Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (/mɒnˈteɪn/;
French: [miʃɛl ekɛm də mɔ̃tɛɲ]; 28 February 1533 –
13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the
French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary
genre. His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes and
autobiography with serious intellectual insight; his massive volume
Essais contains some of the most influential essays ever written.
Montaigne had a direct influence on Western writers, including Francis
Bacon, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
Albert Hirschman, William Hazlitt, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich
Nietzsche, Stefan Zweig, Eric Hoffer, Isaac Asimov, and possibly on
the later works of William Shakespeare.
In his own lifetime, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as
an author. The tendency in his essays to digress into anecdotes and
personal ruminations was seen as detrimental to proper style rather
than as an innovation, and his declaration that, "I am myself the
matter of my book", was viewed by his contemporaries as
self-indulgent. In time, however, Montaigne would come to be
recognized as embodying, perhaps better than any other author of his
time, the spirit of freely entertaining doubt which began to emerge at
that time. He is most famously known for his skeptical remark, "Que
sçay-je?" ("What do I know?", in Middle French; now rendered as Que
sais-je? in modern French).
3 Montaigne's influence on psychology
3.1 Child education
4 Related writers and influence
6 Further reading
7 External links
Château de Montaigne, a house built on the land once owned by
Montaigne's family. His original family home no longer exists, though
the tower in which he wrote still stands.
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne by Dumonstier around 1578
The Tour de Montaigne (Montaigne's tower), mostly unchanged since the
16th century, where Montaigne's library was located
Montaigne was born in the
Aquitaine region of France, on the family
estate Château de Montaigne, in a town now called
Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne, close to Bordeaux. The family was very
wealthy; his great-grandfather, Ramon Felipe Eyquem, had made a
fortune as a herring merchant and had bought the estate in 1477, thus
becoming the Lord of Montaigne. His father, Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur of
Montaigne, was a French Catholic soldier in Italy for a time and had
also been the mayor of Bordeaux.
Although there were several families bearing the patronym "Eyquem" in
Guyenne, his father's family is thought to have had some degree of
Marrano (Spanish and Portuguese Jewish) origins, while his mother,
Antoinette López de Villanueva, was a convert to Protestantism.
His maternal grandfather, Pedro Lopez, from Zaragoza, was from a
Marrano (Sephardic Jewish) family who had converted to
Catholicism. His maternal grandmother, Honorette
Dupuy, was from a Catholic family in Gascony, France.
The coat of arms of Michel Eyquem, Lord of Montaigne
His mother lived a great part of Montaigne's life near him, and even
survived him, but is mentioned only twice in his essays. Montaigne's
relationship with his father, however, is frequently reflected upon
and discussed in his essays.
Montaigne's education began in early childhood and followed a
pedagogical plan that his father had developed, refined by the advice
of the latter's humanist friends. Soon after his birth, Montaigne was
brought to a small cottage, where he lived the first three years of
life in the sole company of a peasant family, in order to, according
to the elder Montaigne, "draw the boy close to the people, and to the
life conditions of the people, who need our help". After these
first spartan years, Montaigne was brought back to the château. The
objective was for Latin to become his first language.
The intellectual education of Montaigne was assigned to a German tutor
(a doctor named Horstanus, who could not speak French). His father
hired only servants who could speak Latin, and they were also given
strict orders always to speak to the boy in Latin. The same rule
applied to his mother, father, and servants, who were obliged to use
only Latin words he himself employed, and thus acquired a knowledge of
the very language his tutor taught him. Montaigne's Latin education
was accompanied by constant intellectual and spiritual stimulation. He
was familiarized with Greek by a pedagogical method that employed
games, conversation, and exercises of solitary meditation, rather than
the more traditional books.
The atmosphere of the boy's upbringing, although designed by highly
refined rules taken under advisement by his father, created in the
boy's life the spirit of "liberty and delight" to "make me relish...
duty by an unforced will, and of my own voluntary motion...without any
severity or constraint"; yet he would have everything to take
advantage of his freedom. And so a musician woke him every morning,
playing one instrument or another, and an épinettier (with a
zither) was the constant companion to Montaigne and his tutor, playing
a tune to alleviate boredom and tiredness.
Around the year 1539, Montaigne was sent to study at a prestigious
boarding school in Bordeaux, the Collège de Guyenne, then under the
direction of the greatest Latin scholar of the era, George Buchanan,
where he mastered the whole curriculum by his thirteenth year. He then
began his study of law at the
University of Toulouse
University of Toulouse in 1546 and
entered a career in the local legal system. He was a counselor of the
Court des Aides of
Périgueux and, in 1557, he was appointed counselor
Bordeaux (a high court). From 1561 to 1563 he was
courtier at the court of Charles IX; he was present with the king at
the siege of Rouen (1562). He was awarded the highest honour of the
French nobility, the collar of the Order of St. Michael, something to
which he aspired from his youth. While serving at the Bordeaux
Parlement, he became very close friends with the humanist poet
Étienne de la Boétie, whose death in 1563 deeply affected Montaigne.
It has been suggested by Donald M. Frame, in his introduction to The
Complete Essays of Montaigne that because of Montaigne's "imperious
need to communicate" after losing Étienne, he began the
Essais as his
"means of communication" and that "the reader takes the place of the
Montaigne married Françoise de la Cassaigne in 1565, probably in an
arranged marriage. She was the well-got daughter and niece of
merchants of Toulouse and Bordeaux. They had six daughters, but only
the second-born, Léonor, survived infancy. Little is known about
their marriage, a few words only escaping from Montaigne himself on
the subject – he wrote of his daughter Léonor, "All my children die
at nurse; but Léonore, our only daughter, who has escaped this
misfortune, has reached the age of six and more without having been
punished, the indulgence of her mother aiding, except in words, and
those very gentle ones." His daughter married François de la Tour
and later Charles de Gamaches and had a daughter by each.
French literary history
Writers by category
Short story writers
Following the petition of his father, Montaigne started to work on the
first translation of the Catalan monk Raymond Sebond's Theologia
naturalis, which he published a year after his father's death in 1568
(In 1595, Sebond's Prologue was put on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum
for its declaration that the Bible is not the only source of revealed
truth). After this, he inherited the family's estate, the Château de
Montaigne, to which he moved back in 1570, thus becoming the Lord of
Montaigne. Another literary accomplishment was Montaigne's posthumous
edition of his friend Boétie's works.
In 1571, he retired from public life to the Tower of the Château, his
so-called "citadel", in the Dordogne, where he almost totally isolated
himself from every social and family affair. Locked up in his library,
which contained a collection of some 1,500 works, he began work on his
Essais ("Essays"), first published in 1580. On the day of his 38th
birthday, as he entered this almost ten-year period of self-imposed
reclusion, he had the following inscription crown the bookshelves of
his working chamber:
In the year of Christ 1571, at the age of thirty-eight, on the last
day of February, his birthday, Michael de Montaigne, long weary of the
servitude of the court and of public employments, while still entire,
retired to the bosom of the learned virgins, where in calm and freedom
from all cares he will spend what little remains of his life, now more
than half run out. If the fates permit, he will complete this abode,
this sweet ancestral retreat; and he has consecrated it to his
freedom, tranquility, and leisure.
During this time of the Wars of Religion in France, Montaigne, a Roman
Catholic, acted as a moderating force, respected both
by the Catholic King Henry III and the Protestant Henry of Navarre.
Montaigne believed that a knowledge of devastating effects of vice is
calculated to excite an aversion to vicious habits.
In 1578, Montaigne, whose health had always been excellent, started
suffering from painful kidney stones, a sickness he had inherited from
his father's family. Throughout this illness, he would have nothing to
do with doctors or drugs. From 1580 to 1581, Montaigne traveled in
France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, partly in search of
a cure, establishing himself at
Bagni di Lucca
Bagni di Lucca where he took the
waters. His journey was also a pilgrimage to the Holy House of Loreto,
to which he presented a silver relief depicting himself and his wife
and daughter kneeling before the Madonna, considering himself
fortunate that it should be hung on a wall within the shrine. He
kept a fascinating journal recording regional differences and
customs and a variety of personal episodes, including the
dimensions of the stones he succeeded in ejecting from his bladder.
This was published much later, in 1774, after its discovery in a trunk
which is displayed in his tower.
During Montaigne's visit to the Vatican, as he described in his travel
Essais were examined by
Sisto Fabri who served as Master
of the Sacred Palace under Pope Gregory XIII. After Fabri examined
Essais the text was returned to its author on 20 March
1581. Montaigne had apologized for references to the pagan notion of
"fortuna" as well as for writing favorably of
Julian the Apostate
Julian the Apostate and
of heretical poets, and was released to follow his own conscience in
making emendations to the text.
Journey to Italy by
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne 1580–1581
While in the city of
Lucca in 1581, he learned that, like his father
before him, he had been elected mayor of Bordeaux; he returned and
served as mayor. He was re-elected in 1583 and served until 1585,
again moderating between Catholics and Protestants. The plague broke
Bordeaux toward the end of his second term in office, in 1585.
In 1586, the plague and the Wars of Religion prompted him to leave his
château for two years.
Montaigne continued to extend, revise, and oversee the publication of
Essais. In 1588 he wrote its third book and also met the writer Marie
de Gournay, who admired his work and later edited and published it.
Montaigne called her his adopted daughter. King Henry III was
assassinated in 1589, and Montaigne then helped to keep
to Henry of Navarre, who would go on to become King Henry IV.
Montaigne died of quinsy at the age of 59, in 1592 at the Château de
Montaigne. The disease in his case "brought about paralysis of the
tongue", and he had once said "the most fruitful and natural play
of the mind is conversation. I find it sweeter than any other action
in life; and if I were forced to choose, I think I would rather lose
my sight than my hearing and voice." Remaining in possession of
all his other faculties, he requested mass, and died during the
celebration of that mass.
He was buried nearby. Later his remains were moved to the church of
Antoine at Bordeaux. The church no longer exists: it became the
Convent des Feuillants, which has also disappeared. The Bordeaux
Tourist Office says that Montaigne is buried at the Musée Aquitaine,
Faculté des Lettres, Université
Bordeaux 3 Michel de Montaigne,
Pessac. His heart is preserved in the parish church of
The humanities branch of the University of
Bordeaux is named after
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne
Main article: Essays (Montaigne)
His fame rests on the Essais, a collection of a large number of short
subjective treatments of various topics published in 1580, inspired by
his studies in the classics, especially by the works of
Lucretius. Montaigne's stated goal is to describe humans, and
especially himself, with utter frankness. Montaigne's writings are
studied as literature and philosophy around the world.
Michel de Montaigne
Inspired by his consideration of the lives and ideals of the leading
figures of his age, he finds the great variety and volatility of human
nature to be its most basic features. He describes his own poor
memory, his ability to solve problems and mediate conflicts without
truly getting emotionally involved, his disdain for the human pursuit
of lasting fame, and his attempts to detach himself from worldly
things to prepare for his timely death. He writes about his disgust
with the religious conflicts of his time. He believed that humans are
not able to attain true certainty. The longest of his essays, Apology
for Raymond Sebond, marking his adoption of
Pyrrhonism contains his
famous motto, "What do I know?"
Montaigne considered marriage necessary for the raising of children,
but disliked strong feelings of passionate love because he saw them as
detrimental to freedom. In education, he favored concrete examples and
experience over the teaching of abstract knowledge that has to be
accepted uncritically. His essay "On the Education of Children" is
dedicated to Diana of Foix.
Essais exercised important influence on both French and English
literature, in thought and style. Francis Bacon's Essays,
published over a decade later, in 1596, are usually assumed to be
directly influenced by Montaigne's collection, and Montaigne is cited
by Bacon alongside other classical sources in later essays.
Montaigne's influence on psychology
Though not a scientist, Montaigne made observations on topics in
psychology. In his essays, he developed and explained his
observations of these topics. His thoughts and ideas covered topics
such as thought, motivation, fear, happiness, child education,
experience, and human action. Montaigne’s ideas have influenced
psychology and are a part of psychology’s rich history.
Child education was among the psychological topics that he wrote
about. His essays On the Education of Children, On Pedantry, and
On Experience explain the views he had on child
education.:61:62:70 Some of his views on child education are still
Montaigne’s views on the education of children were opposed to the
common educational practices of his day.:63:67He found fault with
both what was taught and how it was taught.:62 Much of the
education during Montaigne’s time was focused on the reading of the
classics and learning through books.:67Montaigne disagreed with
learning strictly through books. He believed it was necessary to
educate children in a variety of ways. He also disagreed with the way
information was being presented to students. It was being presented in
a way that encouraged students to take the information that was taught
to them as absolute truth. Students were denied the chance to question
the information. Therefore, students could not truly learn. Montaigne
believed that, to learn truly, a student had to take the information
and make it their own.
At the foundation Montaigne believed that the selection of a good
tutor was important for the student to become well educated.:66
Education by a tutor was to be done at the pace of the
student.:67He believed that a tutor should be in dialogue with the
student, letting the student speak first. The tutor should also allow
for discussions and debates to be had. Through this dialogue, it was
meant to create an environment in which students would teach
themselves. They would be able to realize their mistakes and make
corrections to them as necessary.
Individualized learning was also integral to his theory of child
education. He argued that the student combines information he already
knows with what is learned and forms a unique perspective on the newly
learned information.:356 Montaigne also thought that tutors should
encourage a student’s natural curiosity and allow them to question
things.:68He postulated that successful students were those who
were encouraged to question new information and study it for
themselves, rather than simply accepting what they had heard from the
authorities on any given topic. Montaigne believed that a child’s
curiosity could serve as an important teaching tool when the child is
allowed to explore the things that they are curious about.
Experience was also a key element to learning for Montaigne. Tutors
needed to teach students through experience rather than through the
mere memorization of knowledge often practised in book
learning.:62:67He argued that students would become passive
adults; blindly obeying and lacking the ability to think on their
own.:354 Nothing of importance would be retained and no abilities
would be learned.:62 He believed that learning through experience
was superior to learning through the use of books. For this reason
he encouraged tutors to educate their students through practice,
travel, and human interaction. In doing so, he argued that students
would become active learners, who could claim knowledge for
Montaigne’s views on child education continue to have an influence
in the present. Variations of Montaigne’s ideas on education are
incorporated into modern learning in some ways. He argued against the
popular way of teaching in his day, encouraging individualized
learning. He believed in the importance of experience over book
learning and memorization. Ultimately, Montaigne postulated that the
point of education was to teach a student how to have a successful
life by practising an active and socially interactive
Related writers and influence
Student taking notes on Montaigne's Essays at Shimer College.
Thinkers exploring similar ideas to Montaigne include Erasmus, Thomas
More, and Guillaume Budé, who all worked about fifty years before
Montaigne. Many of Montaigne's Latin quotations are from Erasmus'
Adagia, and most critically, all of his quotations from Socrates.
Plutarch remains perhaps Montaigne's strongest influence, in terms of
substance and style. Montaigne's quotations from
Plutarch in the
Essays number well over 500.
Edward Capell first made the suggestion in 1780, scholars
have suggested Montaigne to be an influence on Shakespeare. The
latter would have had access to John Florio's translation of
Montaigne's Essais, published in English in 1603, and a scene in The
Tempest "follows the wording of Florio [translating Of Cannibals] so
closely that his indebtedness is unmistakable". However, most
parallels between the two can be explained as commonplaces: as
with Cervantes, Shakespeare's similarities with writers in other
nations could be due simply to their simultaneous study of Latin moral
and philosophical writers such as Seneca the Younger, Horace,
Much of Blaise Pascal's skepticism in his
Pensées has been
traditionally attributed to his reading Montaigne.
The English essayist
William Hazlitt expressed boundless admiration
for Montaigne, exclaiming that "he was the first who had the courage
to say as an author what he felt as a man. ... He was neither a pedant
nor a bigot. ... In treating of men and manners, he spoke of them as
he found them, not according to preconceived notions and abstract
dogmas". Beginning most overtly with the essays in the "familiar"
style in his own Table-Talk, Hazlitt tried to follow Montaigne's
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson chose "Montaigne; or, the Skeptic" as a subject of
one of his series of lectures entitled Representative Men, alongside
other subjects such as Shakespeare and Plato. In "The Skeptic" Emerson
writes of his experience reading Montaigne, "It seemed to me as if I
had myself written the book, in some former life, so sincerely it
spoke to my thought and experience."
Friedrich Nietzsche judged of
Montaigne: "That such a man wrote has truly augmented the joy of
living on this Earth". Sainte-Beuve advises us that "to restore
lucidity and proportion to our judgments, let us read every evening a
page of Montaigne." 
The American philosopher
Eric Hoffer employed Montaigne both
stylistically and in thought. In Hoffer's memoir, Truth Imagined, he
said of Montaigne, "He was writing about me. He knew my innermost
thoughts." The Welsh novelist
John Cowper Powys
John Cowper Powys expressed his
admiration for Montaigne's philosophy in his books Suspended
Judgements (1916) and The Pleasures of Literature (1938). Judith N.
Shklar introduces her book Ordinary Vices (1984), "It is only if we
step outside the divinely ruled moral universe that we can really put
our minds to the common ills we inflict upon one another each day.
That is what Montaigne did and that is why he is the hero of this
book. In spirit he is on every one of its pages..."
20th-century literary critic
Erich Auerbach called Montaigne the first
modern man. "Among all his contemporaries", writes Auerbach (Mimesis,
Chapter 12), "he had the clearest conception of the problem of man's
self-orientation; that is, the task of making oneself at home in
existence without fixed points of support".
^ Robert P. Amico, The Problem of the Criterion, Rowman &
Littlefield, 1995, p. 42. Primary source: Montaigne, Essais, II, 12:
"Pour juger des apparences que nous recevons des subjets, il nous
faudroit un instrument judicatoire ; pour verifier cet
instrument, il nous y faut de la demonstration ; pour verifier la
demonstration, un instrument : nous voilà au rouet [To judge of
the appearances that we receive of subjects, we had need have a
judicatorie instrument: to verifie this instrument we should have
demonstration; and to approve demonstration, an instrument; thus are
we ever turning round]" (transl. by Charles Cotton).
^ FT.com "Small Talk: José Saramago". "Everything I’ve read has
influenced me in some way. Having said that, Kafka, Borges, Gogol,
Montaigne, Cervantes are constant companions."
^ "Montaigne". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ His anecdotes are 'casual' only in appearance; Montaigne writes:
'Neither my anecdotes nor my quotations are always employed simply as
examples, for authority, or for ornament...They often carry, off the
subject under discussion, the seed of a richer and more daring matter,
and they resonate obliquely with a more delicate tone,' Michel de
Montaigne, Essais, Pléiade, Paris (ed. A. Thibaudet) 1937, Bk. 1,
ch.40, p. 252 (tr. Charles Rosen)
^ Buckley, Michael J., At the Origins of Modern Atheism, Yale UP,
1990, p. 69.
^ a b Kinnaird, John, William Hazlitt: Critic of Power, Columbia
University Press, 1978, p. 274.
^ from Truth Imagined, memoir by Eric Hoffer.
^ Sophie Jama, L’Histoire Juive de Montaigne [The Jewish History of
Montaigne], Paris, Flammarion, 2001, p. 76.
^ "His mother was a Jewish Protestant, his father a Catholic who
achieved wide culture as well as a considerable fortune."
Civilization, Kenneth Clark, (Harper & Row: 1969), p. 161.
^ Winkler, Emil (1942). "Zeitschrift für Französische Sprache und
^ Goitein, Denise R (2008). "Montaigne, Michel de". Encyclopaedia
Judaica. The Gale Group. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
^ Introduction: Montaigne's Life and Times, in Apology for Raymond
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne (Roger Ariew), (Hackett: 2003), p. iv:
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne was born in 1533 at the chateau de Montagine
(about 30 miles east of Bordeaux), the son of Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur
de Montaigne, and Antoinette de Louppes (or Lopez), who came from a
wealthy (originally Iberian) Jewish family".
^ "...the family of Montaigne's mother, Antoinette de Louppes (Lopez)
of Toulouse, was of Spanish Jewish origin...." The Complete Essays of
Montaigne, Translated by Donald M. Frame, "Introduction," p. vii ff.,
Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1989 ISBN 0-8047-0486-4
^ Popkin, Richard H (2003-03-20). "The History of Scepticism: From
Savonarola to Bayle". ISBN 9780195107678.
^ Green, Toby (2009-03-17). "Inquisition: The Reign of Fear".
^ Montaigne. Essays, III, 13
^ Hutchins, Robert Maynard; Hazlitt, W. Carew, eds. (1952). The Essays
of Michel Eyquem de Montaigne. Great Books of the Western World.
twenty-five. Trans. Charles Cotton. Encyclopædia Britannica.
p. v. He had his son awakened each morning by 'the sound of a
^ Frame, Donald (translator). The Complete Essays of Montaigne. 1958.
^ The New Yorker
^ As cited by Richard L. Regosin, ‘Montaigne and His Readers', in
Denis Hollier (ed.) A New History of French Literature, Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London 1995, pp. 248–52,
p. 249. The Latin original runs: 'An. Christi 1571 aet. 38, pridie
cal. mart., die suo natali, Mich. Montanus, servitii aulici et munerum
publicorum jamdudum pertaesus, dum se integer in doctarum virginum
recessit sinus, ubi quietus et omnium securus (quan)tillum in tandem
superabit decursi multa jam plus parte spatii: si modo fata sinunt
exigat istas sedes et dulces latebras, avitasque, libertati suae,
tranquillitatique, et otio consecravit.' as cited in Helmut Pfeiffer,
'Das Ich als Haushalt:Montaignes ökonomische Politik’, in Rudolf
Behrens, Roland Galle (eds.) Historische Anthropologie und
Literatur:Romanistische Beträge zu einem neuen Paradigma der
Literaturwissenschaft, Königshausen und Neumann, Würzburg, 1995 pp.
69–90 p. 75
^ a b c Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). "Montaigne, Michel,
Seigneur". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P.F. Collier &
^ Edward Chaney, The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian
Cultural Relations since the Renaissance, 2nd ed. (London, 2000), p.
^ Cazeaux, Guillaume (2015). Montaigne et la coutume [Montaigne and
the custom]. Milan: Mimésis. ISBN 9788869760044. Archived from
the original on 2015-10-30.
^ Montaigne's Travel Journal, translated with an introduction by
Donald M. Frame and foreword by Guy Davenport, San Francisco, 1983
^ Treccani.it, L'encicolpedia Italiana, Dizionario Biografico.
Accessed 10 August 2013
^ Montaigne, Michel de, Essays of Michel de Montaigne, tr. Charles
Cotton, ed. William Carew Hazlitt, 1877, "The Life of Montaigne" in v.
1. n.p., Kindle edition.
^ "The Autobiography of Michel De Montaign", translated, introduced,
and edited by Marvin Lowenthal, David R. Godine Publishing, p. 165
^ "Biographical Note", Encyclopædia Britannica "Great Books of the
Western World", Vol. 25, p. vi "Montaigne"
^ Bakewell, Sarah. How to Live – or – A Life of Montaigne in One
Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer (2010), pp. 325–26, 365 n.
^ "Titi Lucretii Cari De rerum natura libri sex (Montaigne.1.4.4)".
Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
^ Bloom, Harold. The Western Canon.
^ Bakewell, Sarah (2010). How to live : a life of Montaigne in
one question and twenty attempts at an answer. London: Vintage.
p. 280. ISBN 9780099485155.
^ a b King, Brett; Viney, Wayne; Woody, William.A History of
Psychology: Ideas and Context, 4th ed., Pearson Education, Inc. 2009,
^ a b c d e f g h i Hall, Michael L. Montaigne's Uses of Classical
Learning. "Journal of Education" 1997, Vol. 179 Issue 1, p. 61
^ a b Ediger, Marlow. Influence of ten leading educators on American
education.Education Vol. 118, Issue 2, p. 270
^ a b c Worley, Virginia. Painting With Impasto: Metaphors, Mirrors,
and Reflective Regression in Montagne's 'Of the Education of
Children.' Educational Theory, June 2012, Vol. 62 Issue 3, p.
^ Friedrich, Hugo; Desan, Philippe (1991). Montaigne.
^ Friedrich 1991, p. 71.
^ Billault, Alain (2002). "Plutarch's Lives". In Gerald N. Sandy. The
Classical Heritage in France. p. 226.
^ a b Olivier, T. (1980). "Shakespeare and Montaigne: A Tendency of
Thought". Theoria. 54: 43–59.
^ Harmon, Alice (1942). "How Great Was Shakespeare's Debt to
Montaigne?". PMLA. 57 (4): 988–1008. JSTOR 458873.
^ Eliot, Thomas Stearns (1958). Introduction to Pascal's Essays. New
York: E. P. Dutton and Co. p. viii.
^ Quoted from Hazlitt's "On the Periodical Essayists" in Park, Roy,
Hazlitt and the Spirit of the Age, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1971, pp.
^ Nietzsche, Untimely Meditations, Chapter 3, "Schopenhauer as
Educator", Cambridge University Press, 1988, p. 135
^ Sainte-Beuve, "Montaigne", "Literary and Philosophical Essays", Ed.
Charles W. Eliot, New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1938.
^ Auerbach, Erich, Mimesis: Representations of Reality in Western
Literature', Princeton UP, 1974, p. 311
Jean Lacouture. Bibliothèque de la Pléiade (2007). Album Montaigne
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Marvin Lowenthal (1935). The Autobiography of Michel de Montaigne:
Comprising the Life of the Wisest Man of his Times: his Childhood,
Youth, and Prime; his Adventures in Love and Marriage, at Court, and
in Office, War, Revolution, and Plague; his Travels at Home and
Abroad; his Habits, Tastes, Whims, and Opinions. Composed, Prefaced,
and Translated from the Essays, Letters, Travel Diary, Family Journal,
etc., withholding no signal or curious detail. Houghton Mifflin.
Charlotte C. S. Thomas. No greater monster nor miracle than myself.
Mercer University Press. ASIN B01K15HQ2I.
Michel de Montaigne;
Charles Henry Conrad Wright (1914). Selections
from Montaigne, ed. with notes, by C.H. Conrad Wright. D.C. Heath
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LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
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Contains Book 1 of the Essays, lightly edited for easier reading
Facsimile and HTML versions of the 10 Volume Essays of Montaigne at
the Online Library of Liberty
Essays by Montaigne at Quotidiana.org
Charles Cotton translation of some of Montaigne's Essays:
plain text version by Project Gutenberg
Essays English audio by Librivox
The complete, searchable text of the Villey-Saulnier edition from the
ARFTL project at the
University of Chicago
University of Chicago (in French)
Montaigne Studies at the University of Chicago
Michel de Montaigne, entry by Christopher Edelman in the Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Foglia, Marc. "Montaigne". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia
Background and digital facsimile of 1595 volume at the Gordon
Collection of the University of Virginia
"Montaigne on Self-esteem" on YouTube, a documentary by Alain de
Botton about Montaigne and his philosophy
Titi Lucretii Cari De rerum natura libri sex, published in Paris 1563,
later owned and annotated by Montaigne, fully digitised in Cambridge
Montaigne “On Cruelty”: A Close Reading of a Classic
The Montaigne Library of Gilbert de Botton, digitised in Cambridge
Essays of Michel De Montaigne
ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 1268
BNF: cb11916599s (data)