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MICHIGAN (/ˈmɪʃɪɡən/ ( listen )) is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States
United States
.

The state's name, Michigan, originates from the ( Ojibwe
Ojibwe
word) mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". Michigan
Michigan
is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States
United States
, with the 11th most extensive total area, and the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
.

Michigan's capital is Lansing
Lansing
, and its largest city is Detroit
Detroit
.

Michigan
Michigan
is the only state to consist of two peninsulas . The Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
, to which the name Michigan
Michigan
was originally applied, is often noted to be shaped like a mitten . The Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
(often referred to as "the U.P.") is separated from the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
by the Straits of Mackinac , a five-mile (8 km) channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan . The two peninsulas are connected by the Mackinac Bridge
Mackinac Bridge
. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes , plus Lake Saint Clair . As a result, it is one of the leading U.S. states for recreational boating .

Michigan
Michigan
also has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles (9.7 km) from a natural water source or more than 85 miles (137 km) from a Great Lakes shoreline.

The area was first settled by Native American tribes and later colonized by French explorers in the 17th century and became part of New France
New France
. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
in 1762, the region came under British rule, and was ceded to the newly independent United States
United States
after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War . The area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan
Michigan
became part of the Indiana Territory . In 1805, the Michigan Territory was formed, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union as the 26th state. It soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination.

Although Michigan
Michigan
has come to develop a diverse economy, it is widely known as the center of the U.S. automotive industry , being home to the country's three major automobile companies (whose headquarters are all within the Detroit
Detroit
metropolitan area ). While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
is a center of manufacturing , services, and high-tech industry.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 17th century * 1.2 18th century * 1.3 19th century * 1.4 20th and 21st centuries

* 2 Government

* 2.1 State government * 2.2 Law * 2.3 Politics * 2.4 Administrative divisions

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Geology

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Population * 4.2 Birth data * 4.3 Languages * 4.4 Religion

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Taxation * 5.2 Agriculture * 5.3 Tourism

* 6 Transportation

* 6.1 Canadian international crossings * 6.2 Railroads * 6.3 Roadways * 6.4 Airports

* 7 Large cities, townships, and metropolitan areas * 8 Education

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Arts

* 9.1.1 Music * 9.1.2 Performance arts

* 9.2 Sports

* 10 State symbols and nicknames * 11 Sister regions * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 References * 15 Bibliography * 16 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Michigan history and History of Michigan

When the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples
Algonquian peoples
, which include the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
groups of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(called "Chippewa" in French), Odaawaa/Odawa (Ottawa) , and the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi (Potawatomi) . The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires . The Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest.

The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
and northern and central Michigan
Michigan
, and also inhabited Ontario
Ontario
, northern Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, southern Manitoba
Manitoba
, and northern and north-central Minnesota
Minnesota
. The Ottawa lived primarily south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern, western and southern Michigan
Michigan
, but also in southern Ontario, northern Ohio
Ohio
and eastern Wisconsin, while the Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin and southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten , the Menominee , the Miami , the Sac (or Sauk), and the Fox , and the non-Algonquian Wyandot , who are better known by their French name, the Huron.

17TH CENTURY

Père Marquette and the Indians (1869), Wilhelm Lamprecht

French voyageurs and coureurs des bois explored and settled in Michigan
Michigan
in the 17th century. The first Europeans to reach what became Michigan
Michigan
were those of Étienne Brûlé 's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette . Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with relatively few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph . In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present day city of Niles .

18TH CENTURY

Approximate area of Michigan
Michigan
highlighted in Guillaume de L\'Isle 's 1718 map

In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit
Detroit
River , between lakes Saint Clair and Erie . Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV\'s chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain , that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations.

The hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent (about 0.85 acres (3,400 m2), the equivalent of just under 200 feet (61 m) per side) and named it Fort Pontchartrain . Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in the Michigan
Michigan
wilderness. The town quickly became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne (Church of Saint Ann) was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation continues to be active today. Cadillac later departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana
Louisiana
from 1710 to 1716. French attempts to consolidate the fur trade led to the Fox Wars involving the Meskwaki (Fox) and their allies versus the French and their Native allies.

At the same time, the French strengthened Fort Michilimackinac
Fort Michilimackinac
at the Straits of Mackinac to better control their lucrative fur-trading empire. By the mid-18th century, the French also occupied forts at present-day Niles and Sault Ste. Marie, though most of the rest of the region remained unsettled by Europeans. France offered free land to attract families to Detroit, which grew to 800 people in 1765, the largest city between Montreal
Montreal
and New Orleans. The Province of Quebec in 1774

From 1660 until the end of French rule, Michigan
Michigan
was part of the Royal Province of New France
New France
. In 1760, Montreal
Montreal
fell to the British forces ending the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–1763). Under the 1763 Treaty of Paris , Michigan
Michigan
and the rest of New France
New France
east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
passed to Great Britain. After the Quebec Act was passed in 1774, Michigan
Michigan
became part of the British Province of Quebec . By 1778, Detroit's population was up to 2,144 and it was the third largest city in Quebec.

During the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
, Detroit
Detroit
was an important British supply center. Most of the inhabitants were French-Canadians or Native Americans, many of whom had been allied with the French. Because of imprecise cartography and unclear language defining the boundaries in the 1783 Treaty of Paris , the British retained control of Detroit
Detroit
and Michigan
Michigan
after the American Revolution
American Revolution
. When Quebec split into Lower and Upper Canada
Canada
in 1791, Michigan
Michigan
was part of Kent County , Upper Canada. It held its first democratic elections in August 1792 to send delegates to the new provincial parliament at Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake ).

Under terms negotiated in the 1794 Jay Treaty , Britain withdrew from Detroit
Detroit
and Michilimackinac in 1796. Questions remained over the boundary for many years, and the United States
United States
did not have uncontested control of the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
and Drummond Island until 1818 and 1847, respectively.

19TH CENTURY

During the War of 1812
War of 1812
, Michigan Territory (effectively consisting of Detroit
Detroit
and the surrounding area) was surrendered after a nearly bloodless siege in 1812. An attempt to retake Detroit
Detroit
resulted in a severe American defeat in the River Raisin Massacre . This battle is still the bloodiest ever fought in the state and had the highest number of American casualties of any battle in the war. Ultimately, Michigan
Michigan
was recaptured by Americans in 1813 after the Battle of Lake Erie . An invasion of Canada
Canada
which culminated in the Battle of the Thames was then launched from Michigan. The more northern areas were held by the British until the peace treaty restored the old boundaries. A number of forts, including Fort Wayne were built in Michigan
Michigan
during the 19th century out of fears of renewed fighting with Britain. Lumbering pines in the late 1800s

The population grew slowly until the opening in 1825 of the Erie Canal connecting the Great Lakes and the Hudson River and New York City. The new route brought a large influx of settlers, who became farmers and merchants and shipped out grain, lumber, and iron ore. By the 1830s, Michigan
Michigan
had 80,000 residents, more than enough to apply and qualify for statehood.

A Constitutional Convention of Assent, led by Gershom Mott Williams , was held to lead the territory to statehood. In October 1835 the people approved the Constitution of 1835, thereby forming a state government, although Congressional recognition was delayed pending resolution of a boundary dispute with Ohio
Ohio
known as the Toledo War . Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio
Ohio
. Michigan
Michigan
received the western part of the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
as a concession and formally entered the Union on January 26, 1837. The Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
proved to be a rich source of lumber, iron, and copper. Michigan
Michigan
led the nation in lumber production from the 1850s to the 1880s. Railroads became a major engine of growth from the 1850s onward, with Detroit
Detroit
the chief hub .

A second wave of French Canadian immigrants settled in Michigan during the late 19th to early 20th century, particularly in lumbering areas in counties on the Lake Huron
Lake Huron
side of the Lower Peninsula, such as the Saginaw Valley, Alpena, and Cheboygan counties as well as throughout the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
with large concentrations in Escanaba and the Keweenaw Peninsula
Peninsula
.

The first statewide meeting of the Republican Party took place July 6, 1854, in Jackson, Michigan , where the party adopted its platform. The state was heavily Republican until the 1930s. Michigan
Michigan
made a significant contribution to the Union in the American Civil War
American Civil War
and sent more than forty regiments of volunteers to the federal armies.

Modernizers and boosters set up systems for public education, including founding the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
(1817; moved to Ann Arbor in 1837), for a classical academic education; and Michigan
Michigan
State Normal School, (1849) now Eastern Michigan University , for the training of teachers. In 1899, it became the first normal college in the nation to offer a four-year curriculum. Michigan
Michigan
Agricultural College (1855), now Michigan State University in East Lansing, was founded as the pioneer land-grant college, a model for those authorized under the Morrill Act (1862). Many other private colleges were founded as well, and the smaller cities formed high schools late in the century.

20TH AND 21ST CENTURIES

See also: History of Ford Motor Company B-24s under construction at Ford's Willow Run line, 1942

Michigan's economy underwent a transformation at the turn of the 20th century. Many individuals, including Ransom E. Olds , John and Horace Dodge , Henry Leland , David Dunbar Buick , Henry Joy , Charles King , and Henry Ford , provided the concentration of engineering know-how and technological enthusiasm to start the birth of the automotive industry . Ford's development of the moving assembly line in Highland Park marked the beginning of a new era in transportation. Like the steamship and railroad, it was a far-reaching development. More than the forms of public transportation, the automobile transformed private life. It became the major industry of Detroit
Detroit
and Michigan, and permanently altered the socio-economic life of the United States
United States
and much of the world.

With the growth, the auto industry created jobs in Detroit
Detroit
that attracted immigrants from Europe and migrants from across the United States, including those from the South . By 1920, Detroit
Detroit
was the fourth-largest city in the US. Residential housing was in short supply, and it took years for the market to catch up with the population boom. By the 1930s, so many immigrants had arrived that more than 30 languages were spoken in the public schools, and ethnic communities celebrated in annual heritage festivals. Over the years immigrants and migrants contributed greatly to Detroit's diverse urban culture, including popular music trends, such as the influential Motown Sound of the 1960s led by a variety of individual singers and groups. Skyscrapers in downtown Detroit
Detroit

Grand Rapids , the second-largest city in Michigan, is also an important center of manufacturing. Since 1838, the city has also been noted for its furniture industry and is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies. Grand Rapids is home to a number of major companies including Steelcase , Amway , and Meijer . Grand Rapids is also an important center for GE Aviation Systems .

Michigan
Michigan
held its first United States
United States
presidential primary election in 1910. With its rapid growth in industry, it was an important center of union industry-wide organizing, such as the rise of the United Auto Workers .

In 1920 WWJ (AM) in Detroit
Detroit
became the first radio station in the United States
United States
to regularly broadcast commercial programs. Throughout that decade, some of the country's largest and most ornate skyscrapers were built in the city. Particularly noteworthy are the Fisher Building , Cadillac Place , and the Guardian Building , each of which is a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
(NHL).

In 1927 a school bombing took place in Clinton County ; the Bath School disaster , which resulted in the deaths of 38 schoolchildren, constitutes the deadliest mass murder in a school in U.S. history.

Michigan
Michigan
manufactured 10.9 percent of total United States
United States
military armaments produced during World War II
World War II
, ranking second (behind New York ) among the 48 states.

Detroit
Detroit
continued to expand through the 1950s, at one point doubling its population in a decade. After World War II
World War II
, housing was developed in suburban areas outside city cores; newly constructed U.S. Interstate Highways allowed commuters to navigate the region more easily. Modern advances in the auto industry have led to increased automation, high tech industry, and increased suburban growth since 1960.

Michigan
Michigan
is the leading auto-producing state in the US, with the industry primarily located throughout the Midwestern United States , Ontario, Canada , and the Southern United States. With almost ten million residents, Michigan
Michigan
is a large and influential state, ranking tenth in population among the fifty states. Detroit
Detroit
is the centrally located metropolitan area of the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the second-largest metropolitan area in the U.S. linking the Great Lakes system. Biomedical Science Research Building at the UM Medical School supports the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor .

The Metro Detroit
Detroit
area in Southeast Michigan
Southeast Michigan
is the state's largest metropolitan area (roughly 50% of the population resides there) and the eleventh largest in the USA. The Grand Rapids metropolitan area in Western Michigan is the state's fastest-growing metro area, with over 1.3 million residents as of 2006. Metro Detroit
Detroit
receives more than 15 million visitors each year. Michigan
Michigan
has many popular tourist destinations, including areas such as Frankenmuth in The Thumb , and Traverse City on the Grand Traverse Bay in Northern Michigan . Tourists spend about $17 billion annually in Michigan
Michigan
supporting 193,000 jobs.

Michigan
Michigan
typically ranks third or fourth in overall Research & development (R"> Michigan State Capitol
Michigan State Capitol
in Lansing
Lansing
Michigan State Capitol Muses Michigan Supreme Court at the Hall of Justice

STATE GOVERNMENT

Main article: Government of Michigan

Michigan
Michigan
is governed as a republic, with three branches of government : the executive branch consisting of the Governor of Michigan and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate ; and the judicial branch . The Michigan Constitution allows for the direct participation of the electorate by statutory initiative and referendum , recall , and constitutional initiative and referral (Article II, § 9, defined as "the power to propose laws and to enact and reject laws, called the initiative, and the power to approve or reject laws enacted by the legislature, called the referendum. The power of initiative extends only to laws which the legislature may enact under this constitution"). Lansing
Lansing
is the state capital and is home to all three branches of state government.

The governor and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The current governor is Rick Snyder
Rick Snyder
. Michigan
Michigan
has two official Governor\'s Residences ; one is in Lansing, and the other is at Mackinac Island
Mackinac Island
. The other constitutionally elected executive officers are the lieutenant governor , who is elected on a joint ticket with the governor, the secretary of state , and the attorney general . The lieutenant governor presides over the Senate , but only voting when ties occur, and is also a member of the cabinet. The secretary of state is the chief elections officer and is charged with running many licensure programs including motor vehicles, all of which are done through the branch offices of the secretary of state.

The Michigan
Michigan
Legislature
Legislature
consists of a 38-member Senate and 110-member House of Representatives . Members of both houses of the legislature are elected through first past the post elections by single-member electoral districts of near-equal population that often have boundaries which coincide with county and municipal lines. Senators serve four-year terms concurrent to those of the governor, while representatives serve two-year terms. The Michigan
Michigan
State Capitol was dedicated in 1879 and has hosted the executive and legislative branches of the state ever since.

The Michigan
Michigan
judiciary consists of two courts with primary jurisdiction (the Circuit Courts and the District Courts), one intermediate level appellate court (the Michigan Court of Appeals ), and the Michigan Supreme Court . There are several administrative courts and specialized courts. District courts are trial courts of limited jurisdiction , handling most traffic violations, small claims, misdemeanors , and civil suits where the amount contended is below $25,000. District courts are often responsible for handling the preliminary examination and for setting bail in felony cases. District court judges are elected to terms of six years. In a few locations, municipal courts have been retained to the exclusion of the establishment of district courts. There are 57 circuit courts in the State of Michigan, which have original jurisdiction over all civil suits where the amount contended in the case exceeds $25,000 and all criminal cases involving felonies . Circuit courts are also the only trial courts in the State of Michigan
Michigan
which possess the power to issue equitable remedies . Circuit courts have appellate jurisdiction from district and municipal courts, as well as from decisions and decrees of state agencies. Most counties have their own circuit court, but sparsely populated counties often share them. Circuit court judges are elected to terms of six years. State appellate court judges are elected to terms of six years, but vacancies are filled by an appointment by the governor. There are four divisions of the Court of Appeals, being located in Detroit, Grand Rapids , Lansing
Lansing
, and Marquette . Cases are heard by the Court of Appeals by panels of three judges, who examine the application of the law and not the facts of the case, unless there has been grievous error pertaining to questions of fact. The Michigan Supreme Court consists of seven members who are elected on non-partisan ballots for staggered eight-year terms. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction only in narrow circumstances, but holds appellate jurisdiction over the entire state judicial system.

LAW

See also: Law of Michigan

Michigan
Michigan
has had four constitutions , the first of which was ratified on October 5 and 6, 1835. There were also constitutions from 1850 and 1908, in addition to the current constitution from 1963. The current document has a preamble, 11 articles, and one section consisting of a schedule and temporary provisions. Michigan, like every U.S. state except Louisiana
Louisiana
, has a common law legal system.

POLITICS

See also: Elections in Michigan and Political party strength in Michigan
Michigan
Michigan
Michigan
Governor Rick Snyder
Rick Snyder
(R) (2011–present) Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Voters in the state elect candidates from both major parties. Economic issues are important in Michigan
Michigan
elections.

The three-term Republican Governor John Engler (1991–2003) preceded the former two-term Democratic Governor Jennifer Granholm (2003–2011). The state has elected successive Republican attorneys general twice since 2003. The Republican Party currently holds a majority in both the House and Senate of the Michigan
Michigan
Legislature
Legislature
. Michigan
Michigan
supported the election of Republican Presidents Ronald Reagan , George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
, and Donald Trump
Donald Trump
. The current Governor Rick Snyder (2011–present) is a Republican .

In contrast, the state supported Democratic candidates in each presidential election from 1992 to 2012. In 2012, Barack Obama
Barack Obama
carried the state over Mitt Romney , winning Michigan's 16 electoral votes with 54% of the vote. Michigan's two U.S. Senators are both Democrats, while Republicans hold nine of the state's fourteen US House seats. Michigan's current senior U.S. Senator Debbie Stabenow , a Democrat, has served since 2001 after narrowly beating former Republican U.S. Senator Spencer Abraham
Spencer Abraham
in the 2000 elections. Democratic U.S. Senator Gary Peters was elected in 2014, beating former Republican Michigan Secretary of State Terri Lynn Land . Congressman Fred Upton , a Republican, serves as Chairman of the US House Committee on Energy and Commerce . Congresswoman Debbie Dingell , a Democrat, became the first person to succeed a living spouse when she replaced former Dean of the House of Representatives John Dingell in 2015.

Republican strongholds of the state include rural areas of Western and Northern Michigan , the Grand Rapids metropolitan area, and Livingston County . Areas of Democratic strength include Wayne County , home to Detroit
Detroit
, Washtenaw County ( Ann Arbor ), Ingham County ( Lansing
Lansing
), and Genesee County (Flint ). Much of suburban Detroit—which includes parts of Oakland , Macomb , and Wayne counties—is politically competitive between the two parties.

Historically, the first county-level meeting of the Republican Party took place in Jackson on July 6, 1854, and the party thereafter dominated Michigan
Michigan
until the Great Depression
Great Depression
. In the 1912 election , Michigan
Michigan
was one of the six states to support progressive Republican and third-party candidate Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
for president after he lost the Republican nomination to William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
.

Michigan
Michigan
remained fairly reliably Republican at the presidential level for much of the 20th century. It was part of Greater New England, the northern tier of states settled chiefly by migrants from New England who carried their culture with them. The state was one of only a handful to back Wendell Willkie over Franklin Roosevelt
Franklin Roosevelt
in 1940 , and supported Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
in his losing bid against Harry S. Truman in 1948 . Michigan
Michigan
went to the Democrats in presidential elections during the 1960s, and voted for the Republican candidate in every election from 1972 to 1988. Between 1992 and 2012 it supported the Democrats; early on in 2016, it was pegged as a swing state , and was won very narrowly by the G.O.P. candidate, Donald Trump
Donald Trump
.

Michigan
Michigan
was the home of Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
, the 38th President of the United States. He was born in Nebraska
Nebraska
and moved as an infant to Grand Rapids and grew up there. The Gerald R. Ford Museum is located in Grand Rapids, and the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library is located on the campus of his alma mater, the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
in Ann Arbor.

In 1846 Michigan
Michigan
became the first state in the Union, as well as the first English-speaking government in the world, to abolish the death penalty . Historian David Chardavoyne has suggested that the movement to abolish capital punishment in Michigan
Michigan
grew as a result of enmity toward the state's neighbor, Canada. Under British rule, it made public executions a regular practice.

Michigan
Michigan
has recognized and performed same-sex marriages since June 26, 2015, following the Supreme Court ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges . Previously, such unions were prohibited under a 2004 state constitutional amendment .

Michigan
Michigan
has approved plans to expand Medicaid
Medicaid
coverage in 2014 to adults with incomes up to 133% of the federal poverty level (approximately $15,500 for a single adult in 2014).

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Michigan
Michigan
welcome sign Main article: Administrative divisions of Michigan
Michigan
See also: List of Michigan county seats , List of counties in Michigan
Michigan
, and List of municipalities in Michigan
Michigan
(by population)

State government is decentralized among three tiers—statewide, county and township. Counties are administrative divisions of the state, and townships are administrative divisions of a county. Both of them exercise state government authority, localized to meet the particular needs of their jurisdictions, as provided by state law. There are 83 counties in Michigan
Michigan
.

Cities, state universities , and villages are vested with home rule powers of varying degrees. Home rule cities can generally do anything that is not prohibited by law. The fifteen state universities have broad power and can do anything within the parameters of their status as educational institutions that is not prohibited by the state constitution. Villages, by contrast, have limited home rule and are not completely autonomous from the county and township in which they are located.

There are two types of township in Michigan: general law township and charter. Charter township status was created by the Legislature
Legislature
in 1947 and grants additional powers and stream-lined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation by a city. As of April 2001, there were 127 charter townships in Michigan. In general, charter townships have many of the same powers as a city but without the same level of obligations. For example, a charter township can have its own fire department, water and sewer department, police department, and so on—just like a city—but it is not required to have those things, whereas cities must provide those services. Charter townships can opt to use county-wide services instead, such as deputies from the county sheriff's office instead of a home-based force of ordinance officers.

GEOGRAPHY

Further information: Geography of Michigan , Protected areas of Michigan
Michigan
, and List of Michigan state parks Marquette Park on Mackinac Island
Mackinac Island

Michigan
Michigan
consists of two peninsulas that lie between 82°30' to about 90°30' west longitude, and are separated by the Straits of Mackinac. The 45th parallel north runs through the state—marked by highway signs and the Polar-Equator Trail —along a line including Mission Point Light near Traverse City , the towns of Gaylord and Alpena in the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
and Menominee in the Upper Peninsula. With the exception of two small areas that are drained by the Mississippi
Mississippi
River by way of the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
River in the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
and by way of the Kankakee - Illinois River
Illinois River
in the Lower Peninsula, Michigan
Michigan
is drained by the Great Lakes -St. Lawrence watershed and is the only state with the majority of its land thus drained. View of Sleeping Bear Dunes

The Great Lakes that border Michigan
Michigan
from east to west are Lake Erie , Lake Huron
Lake Huron
, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior
Lake Superior
. It has more public golf courses , registered boats , and lighthouses than any other state. The state is bounded on the south by the states of Ohio
Ohio
and Indiana
Indiana
, sharing land and water boundaries with both. Michigan's western boundaries are almost entirely water boundaries, from south to north, with Illinois
Illinois
and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
in Lake Michigan; then a land boundary with Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and the Upper Peninsula, that is principally demarcated by the Menominee and Montreal
Montreal
Rivers ; then water boundaries again, in Lake Superior, with Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Minnesota
Minnesota
to the west, capped around by the Canadian province of Ontario
Ontario
to the north and east. Tahquamenon Falls
Tahquamenon Falls
in the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula

The heavily forested Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
is relatively mountainous in the west. The Porcupine Mountains , which are part of one of the oldest mountain chains in the world, rise to an altitude of almost 2,000 feet (610 m) above sea level and form the watershed between the streams flowing into Lake Superior
Lake Superior
and Lake Michigan. The surface on either side of this range is rugged. The state's highest point, in the Huron Mountains northwest of Marquette, is Mount Arvon at 1,979 feet (603 m). The peninsula is as large as Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
combined but has fewer than 330,000 inhabitants. They are sometimes called "Yoopers" (from "U.P.'ers"), and their speech (the " Yooper dialect ") has been heavily influenced by the numerous Scandinavian and Canadian immigrants who settled the area during the lumbering and mining boom of the late 19th century. The Pointe Mouillee State Game Area

The Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
is shaped like a mitten and many residents hold up a hand to depict where they are from. It is 277 miles (446 km) long from north to south and 195 miles (314 km) from east to west and occupies nearly two-thirds of the state's land area. The surface of the peninsula is generally level, broken by conical hills and glacial moraines usually not more than a few hundred feet tall. It is divided by a low water divide running north and south. The larger portion of the state is on the west of this and gradually slopes toward Lake Michigan. The highest point in the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
is either Briar Hill at 1,705 feet (520 m), or one of several points nearby in the vicinity of Cadillac . The lowest point is the surface of Lake Erie at 571 feet (174 m).

The geographic orientation of Michigan's peninsulas makes for a long distance between the ends of the state. Ironwood , in the far western Upper Peninsula, lies 630 highway miles (1,015 km) from Lambertville in the Lower Peninsula's southeastern corner. The geographic isolation of the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
from Michigan's political and population centers makes the U.P. culturally and economically distinct. Occasionally U.P. residents have called for secession from Michigan and establishment as a new state to be called "Superior ".

A feature of Michigan
Michigan
that gives it the distinct shape of a mitten is the Thumb . This peninsula projects out into Lake Huron
Lake Huron
and the Saginaw Bay . The geography of the Thumb is mainly flat with a few rolling hills. Other peninsulas of Michigan
Michigan
include the Keweenaw Peninsula
Peninsula
, making up the Copper Country region of the state. The Leelanau Peninsula
Peninsula
lies in the Northern Lower Michigan
Michigan
region. See Also Michigan
Michigan
Regions Little Sable Point Light south of Pentwater

Numerous lakes and marshes mark both peninsulas, and the coast is much indented. Keweenaw Bay, Whitefish Bay , and the Big and Little Bays De Noc are the principal indentations on the Upper Peninsula. The Grand and Little Traverse , Thunder , and Saginaw bays indent the Lower Peninsula. Michigan
Michigan
has the second longest shoreline of any state—3,288 miles (5,292 km), including 1,056 miles (1,699 km) of island shoreline. Michigan
Michigan
map, including territorial waters

The state has numerous large islands , the principal ones being the North Manitou and South Manitou , Beaver , and Fox groups in Lake Michigan; Isle Royale and Grande Isle in Lake Superior; Marquette, Bois Blanc , and Mackinac islands in Lake Huron; and Neebish , Sugar , and Drummond islands in St. Mary\'s River . Michigan
Michigan
has about 150 lighthouses , the most of any U.S. state. The first lighthouses in Michigan
Michigan
were built between 1818 and 1822. They were built to project light at night and to serve as a landmark during the day to safely guide the passenger ships and freighters traveling the Great Lakes. See Lighthouses in the United States
United States
.

The state\'s rivers are generally small, short and shallow, and few are navigable. The principal ones include the Detroit
Detroit
River , St. Marys River , and St. Clair River which connect the Great Lakes; the Au Sable , Cheboygan , and Saginaw , which flow into Lake Huron; the Ontonagon , and Tahquamenon , which flow into Lake Superior; and the St. Joseph , Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
, Grand , Muskegon , Manistee , and Escanaba , which flow into Lake Michigan. The state has 11,037 inland lakes—totaling 1,305 square miles (3,380 km2) of inland water—in addition to 38,575 square miles (99,910 km2) of Great Lakes waters. No point in Michigan
Michigan
is more than six miles (9.7 km) from an inland lake or more than 85 miles (137 km) from one of the Great Lakes.

The state is home to a number of areas maintained by the National Park Service including: Isle Royale National Park , located in Lake Superior, about 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario. Other national protected areas in the state include: Keweenaw National Historical Park , Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore , Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore , Huron National Forest , Manistee National Forest , Hiawatha National Forest
Hiawatha National Forest
, Ottawa National Forest and Father Marquette National Memorial . The largest section of the North Country National Scenic Trail passes through Michigan.

With 78 state parks , 19 state recreation areas, and 6 state forests , Michigan
Michigan
has the largest state park and state forest system of any state. These parks and forests include Holland State Park
Holland State Park
, Mackinac Island State Park , Au Sable State Forest , and Mackinaw State Forest .

CLIMATE

Köppen climate types in Michigan
Michigan

DETROIT, MI (L.P.)

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

1.2 32 21 1.4 35 22 1.8 45 29 2.2 58 40 3.7 70 50 2.6 79 61 2.5 84 66 2.4 82 64 2.6 74 56 2.5 61 45 2.5 49 36 2 37 25

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Source:

METRIC CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

31 0 −6 36 2 −6 45 7 −2 56 14 4 94 21 10 65 26 16 65 29 19 61 28 18 65 23 13 62 16 7 63 9 2 52 3 −4

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

MARQUETTE, MI (U.P.)

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

1.8 26 13 1.3 29 14 2 37 22 2.3 48 32 2.6 60 41 2.7 69 51 2.6 75 57 2.6 75 58 3.3 67 51 3.1 55 40 2.6 41 29 2 30 18

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Source:

METRIC CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

46 −3 −11 33 −2 −10 51 3 −6 59 9 0 65 16 5 68 21 11 66 24 14 67 24 14 83 19 11 80 13 4 67 5 −2 50 −1 −8

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Michigan
Michigan
has a continental climate , although there are two distinct regions. The southern and central parts of the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
(south of Saginaw Bay and from the Grand Rapids area southward) have a warmer climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Dfa) with hot summers and cold winters. The northern part of Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
and the entire Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
has a more severe climate (Köppen Dfb), with warm, but shorter summers and longer, cold to very cold winters. Some parts of the state average high temperatures below freezing from December through February, and into early March in the far northern parts. During the winter through the middle of February the state is frequently subjected to heavy lake-effect snow . The state averages from 30–40 inches (76–102 cm) of precipitation annually, however some areas in the northern lower peninsula and the upper peninsula average almost 160" of snowfall per year. Michigan's highest recorded temperature is 112 °F (44 °C) at Mio on July 13, 1936, and the coldest recorded temperature is −51 °F (−46 °C) at Vanderbilt on February 9, 1934.

The entire state averages 30 days of thunderstorm activity per year. These can be severe, especially in the southern part of the state. The state averages 17 tornadoes per year, which are more common in the extreme southern portion of the state. Portions of the southern border have been almost as vulnerable historically as states further west and in Tornado
Tornado
Alley . For this reason, many communities in the very southern portions of the state are equipped with tornado sirens to warn residents of approaching tornadoes. Farther north, in Central Michigan, Northern Michigan, and the Upper Peninsula, tornadoes are rare.

GEOLOGY

The geological formation of the state is greatly varied, with the Michigan Basin being the most major formation. Primary boulders are found over the entire surface of the Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
(being principally of primitive origin), while Secondary deposits cover the entire Lower Peninsula. The Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
exhibits Lower Silurian sandstones, limestones, copper and iron bearing rocks, corresponding to the Huronian system of Canada
Canada
. The central portion of the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
contains coal measures and rocks of the Pennsylvanian period. Devonian
Devonian
and sub-Carboniferous deposits are scattered over the entire state.

Michigan
Michigan
rarely experiences earthquakes , thus far mostly smaller ones that do not cause significant damage. A 4.6-magnitude earthquake struck in August 1947. More recently, a 4.2-magnitude earthquake occurred on Saturday, May 2, 2015, shortly after noon, about 5 miles south of Galesburg, Michigan (9 miles southeast of Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
) in central Michigan, about 140 miles west of Detroit, according to the Colorado-based U.S. Geological Survey 's National Earthquake Information Center . No major damage or injuries were reported, according to Governor Rick Snyder
Rick Snyder
's office.

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Michigan statistical areas Michigan
Michigan
population distribution

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1800 3,757

1810 4,762

26.8%

1820 7,452

56.5%

1830 28,004

275.8%

1840 212,267

658.0%

1850 397,654

87.3%

1860 749,113

88.4%

1870 1,184,059

58.1%

1880 1,636,937

38.2%

1890 2,093,890

27.9%

1900 2,420,982

15.6%

1910 2,810,173

16.1%

1920 3,668,412

30.5%

1930 4,842,325

32.0%

1940 5,256,106

8.5%

1950 6,371,766

21.2%

1960 7,823,194

22.8%

1970 8,875,083

13.4%

1980 9,262,078

4.4%

1990 9,295,297

0.4%

2000 9,938,444

6.9%

2010 9,883,640

−0.6%

EST. 2017 9,962,311

0.8%

Sources: 1910–2010 2015 estimate

POPULATION

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Michigan
Michigan
was 9,962,311 on July 1, 2017, an increase of 0.79% from 9,883,635 recorded at the 2010 United States
United States
Census .

The center of population of Michigan
Michigan
is located in Shiawassee County , in the southeastern corner of the civil township of Bennington , which is located northwest of the village of Morrice .

As of the 2010 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
for the U.S. Census, the state had a foreign-born population of 592,212, or 6.0% of the total. Michigan
Michigan
has the largest Dutch , Finnish , and Macedonian populations in the United States.

The 2010 Census reported:

* White American : 78.9% ( Non-Hispanic Whites : 76.6%, White Hispanic : 2.3%) * Black or African American
African American
: 14.2% * American Indian : 0.6% * Asian American : 2.4% * Pacific Islander :

Preceded by Arkansas
Arkansas
LIST OF U.S. STATES BY DATE OF STATEHOOD Admitted on January 26, 1837 (26th) Succeeded by Florida
Florida

Topics related to Michigan The Great Lakes State

* v * t * e

State of Michigan
Michigan

LANSING (capital)

TOPICS

* Index * Congressional delegation * Fauna * Geography * Government * Highways * History * Islands * Law * Lighthouses * Museums * National Historic Landmarks * National Register of Historic Places listings * People * State Historic Sites * State parks * Tallest buildings * Taxa * Timeline * Topics * Tourist attractions

SOCIETY

* Culture * Crime * Demographics * Economy * Education * Politics

REGIONS

* Upper Peninsula
Peninsula

* Copper Country * Gogebic Range
Gogebic Range
* Keweenaw Peninsula
Peninsula

* Lower Peninsula
Peninsula

* Central Michigan * Metro Detroit
Detroit
* Michiana * Northern Michigan * Southeast Michigan
Southeast Michigan
* The Thumb * West Michigan

Largest Municipalities

* Alpena * Ann Arbor * Battle Creek
Battle Creek
* Bay City * Bloomfield Township * Canton Township * Chesterfield Township * Clinton Township * Commerce Township * Dearborn * Dearborn Heights * Detroit
Detroit
* East Lansing
Lansing
* Eastpointe * Farmington Hills * Flint * Flint Township * Georgetown Township * Grand Rapids * Holland * Jackson * Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
* Kentwood * Lansing
Lansing
* Lincoln Park * Livonia * Macomb Township * Meridian Township * Midland * Muskegon * Novi * Pontiac * Portage * Redford * Rochester Hills * Roseville * Royal Oak * Saginaw * Saginaw Township * St. Clair Shores * Shelby Charter Township * Southfield * Sterling Heights * Taylor * Troy * Warren * Waterford Township * West Bloomfield * Westland * Wyoming
Wyoming
* Ypsilanti Township

COUNTIES

* Alcona * Alger * Allegan * Alpena * Antrim * Arenac * Baraga * Barry * Bay * Benzie * Berrien * Branch * Calhoun * Cass * Charlevoix * Cheboygan * Chippewa * Clare * Clinton * Crawford * Delta * Dickinson * Eaton * Emmet * Genesee * Gladwin * Gogebic * Grand Traverse * Gratiot * Hillsdale * Houghton * Huron * Ingham * Ionia * Iosco * Iron * Isabella * Jackson * Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
* Kalkaska * Kent * Keweenaw * Lake * Lapeer * Leelanau * Lenawee * Livingston * Luce * Mackinac * Macomb * Manistee * Marquette * Mason * Mecosta * Menominee * Midland * Missaukee * Monroe * Montcalm * Montmorency * Muskegon * Newaygo * Oakland * Oceana * Ogemaw * Ontonagon * Osceola * Oscoda * Otsego * Ottawa * Presque Isle * Roscommon * Saginaw * Sanilac * Schoolcraft * Shiawassee * St. Clair * St. Joseph * Tuscola * Van Buren * Washtenaw * Wayne * Wexford

* v * t * e

Protected areas of Michigan
Protected areas of Michigan

See also: Important Bird Areas of Michigan
Michigan

NATIONAL

PARKS

* Isle Royale * Keweenaw (Historical ) * River Raisin (Battlefield )

LAKESHORES

* Pictured Rocks * Sleeping Bear Dunes
Sleeping Bear Dunes

LANDMARKS

* Au Sable State Forest * Dukes Research Natural Area
Dukes Research Natural Area
* Grand Mere State Park * Haven Hill State Natural Area * Newton Woods
Newton Woods
* Porcupine Mountains * Roscommon Virgin Pine Stand * Strangmoor Bog * Tobico Marsh
Marsh
* Toumey Woods * Warren Woods State Park * Waterloo State Recreation Area
Waterloo State Recreation Area

FORESTS

* Hiawatha * Huron-Manistee * Ottawa

WILDLIFE REFUGES

* Detroit
Detroit
River * Harbor Island * Huron * Kirtlands Warbler Wildlife Management Area * Michigan
Michigan
Islands * Michigan Wetland Management District * Seney * Shiawassee

OTHER

* Father Marquette National Memorial * Grand Island National Recreation Area * Saint Helena Island National Scenic Area
Saint Helena Island National Scenic Area
* Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary

STATE

PARKS

* Algonac * Aloha * Baraga * Belle Isle * Bewabic * Brimley * Burt Lake * Cambridge Junction * Cheboygan * Clear Lake * Coldwater Lake * Craig Lake * Dodge #4 * Duck Lake * Fayette * Fisherman\'s Island * Fort Michilimackinac
Fort Michilimackinac
* Fort Wilkins * Grand Haven * Grand Mere * Harrisville * Hart-Montague Trail * Hartwick Pines * Hayes * Hoeft * Hoffmaster * Holland * Indian Lake * Interlochen * Kal-Haven Trail * Lake Gogebic * Lakelands Trail * Lakeport * Leelanau * Ludington * Mackinac Island
Mackinac Island
* Maybury * McLain * Mears * Meridian-Baseline * Mill Creek * Mitchell * Muskallonge Lake * Muskegon * Negwegon * Newaygo * North Higgins Lake * Onaway * Orchard Beach * Otsego Lake * Palms Book * Petoskey * Porcupine Mountains * Port Crescent * Rockport * Sanilac Petroglyphs * Saugatuck Dunes * Seven Lakes * Silver Lake * Sleeper * Sleepy Hollow * South Higgins Lake * Sterling * Straits * Tahquamenon Falls
Tahquamenon Falls
* Tawas Point * Thompson\'s Harbor * Traverse City * Twin Lakes * Van Buren * Van Buren Trail * Van Riper * Warren Dunes * Warren Woods * Watkins Lake and County Preserve * Wells * White Pine Trail * Wilderness * William G. Milliken * Wilson * Young

Recreation Areas

* Bald Mountain * Bass River * Bay City * Brighton * Fort Custer * Highland * Holly * Ionia * Island Lake * Lake Hudson * Menominee River * Metamora-Hadley * Ortonville * Pinckney * Pontiac Lake * Proud Lake * Rifle River * Waterloo * Wetzel * Yankee Springs

FORESTS

* Au Sable * Copper Country * Escanaba River * Lake Superior
Lake Superior
* Mackinaw * Pere Marquette

Underwater Preserves

* Alger * De Tour Passage * Grand Traverse Bay * Keweenaw * Manitou Passage * Marquette * Sanilac Shores * Southwest Michigan
Michigan
* Straits of Mackinac * Thumb Area * Whitefish Point

Other (inc. game areas )

* Agate Falls Scenic Site * Allegan State Game Area * Bond Falls Scenic Site * Laughing Whitefish Falls Scenic Site * Michigan Islands Wilderness Area * Pointe Mouillee State Game Area * Ralph A. MacMullan Conference Center * Sturgeon Point Light * Wagner Falls Scenic Site

* CATEGORY * COMMONS * Detroit
Detroit
* Grand Rapids * Michigan Department of Natural Resources

* v * t * e

Midwestern United States

TOPICS

* Culture * Geography * Economy * Government and Politics * History * Sports

STATES

* Ohio
Ohio
* Kentucky
Kentucky
* Indiana
Indiana
* Michigan * Illinois
Illinois
* Missouri
Missouri
* Iowa
Iowa
* Wisconsin
Wisconsin
* Minnesota
Minnesota
* North Dakota * South Dakota * Nebraska
Nebraska
* Kansas
Kansas

MAJOR CITIES

* Chicago
Chicago
* Detroit
Detroit
* Minneapolis
Minneapolis
* St. Paul * St. Louis
St. Louis
* Cleveland
Cleveland
* Columbus * Dayton * Cincinnati
Cincinnati
* Louisville * Grand Rapids * Fort Wayne * Indianapolis
Indianapolis
* Milwaukee
Milwaukee
* Green Bay * Madison * Des Moines * Kansas
Kansas
City * Wichita * Omaha * Sioux Falls * Rapid City * Fargo

STATE CAPITALS

* Columbus * Frankfort * Indianapolis
Indianapolis
* Lansing
Lansing
* Springfield * Jefferson City * Des Moines * Madison * St. Paul * Bismarck * Pierre * Lincoln * Topeka

* v * t * e

New France
New France
(1534–1763)

SUBDIVISIONS

* Acadia (1604–1713) * Canada
Canada
(1608–1763) Pays d\'en Haut * Domaine du roy * Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois
Illinois
Country Ohio Country * Newfoundland (1662–1713) * Île Royale (1713–1763)

TOWNS

* Acadia (Port Royal )

* Canada
Canada

* Quebec * Trois-Rivières * Montreal
Montreal
* Détroit

* Île Royale

* Louisbourg

* Louisiana
Louisiana

* Mobile * Biloxi * New Orleans

* Newfoundland

* Plaisance

* List of towns

FORTS

* Fort Rouillé * Fort Michilimackinac
Fort Michilimackinac
* Fort de Buade * Fort de Chartres * Fort Detroit
Detroit
* Fort Carillon * Fort Condé * Fort Duquesne * Fortress of Louisbourg * Castle Hill * Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
(Illinois) * Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
(Texas) * List of Forts

GOVERNMENT

* Canada
Canada

* Governor General * Intendant * Sovereign Council * Bishop of Quebec * Governor of Trois-Rivières * Governor of Montreal
Montreal

* Acadia

* Governor * Lieutenant-General

* Newfoundland

* Governor * Lieutenant-General

* Louisiana
Louisiana

* Governor * Intendant * Superior Council

* Île Royale

* Governor * Intendant * Superior Council

LAW

* Intendancy * Superior Council * Admiralty court * Provostship * Officiality * Seigneurial court * Bailiff * Maréchaussée * Code Noir
Code Noir

ECONOMY

* Seigneurial system * Fur trade * Company of 100 Associates * Crozat\'s Company * Mississippi Company * Compagnie de l\'Occident * Chemin du Roy
Chemin du Roy
* Coureur des bois
Coureur des bois
* Voyageurs

SOCIETY

* Population

* 1666 census

* Habitants
Habitants
* King\'s Daughters * Casquette girls * Métis * Amerindians * Slavery * Plaçage * Gens de couleur libres

RELIGION

* Jesuit missions * Récollets * Grey Nuns
Grey Nuns
* Ursulines * Sulpicians

WAR AND PEACE

* Military of New France
New France
* Intercolonial Wars * French and Iroquois Wars * Great Upheaval * Great Peace of Montreal
Montreal
* Schenectady massacre * Deerfield massacre

RELATED

* French colonization of the Americas
French colonization of the Americas
* French colonial empire * History of Quebec * History of the Acadians * History of the French-Americans * French West Indies
French West Indies
* Carib Expulsion * Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal
* Commons

* v * t * e

Political divisions of the United States
United States

STATES

* Alabama
Alabama
* Alaska
Alaska
* Arizona
Arizona
* Arkansas
Arkansas
* California
California
* Colorado
Colorado
* Connecticut
Connecticut
* Delaware
Delaware
* Florida
Florida
* Georgia * Hawaii
Hawaii
* Idaho
Idaho
* Illinois
Illinois
* Indiana
Indiana
* Iowa
Iowa
* Kansas
Kansas
* Kentucky
Kentucky
* Louisiana
Louisiana
* Maine
Maine
* Maryland
Maryland
* Massachusetts
Massachusetts
* Michigan * Minnesota
Minnesota
* Mississippi
Mississippi
* Missouri
Missouri
* Montana
Montana
* Nebraska
Nebraska
* Nevada
Nevada
* New Hampshire
New Hampshire
* New Jersey
New Jersey
* New Mexico
New Mexico
* New York * North Carolina
North Carolina
* North Dakota * Ohio
Ohio
* Oklahoma
Oklahoma
* Oregon
Oregon
* Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
* Rhode Island
Rhode Island
* South Carolina
South Carolina
* South Dakota * Tennessee
Tennessee
* Texas
Texas
* Utah
Utah
* Vermont
Vermont
* Virginia
Virginia
* Washington * West Virginia
Virginia
* Wisconsin
Wisconsin
* Wyoming
Wyoming

FEDERAL DISTRICT Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

INSULAR AREAS

* American Samoa * Guam
Guam
* Northern Mariana Islands * Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
* U.S. Virgin Islands

OUTLYING ISLANDS

* Baker Island * Howland Island
Howland Island
* Jarvis Island * Johnston Atoll
Johnston Atoll
* Kingman Reef
Kingman Reef
* Midway Atoll * Navassa Island * Palmyra Atoll * Wake Island
Wake Island

INDIAN RESERVATIONS

* List of Indian reservations

Coordinates : 44°N 85°W / 44°N 85°W / 44; -85

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 267241450 * LCCN : n80046126 * ISNI : 0000 0001 0662 0321 * GND : 4115139-2 * SUDOC : 027952282 * BNF : cb119884476 (data) * NDL

.