. The Detroit
Detroit
Tigers played at Tiger Stadium (formerly known as Navin Field and Briggs Stadium) from 1912 to 1999. In 2000 they moved to Comerica Park. The Red Wings played at Olympia Stadium
Olympia Stadium
before moving to Joe Louis Arena
Joe Louis Arena
in 1979. They later moved to Little Caesars
Little Caesars
Arena to join the Pistons as tenants in 2017. Professional hockey got its start in Houghton,[150] when the Portage Lakers were formed.[citation needed] The Michigan International Speedway
Michigan International Speedway
is the site of NASCAR
NASCAR
races and Detroit
Detroit
was formerly the site of a Formula One World Championship Grand Prix race. From 1959 to 1961, Detroit
Detroit
Dragway hosted the NHRA's U.S. Nationals.[151] Michigan
Michigan
is home to one of the major canoeing marathons: the 120-mile (190 km) Au Sable River Canoe Marathon. The Port Huron to Mackinac Boat Race
Port Huron to Mackinac Boat Race
is also a favorite. Twenty-time Grand Slam champion Serena Williams
Serena Williams
was born in Saginaw. The 2011 World Champion for Women's Artistic Gymnastics, Jordyn Wieber is from DeWitt. Wieber was also a member of the gold medal winning team at the London Olympics in 2012. Collegiate sports in Michigan
Michigan
are popular in addition to professional sports. The state's two largest athletic programs are the Michigan Wolverines and Michigan
Michigan
State Spartans, which play in the NCAA
NCAA
Big Ten Conference. Michigan Stadium
Michigan Stadium
in Ann Arbor, home to the Michigan Wolverines football team, is the largest stadium in the Western Hemisphere and the second-largest stadium worldwide behind Rungrado May Day Stadium in Pyongyang, North Korea. The Michigan High School Athletic Association
Michigan High School Athletic Association
features around 300,000 participants. State symbols and nicknames

Dwarf lake iris

Michigan
Michigan
is, by tradition, known as "The Wolverine
Wolverine
State," and the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
takes the wolverine as its mascot. The association is well and long established: for example, many Detroiters volunteered to fight during the American Civil War
American Civil War
and George Armstrong Custer, who led the Michigan
Michigan
Brigade, called them the "Wolverines". The origins of this association are obscure; it may derive from a busy trade in wolverine furs in Sault Ste. Marie in the 18th century or may recall a disparagement intended to compare early settlers in Michigan
Michigan
with the vicious mammal. Wolverines are, however, extremely rare in Michigan. A sighting in February 2004 near Ubly was the first confirmed sighting in Michigan
Michigan
in 200 years.[152] The animal was found dead in 2010.[153]

State nicknames: Wolverine
Wolverine
State, Great Lake State, Mitten State, Water-Winter Wonderland State motto: Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam circumspice (Latin: "If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you") adopted in 1835 on the coat-of-arms, but never as an official motto. This is a paraphrase of the epitaph of British architect Sir Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
about his masterpiece, St. Paul's Cathedral.[154][155] State song: "My Michigan" (official since 1937, but disputed amongst residents),[156] "Michigan, My Michigan" (Unofficial state song, since the civil war) State bird: American robin
American robin
(since 1931) State animal: wolverine (traditional) State game animal: white-tailed deer (since 1997) State fish: brook trout (since 1965) State reptile: painted turtle (since 1995) State fossil: mastodon (since 2000) State flower: apple blossom (adopted in 1897, official in 1997) State wildflower: dwarf lake iris (since 1998) a federally listed threatened species State tree: white pine (since 1955) State stone: Petoskey stone
Petoskey stone
(since 1965). It is composed of fossilized coral (Hexagonaria pericarnata) from long ago when the middle of the continent was covered with a shallow sea. State gem: Isle Royale
Isle Royale
greenstone (since 1973). Also called chlorastrolite (literally "green star stone"), the mineral is found on Isle Royale
Isle Royale
and the Keweenaw peninsula. State quarter: U.S. coin issued in 2004 with the Michigan
Michigan
motto "Great Lakes State". State soil: Kalkaska sand (since 1990), ranges in color from black to yellowish brown, covers nearly 1,000,000-acre (4,000 km2) in 29 counties.

Sister regions

Shiga Prefecture, Japan[157] Sichuan
Sichuan
Province, People's Republic of China[158]

See also

Michigan
Michigan
portal Michigan
Michigan
Highways portal Metro Detroit
Detroit
portal

Outline of Michigan: organized list of topics about Michigan Index of Michigan-related articles

Notes

^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ i.e., including water that is part of state territory. Georgia is the largest state by land area east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
and Michigan the second-largest. ^ The Province included the modern states of Wisconsin, eastern Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, two-thirds of Georgia, and small parts of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and Maine

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Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013.  ^ "Traveling Through time: A guide to Michigan
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plan to Detroit gets a push: Amtrak
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News.  ^ Airports Council International 2010 Final Airport Traffic Report Archived March 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved September 18, 2012.  ^ Number of Non Public Schools in Michigan, Michigan
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Bibliography

Bald, F. Clever (1961). Michigan
Michigan
in Four Centuries. New York: Harper. OCLC 478659.  Browne, William P. & VerBurg, Kenneth (1995). Michigan
Michigan
Politics & Government: Facing Change in a Complex State. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Press. ISBN 9780803212091.  Bureau of Business Research (1987). Michigan
Michigan
Statistical Abstract. Wayne State University.  Dunbar, Willis F. & May, George S. (1995). Michigan: A History of the Wolverine
Wolverine
State. ISBN 0802870554.  Groop, Richard E.; et al. (1984). Michigan
Michigan
Political Atlas (Map). Scale not given. East Lansing, MI: Center for Cartographic Research and Spatial Analysis. OCLC 11918446.  Rich, Wilbur (1989). Coleman Young and Detroit
Detroit
Politics: From Social Activist to Power Broker. Detroit: Wayne State University
Wayne State University
Press. ISBN 9780814320938.  Rubenstein, Bruce A. & Ziewacz, Lawrence E. (2008). Michigan: A History of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
State (4th ed.). Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson. ISBN 9780882952574.  Sisson, Richard; Zacher, Christian K. & Cayton, Andrew R.L., eds. (2006). The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
Indiana
University Press. ISBN 9780253348869.  Weeks, George; Kirk, Robert D.; Blanchard, Paula L. & Weeks, Don (1987). Stewards of the State: The Governors of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: Historical Society of Michigan. ISBN 9780961434427. 

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