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Michael VII Doukas
Doukas
or Dukas/Ducas (Greek: Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakes (Παραπινάκης, lit. "minus a quarter", with reference to the devaluation of the Byzantine currency under his rule), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.

Contents

1 Life 2 Usurpers 3 Family 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading

7.1 Primary sources

8 External links

Life[edit] Michael VII was born c. 1050 in Constantinople, the eldest son of Constantine X Doukas
Doukas
and Eudokia Makrembolitissa.[1] He was associated with his father on the throne late in 1059, together with or shortly before his newly born brother Konstantios Doukas.[2] When Constantine X died in 1067, Michael VII was 17 years old and should have been able to rule by himself. He exhibited little interest in politics, however, and his mother Eudokia and uncle John Doukas governed the empire as effective regents.[3] On January 1, 1068, Eudokia married the general Romanos Diogenes, who now became senior co-emperor alongside Michael VII, Konstantios, and another brother, Andronikos.[4] When Romanos IV was defeated and captured by Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
of the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
at the Battle of Manzikert in August 1071,[5] Michael VII remained in the background, while the initiative was taken by his uncle John Doukas and his tutor Michael Psellos.[6] They conspired to keep Romanos from regaining power after his release from captivity, while Michael felt no obligation to honor the agreement that Romanos struck with the Sultan.[1] After the dispatch of Eudokia to a monastery, Michael VII was crowned again on October 24, 1071 as senior emperor. Although still advised by Michael Psellos
Michael Psellos
and John Doukas, Michael VII became increasingly reliant on his finance minister Nikephoritzes.[7] The emperor's chief interests, shaped by Psellos, were in academic pursuits, and he allowed Nikephoritzes
Nikephoritzes
to increase both taxation and luxury spending without properly financing the army. As an emperor he was incompetent, surrounded by sycophantic court officials, and blind to the empire collapsing around him.[1] In dire straits, imperial officials resorted to property confiscations and even expropriated some of the wealth of the church. The underpaid army tended to mutiny, and the Byzantines lost Bari, their last possession in Italy, to the Normans
Normans
of Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
in 1071.[6] Simultaneously, they faced a serious revolt in the Balkans, where they faced an attempt for the restoration of the Bulgarian state.[7] Although this revolt was suppressed by the general Nikephoros Bryennios,[7] the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was unable to recover its losses in Asia Minor.

Miliaresion
Miliaresion
of Michael VII Doukas.

Depiction of Michael VII Doukas
Doukas
on the back of the Holy Crown of Hungary.

After Manzikert, the Byzantine government sent a new army to contain the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
under Isaac Komnenos, a brother of the future emperor Alexios I Komnenos, but this army was defeated and its commander captured in 1073.[8] The problem was made worse by the desertion of the Byzantines' western mercenaries, who became the object of the next military expedition in the area, led by the Caesar John Doukas.[8] This campaign also ended in failure, and its commander was likewise captured by the enemy. The victorious mercenaries now forced John Doukas
Doukas
to stand as pretender to the throne. The government of Michael VII was forced to recognize the conquests of the Seljuks in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
in 1074, and to seek their support.[1] A new army under Alexios Komnenos, reinforced by Seljuk troops sent by Malik Shah I, finally defeated the mercenaries and captured John Doukas in 1074.[9] These misfortunes caused widespread dissatisfaction, exacerbated by the devaluation of the currency, which gave the emperor his nickname Parapinakēs, "minus a quarter".[1] In 1078 two generals, Nikephoros Bryennios and Nikephoros Botaneiates, simultaneously revolted in the Balkans and Anatolia, respectively.[9] Botaneiates gained the support of the Seljuk Turks, and he reached Constantinople
Constantinople
first. Michael VII resigned the throne with hardly a struggle on March 31, 1078 and retired into the Monastery of Stoudios.[10] He later became metropolitan of Ephesus[11] and died in Constantinople
Constantinople
in c. 1090.[12] Before his resignation from the throne, Michael VII may have sent an embassy to Song China, following a series of Byzantine embassies to the earlier Tang Empire of China.[13] From the Wenxian Tongkao, written by Chinese historian Ma Duanlin (1245–1322), and the History of Song it is known that the Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
Michael VII Parapinakēs Caesar (Mie li sha ling kai sa 滅力沙靈改撒) of Fu lin (i.e. Byzantium) sent an embassy to China's Song dynasty
Song dynasty
that arrived in November 1081, during the reign of Emperor Shenzong of Song (r. 1067-1085).[14][13] The History of Song mentions how the Byzantine diplomat and official named "Ni-si-tu-ling-si-meng-p'an" offered saddled horses, sword-blades, and real pearls as tributary gifts to the Song court.[13] Usurpers[edit] Various usurpers attempted to overthrow Michael VII or rule parts of the empire. These included:

Nestor – A former slave of Constantine X, Nestor had been promoted to become the dux of Paradounavon,[15] a region bordering the Danube. Having had much of his property and wealth confiscated by the minister Nikephoritzes, he rebelled in around 1076,[15] placing himself at the head of the garrisons under his command, which were already in a state of mutiny due to an arrears in their pay. The troops were eager to plunder the Bulgarians, and Nestor obtained the assistance of one of the chiefs of the Patzinaks before marching onto Constantinople. The rebels demanded the dismissal of Nikephoritzes, but discovering that he didn't have the numbers to attack the capital, Nestor's troops separated into smaller parties and proceeded to plunder Thrace.[16] Defeated by Alexios Komnenos in 1078,[17] Nestor remained with the Patzinaks, and retreated with them back to Paradunavum.[16] Philaretos Brachamios Caesar John Doukas Nikephoros Bryennios Nikephoros Botaneiates

Family[edit] Michael VII Doukas
Doukas
married Maria of Alania, daughter of King Bagrat IV of Georgia. By her he had at least one son, Constantine Doukas, co-emperor from c. 1075 to 1078 and from 1081 to 1087/8. He died c. 1095. See also[edit]

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

List of Byzantine emperors

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e Canduci 2010, p. 273 ^ Dumbarton Oaks 1973, p. 779 ^ Dumbarton Oaks 1973, p. 780 ^ Dumbarton Oaks 1973, p. 785 ^ Norwich 1993, p. 353 ^ a b Norwich 1993, p. 355 ^ a b c Norwich 1993, p. 359 ^ a b Finlay 1854, p. 52 ^ a b Norwich 1993, p. 360 ^ Norwich 1993, p. 361 ^ Canduci 2010, p. 274 ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 1366 ^ a b c Paul Halsall (2000) [1998]. Jerome S. Arkenberg, ed. "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium
Byzantium
and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. - 1643 C.E." Fordham.edu. Fordham University. Retrieved 2016-09-10.  ^ Fuat Sezgin; Carl Ehrig-Eggert; Amawi Mazen; E. Neubauer (1996). نصوص ودراسات من مصادر صينية حول البلدان الاسلامية. Frankfurt am Main: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften (Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University). p. 25.  ^ a b Treadgold 1997, p. 607 ^ a b Finlay 1854, p. 50 ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 610

References[edit]

Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8  Dumbarton Oaks (1973), Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection: Leo III to Nicephorus Iii, 717–1081  see also Dumbarton Oaks, "Michael VII Doukas
Doukas
(1071–1078)", God's Regents on Earth: A Thousand Years of Byzantine Imperial Seals, retrieved May 2016  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Finlay, George (1854), History of the Byzantine and Greek Empires from 1057–1453, 2, William Blackwood & Sons  Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6  Norwich, John Julius (1993), Byzantium: The Apogee, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-011448-3  Treadgold, Warren (1997), A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-2630-2 

Attribution:

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Michael: Michael VII". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 359. 

Further reading[edit]

Garland, Linda (1999), Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium
Byzantium
AD 527–1204, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-14688-3  Polemis, Demetrios I. (1968), The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography, London 

Primary sources[edit]

Michael Psellus, Chronographia. Michael Attaleiates, The Histories. Pseudo-John Skylitzes, Scylitzes Continuatus. Anna Komnene, The Alexiad.

External links[edit]

Coins of Michael VII

Michael VII Doukas Doukid dynasty Born: c. 1050 Died: c. 1090

Regnal titles

Preceded by Constantine X Byzantine Emperor 22 May 1067 –24 March 1078 with Konstantios Doukas
Konstantios Doukas
(1060–1078) Romanos IV
Romanos IV
(1068–1071), Andronikos Doukas
Doukas
(1068–1078) and Constantine Doukas
Doukas
(1075–1078) as junior co-emperors Succeeded by Nikephoros III

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
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(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
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Maximian
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Galerius
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Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
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Constantius Chlorus
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Galerius
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Constantine the Great
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Maxentius
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Constantine the Great
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Licinius
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Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
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Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X
Constantine X
Doukas Romanos IV
Romanos IV
Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III
Nikephoros III
Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas
Doukas
Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 198909

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