Michael Servetus (/sərˈviːtəs/; Spanish: Miguel Serveto), also
known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Revés, or Michel de
Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a
Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and
He was the first European to correctly describe the function of
pulmonary circulation, as discussed in Christianismi Restitutio
(1553). He was a polymath versed in many sciences: mathematics,
astronomy and meteorology, geography, human anatomy, medicine and
pharmacology, as well as jurisprudence, translation, poetry and the
scholarly study of the
Bible in its original languages. He is renowned
in the history of several of these fields, particularly medicine. He
participated in the
Protestant Reformation, and later developed a
heterodox view of the
Trinity and Christology. After being condemned
by Catholic authorities in France, he fled to
Geneva where he was
burnt at the stake for heresy by order of the city's governing
1.1 Early life and education
1.3 Working at Vienne
1.4 Imprisonment and execution
4.2 Freedom of conscience
4.4 References in literature
5.1 Recent research
6 See also
8 Further reading
8.2 Primary sources
9 External links
Early life and education
Façade of the house of
Michael Servetus in Villanueva de Sigena
(Spain). Today it is the headquarters of the Michael Servetus
Institute and a research centre of Servetus' life and works.
Most scholars agree that Servetus was probably born in 1511 in
Villanueva de Sigena
Villanueva de Sigena in Aragon, Spain. The day of 29 September has
been conventionally proposed for his birth, due to the fact that 29
September is Saint Michael's day according to the Catholic calendar of
saints, but there are no data supporting this claim. Some sources give
an earlier date based on Servetus' own occasional claim of having been
born in 1509, and a few authors have proposed Tudela of Navarre as
his birthplace, and that his true name was De Villanueva according to
the letters of his French naturalization (Chamber des Comptes, Royal
Chancellorship and Parlement of Grenoble) and the registry at the
University of Paris. The ancestors of his father came from the hamlet
of Serveto, in the Aragonese Pyrenees. His father was a notary of
Christian ancestors from the lower nobility (infanzón), who worked
at the nearby Monastery of Santa Maria de Sigena. Servetus had two
brothers: one, Juan was a Catholic priest, and another was a notary,
Pedro. Although Servetus declared during his trial in
his parents were "Christians of ancient race", and that he never had
any communication with Jews, his maternal line actually descended
from the Zaportas (or Çaportas), a wealthy and socially relevant
family from the
Monzón areas in Aragon. This was
demonstrated by a notarial protocol published in 1999.
Servetus' family used a nickname, "Revés", according to an old
tradition in rural Spain of using alternate names for families across
generations. The origin of the Revés nickname may have been that a
member of a (probably distinguished) family living in Villanueva with
the surname Revés established blood ties with the Serveto family,
thus uniting both family names for the next generations.
Servetus was gifted in languages and he could have studied
Greek under the instruction of Dominican friars. He also had a
knowledge of Hebrew. At the age of fifteen Servetus entered the
service of a
Franciscan friar named Juan de Quintana. In 1526 he
University of Toulouse
University of Toulouse where he studied law. Servetus
could have had access to forbidden religious books, some of them maybe
Protestant, while he was studying in this city.
Quintana became Charles V's confessor in 1530, and Servetus joined him
in the imperial retinue as his page or secretary. Servetus
Italy and Germany, and attended Charles' coronation
as Holy Roman Emperor in Bologna. He was outraged by the pomp and
luxury displayed by the Pope and his retinue, and decided to follow
the path of reformation. It is not known when Servetus left the
imperial entourage, but in October 1530 he visited Johannes
Oecolampadius in Basel, staying there for about ten months, and
probably supporting himself as a proofreader for a local printer. By
this time he was already spreading his theological beliefs. In May
1531 he met
Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Fabricius Capito in Strasbourg.
Two months later, in July 1531, Servetus published De Trinitatis
Erroribus (On the Errors of the Trinity). The next year he published
the work Dialogorum de Trinitate (Dialogues on the Trinity) and the
supplementary work De Iustitia Regni Christi (On the Justice of
Christ's Reign) in the same volume. After the persecution of the
Inquisition, Servetus assumed the name "Michel de Villeneuve" while he
was staying in France. He studied at the Collège de Calvi in
1533. Servetus also published the first French edition of Ptolemy's
Geography. He dedicated his first edition of
Ptolemy and his edition
Bible to his patron Hugues de la Porte. While in Lyon,
Symphorien Champier, a medical humanist, had been his patron. Servetus
wrote a pharmacological treatise in defence of Champier against
Leonhart Fuchs In Leonardum Fucsium Apologia (Apology against Leonard
Fuchs). Working also as a proofreader, he published several more books
which dealt with medicine and pharmacology, such as his Syruporum
universia ratio (Complete Explanation of the Syrups), for which he
After an interval, Servetus returned to
Paris to study medicine in
1536. In Paris, his teachers included Sylvius,
Fernel and Johann
Winter von Andernach, who hailed him with Andrea
Vesalius as his most
able assistant in dissections. During these years he wrote his
Manuscript of the Complutense, an unpublished compendium of his
medical ideas. Servetus taught mathematics and astrology while he
studied medicine. He predicted an occultation of
Mars by the Moon, and
this joined to his teaching generated much envy among the medicine
teachers. His teaching classes were suspended by the Dean of the
Faculty of Medicine, Jean Tagault, and Servetus wrote his Apologetic
Discourse of Michel de Villeneuve in Favour of
Astrology and against a
Physician against him. Tagault later argued for the death
penalty in the judgment of the University of
Paris against Servetus.
He was accused of teaching
De Divinatione by Cicero. Finally, the
sentence was reduced to the withdrawal of this edition. As a result of
the risks and difficulties of studying medicine at Paris, Servetus
decided to go to
Montpellier to finish his medical studies, maybe
thanks to his teacher Sylvius who did exactly the same as a
student. There he became a Doctor of
Medicine in 1539. After that
he lived at Charlieu. A jealous physician ambushed and tried to kill
Servetus, but Servetus defended himself and injured one of the
attackers in a sword fight. He was in prison for several days because
of this incident.
Working at Vienne
After his studies in medicine, Servetus started a medical practice. He
became personal physician to Pierre Palmier, Archbishop of Vienne, and
was also physician to Guy de Maugiron, the lieutenant governor of
Dauphiné. Thanks to the printer Jean Frellon II, acquaintance of John
Calvin and friend of Michel, Servetus and Calvin began to correspond.
Calvin used the pseudonym "Charles d'Espeville." Servetus also became
a French citizen, using his "De Villeneuve" persona, by the Royal
Process (1548–1549) of French Naturalization, issued by Henri II of
Michael Servetus published yet another religious work with
further anti-trinitarian views. It was entitled Christianismi
Restitutio (The Restoration of Christianity), a work that sharply
rejected the idea of predestination as the idea that God condemned
souls to Hell regardless of worth or merit. God, insisted Servetus,
condemns no one who does not condemn himself through thought, word or
deed. This work also includes the first published description of the
To Calvin, who had written his summary of Christian doctrine
Institutio Christianae Religionis (Institutes of the Christian
Religion), Servetus' latest book was an attack on historical Nicene
Christian doctrine and a misinterpretation of the biblical canon.
Calvin sent a copy of his own book as his reply. Servetus promptly
returned it, thoroughly annotated with critical observations. Calvin
wrote to Servetus, "I neither hate you nor despise you; nor do I wish
to persecute you; but I would be as hard as iron when I behold you
insulting sound doctrine with so great audacity." In time their
correspondence grew more heated until Calvin ended it. Servetus
sent Calvin several more letters, to which Calvin took offense.
Thus, Calvin's frustrations with Servetus seem to have been based
mainly on Servetus's departure from biblically-rooted Christian
doctrine, but also on his tone, which Calvin considered inappropriate.
Calvin revealed these frustrations with Servetus when writing to his
William Farel on 13 February 1546:
Servetus has just sent me a long volume of his ravings. If I consent
he will come here, but I will not give my word; for if he comes here,
if my authority is worth anything, I will never permit him to depart
alive (Latin: Si venerit, modo valeat mea autoritas, vivum exire
Imprisonment and execution
On 16 February 1553,
Michael Servetus while in Vienne, France, was
denounced as a heretic by Guillaume de Trie, a rich merchant who had
taken refuge in Geneva, and who was a good friend of Calvin, in a
letter sent to a cousin, Antoine Arneys, who was living in Lyon. On
behalf of the French inquisitor Matthieu Ory,
Michael Servetus and
Balthasard Arnollet, the printer of Christianismi Restitutio, were
questioned, but they denied all charges and were released for lack of
evidence. Ory asked Arneys to write back to De Trie, demanding proof.
On 26 March 1553, the letters sent by Michel to Calvin and some
manuscript pages of
Christianismi Restitutio were forwarded to Lyon by
De Trie. On 4 April 1553 Servetus was arrested by Roman Catholic
authorities, and imprisoned in Vienne. He escaped from prison three
days later. On 17 June, he was convicted of heresy, "thanks to the 17
letters sent by John Calvin, preacher in Geneva" and sentenced to
be burned with his books. In his absence, he and his books were burned
in effigy (blank paper for the books).
Meaning to flee to Italy, Servetus inexplicably stopped in Geneva,
where Calvin and his Reformers had denounced him. On 13 August, he
attended a sermon by Calvin at Geneva. He was arrested after the
service and again imprisoned. All his property was confiscated.
Servetus claimed during this judgment he was arrested at an inn at
Geneva. French Inquisitors asked that Servetus be extradited to them
for execution. Calvin wanted to show himself as firm in defense of
Christian orthodoxy as his usual opponents. "He was forced to push the
condemnation of Servetus with all the means at his command."
Calvin's delicate health meant he did not personally appear against
Nicholas de la Fontaine played the more active role in
Servetus's prosecution and the listing of points that condemned him.
Among the possible reasons which prevented Calvin from appearing
personally against Servetus there was one which must have seemed of
itself sufficient. The laws regulating criminal actions in Geneva
required that in certain grave cases the complainant himself should be
incarcerated pending the trial. Calvin's delicate health and his great
and constant usefulness in the administration of the state rendered a
prolonged absence from the public life of
Nevertheless, Calvin is to be regarded as the author of the
Nicholas de la Fontaine was a refugee in
entered the service of Calvin, by whom he was employed as
At his trial, Servetus was condemned on two counts, for spreading and
preaching Nontrinitarianism, specifically, Modalistic Monarchianism,
or Sabellianism, and anti-paedobaptism (anti-infant baptism). Of
paedobaptism Servetus had said, "It is an invention of the devil, an
infernal falsity for the destruction of all Christianity." In the
case the procureur général (chief public prosecutor) added some
curious-sounding accusations in the form of inquiries—the most
odd-sounding perhaps being, "whether he has married, and if he answers
that he has not, he shall be asked why, in consideration of his age,
he could refrain so long from marriage." To this oblique
imputation about his sexuality, Servetus replied that rupture
(inguinal hernia) had long since made him incapable of that particular
sin. Another question was "whether he did not know that his doctrine
was pernicious, considering that he favours
Jews and Turks, by making
excuses for them, and if he has not studied the Koran in order to
disprove and controvert the doctrine and religion that the Christian
churches hold, together with other profane books, from which people
ought to abstain in matters of religion, according to the doctrine of
Calvin believed Servetus deserved death on account of what he termed
as his "execrable blasphemies". Calvin expressed these sentiments
in a letter to Farel, written about a week after Servetus’ arrest,
in which he also mentioned an exchange with Servetus. Calvin wrote:
...after he [Servetus] had been recognized, I thought he should be
detained. My friend Nicolas summoned him on a capital charge, offering
himself as a security according to the lex talionis. On the following
day he adduced against him forty written charges. He at first sought
to evade them. Accordingly we were summoned. He impudently reviled me,
just as if he regarded me as obnoxious to him. I answered him as he
deserved... of the man’s effrontery I will say nothing; but such was
his madness that he did not hesitate to say that devils possessed
divinity; yea, that many gods were in individual devils, inasmuch as a
deity had been substantially communicated to those equally with wood
and stone. I hope that sentence of death will at least be passed on
him; but I desired that the severity of the punishment be
As Servetus was not a citizen of Geneva, and legally could at worst be
banished, the government, in an attempt to find some plausible excuse
to disregard this legal reality, had consulted other Swiss Reformed
cantons (Zürich, Bern, Basel, Schaffhausen). They universally
favoured his condemnation and suppression of his doctrine, but without
saying how that should be accomplished.
Martin Luther had
condemned his writing in strong terms. Servetus and Philip
Melanchthon had strongly hostile views of each other. The party called
the "Libertines", who were generally opposed to anything and
John Calvin supported, were in this case strongly in favour
of the execution of Servetus at the stake (while Calvin urged that he
be beheaded instead). In fact, the council that condemned Servetus was
presided over by
Ami Perrin (a Libertine) who ultimately on 24 October
sentenced Servetus to death by burning for denying the
infant baptism. Calvin and other ministers asked that he be
beheaded instead of burnt, knowing that burning at the stake was the
only legal recourse. This plea was refused and on 27 October,
Servetus was burnt alive—atop a pyre of his own books—at the
Champel at the edge of Geneva. Historians record his
last words as: "Jesus, Son of the Eternal God, have mercy on me."
Sebastian Castellio and countless others denounced this execution and
became harsh critics of Calvin because of the whole affair.
Some other anti-trinitarian thinkers began to be more cautious in
expressing their views: Martin Cellarius,
Lelio Sozzini and others
either ceased writing or wrote only in private. The fact that Servetus
was dead meant that his writings could be distributed more widely,
though others such as
Giorgio Biandrata developed them in their own
The writings of Servetus influenced the beginnings of the Unitarian
movement in Poland and Transylvania. Peter Gonesius's advocacy of
Servetus' views led to the separation of the
Polish brethren from the
Calvinist Reformed Church in Poland, and laid the foundations for the
Socinian movement which fostered the early Unitarians in England like
In his first two books (De trinitatis erroribus, and Dialogues on the
Trinity plus the supplementary De Iustitia Regni Christi) Servetus
rejected the classical conception of the Trinity, stating that it was
not based on the Bible. He argued that it arose from teachings of
Greek philosophers, and he advocated a return to the simplicity of the
Gospels and the teachings of the early
Church Fathers that he believed
predated the development of Nicene trinitarianism. Servetus hoped that
the dismissal of the trinitarian dogma would make Christianity more
appealing to believers in
Judaism and Islam, which had preserved the
unity of God in their teachings. According to Servetus, trinitarians
had turned Christianity into a form of "tritheism", or belief in three
gods. Servetus affirmed that the divine Logos, the manifestation of
God and not a separate divine Person, was incarnated in a human being,
Jesus, when God's spirit came into the womb of the Virgin Mary. Only
from the moment of conception was the Son actually generated.
Therefore, although the
Logos from which He was formed was eternal,
the Son was not Himself eternal. For this reason, Servetus always
Christ the "eternal Son of God" but rather called him
"the Son of the eternal God."
In describing Servetus' view of the Logos, Andrew Dibb explained: "In
'Genesis' God reveals himself as the creator. In 'John' he reveals
that he created by means of the Word, or Logos. Finally, also in
'John', he shows that this
Logos became flesh and 'dwelt among us'.
Creation took place by the spoken word, for God said "Let there be
..." The spoken word of Genesis, the
Logos of John, and the Christ,
are all one and the same."
In his "Treatise Concerning the Divine Trinity" Servetus taught that
Logos was the reflection of Christ, and "That reflection of Christ
was 'the Word with God" that consisted of God Himself, shining
brightly in heaven, "and it was God Himself" and that "the Word
was the very essence of God or the manifestation of God's essence, and
there was in God no other substance or hypostasis than His Word, in a
bright cloud where God then seemed to subsist. And in that very spot
the face and personality of
Christ shone bright."
Earl Morse Wilbur states, "Servetus' Errors of the
Trinity is hardly heretical in intent, rather is suffused with
passionate earnestness, warm piety, an ardent reverence for Scripture,
and a love for
Christ so mystical and overpowering that [he] can
hardly find words to express it ... Servetus asserted that the
Father, Son and Holy Spirit were dispositions of God, and not separate
and distinct beings." Wilbur promotes the idea that Servetus was a
Servetus states his view clearly in the preamble to Restoration of
Christianity (1553): "There is nothing greater, reader, than to
recognize that God has been manifested as substance, and that His
divine nature has been truly communicated. We shall clearly apprehend
the manifestation of God through the Word and his communication
through the Spirit, both of them substantially in
This theology, though original in some respects, has often been
compared to Adoptionism, Arianism, and Sabellianism, all of which
Trinitarians rejected in favour of the belief that God exists
eternally in three distinct persons. Nevertheless, Servetus rejected
these theologies in his books: Adoptionism, because it denied Jesus's
divinity; Arianism, because it multiplied the hypostases and
established a rank; and Sabellianism, because it seemingly
confused the Father with the Son, though Servetus himself does appear
to have denied or diminished the distinctions between the Persons of
the Godhead, rejecting the Trinitarian understanding of One God in
The incomprehensible God is known through Christ, by faith, rather
than by philosophical speculations. He manifests God to us, being the
expression of His very being, and through him alone, God can be known.
The scriptures reveal Him to those who have faith; and thus we come to
know the Holy Spirit as the Divine impulse within us.
Under severe pressure from Catholics and Protestants alike, Servetus
clarified this explanation in his second book, Dialogues (1532), to
Logos coterminous with Christ. He was nevertheless accused of
heresy because of his insistence on denying the dogma of the Trinity
and the distinctions between the three divine Persons in one God.
Servetus also had very unorthodox views on the end times. He believed
that he was the Michael referenced in both Daniel and Revelation who
would fight the Antichrist. Furthermore, he believed that all this
would take place in his lifetime. This possibly explains his decision
to visit Calvin in Geneva. Servetus could have thought that he was
somehow bringing about the beginnings of the end times by facing those
who argued and fought against him.[additional citation(s) needed]
Because of his rejection of the
Trinity and eventual execution by
burning for heresy, Unitarians often regard Servetus as the first
(modern) Unitarian martyr —though he was a Unitarian in neither the
17th-century sense of the term nor the contemporary sense. Sharply
critical though he was of the orthodox formulation of the trinity,
Servetus is better described as a highly unorthodox trinitarian.
Aspects of his thinking—his critique of existing trinitarian
theology, his devaluation of the doctrine of original sin, and his
fresh examination of biblical proof-texts—did influence those who
later inspired or founded unitarian churches in Poland and
Other non-trinitarian groups, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, and
Oneness Pentecostalism, also claim Servetus had similar
non-trinitarian views as theirs, although he had other views that they
never believed in.
Oneness Pentecostalism particularly identifies
with Servetus' teaching on the divinity of Jesus
Christ and his
insistence on the oneness of God, rather than a
Trinity of three
distinct persons: "And because His Spirit was wholly God He is called
God, just as from His flesh He is called man."
Swedenborg wrote a systematic theology that had many similarities to
the theology of Servetus.
Freedom of conscience
Widespread aversion to Servetus’s death has been taken as signaling
the birth in Europe of the idea of religious tolerance, a principle
now more important to modern Unitarian Universalists than
antitrinitarianism.The Spanish scholar on Servetus' work, Ángel
Alcalá, identified the radical search for truth and the right for
freedom of conscience as Servetus' main legacies, rather than his
theology. The Polish-American scholar, Marian Hillar, has studied
the evolution of freedom of conscience, from Servetus and the Polish
John Locke and to
Thomas Jefferson and the American
Declaration of Independence. According to Hillar: "Historically
speaking, Servetus died so that freedom of conscience could become a
civil right in modern society." 
Servetus was the first European to describe the function of pulmonary
circulation, although his achievement was not widely recognized at the
time, for a few reasons. One was that the description appeared in a
theological treatise, Christianismi Restitutio, not in a book on
medicine. However, the sections in which he refers to anatomy and
medicines demonstrate an amazing understanding of the body and
treatments. Most copies of the book were burned shortly after its
publication in 1553 because of persecution of Servetus by religious
authorities. Three copies survived, but these remained hidden for
decades. In passage V, Servetus recounts his discovery that the blood
of the pulmonary circulation flows from the heart to the lungs (rather
than air in the lungs flowing to the heart as had been thought). His
discovery was based on the colour of the blood, the size and location
of the different ventricles, and the fact that the pulmonary vein was
extremely large, which suggested that it performed intensive and
transcendent exchange. However, Servetus does not only deal with
cardiology. In the same passage, from page 169 to 178, he also refers
to the brain, the cerebellum, the meninges, the nerves, the eye, the
tympanum, the rete mirabile, etc., demonstrating a great knowledge of
anatomy. In some other sections of this work he also talks of medical
Servetus also contributed enormously to medicine with other published
works specifically related to the field, such as his Complete
Syrups and his study on syphilis in his Apology against
Leonhart Fuchs, among others.
References in literature
Stefan Zweig features Servetus in The Right to Heresy:
Castellio against Calvin, 1936 (original title Castellio gegen Calvin
oder Ein Gewissen gegen die Gewalt)
Canadian dramatist Robert Lalonde wrote
Vesalius and Servetus, a 2008
play on Servetus.
Roland Herbert Bainton: Michael Servet. 1511–1553. Mohn, Gütersloh
Rosemarie Schuder: Serveto vor Pilatus. Rütten & Loening, Berlin
Antonio Orejudo: Feuertäufer. Knaus, München 2005,
ISBN 3-8135-0266-X (Roman, Spanish original title:
Vincent Schmidt: Michel Servet. Du bûcher à la liberté de
conscience, Les Éditions de Paris, Collection Protestante,
Albert J. Welti: Servet in Genf. Genf, 1931
Wilhelm Knappich: Geschichte der Astrologie. Veröffentlicht von
Vittorio Klostermann, 1998, ISBN 3-465-02984-4,
Friedrich Trechsel: Michael Servet und seine Vorgänger. Nach Quellen
und Urkunden geschichtlich Dargestellt. Universitätsbuchhandlung Karl
Winter, Heidelberg 1839 (Reprint durch: Nabu Press, 2010,
Hans-Jürgen Goertz: Religiöse Bewegungen in der Frühen Neuzeit
Oldenbourg, München 1992, ISBN 3-486-55759-9
Henri Tollin: Die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs durch Michael Servet,
1511-1553, Nabu Public Domain Reprints
Henri Tollin: Charakterbild Michael Servet´s, Nabu Public Domain
Henri Tollin: Das Lehrsystem Michael Servet´s Volume 1, Nabu Public
Henri Tollin: Das Lehrsystem Michael Servet´s Volume 2, Nabu Public
Henri Tollin:Michaelis Villanovani (Serveti) in quendam medicum
apologetica disceptatio pro astrologia : Nach dem einzig
vorhandenen echten Pariser Exemplare, mit einer Einleitung und
Anmerkungen. Mecklenburg -1880
Carlos Gilly: Miguel Servet in Basel; Alfonsus Lyncurius und
Pseudo-Servet. In: Ders.: Spanien und der Basler Buchdruck bis 1600.
Helbing & Lichtenhahhn,
Basel und Frankfurt a.M. 1985,
pp. 277–298; 298-326. (PDF; 64,1 MiB )
M. Hillar: "Poland's Contribution to the Reformation: Socinians/Polish
Brethren and Their Ideas on the Religious Freedom," The Polish Review,
Vol. XXXVIII, No.4, pp. 447–468, 1993.
M. Hillar, "From the Polish Socinians to the American Constitution,"
in A Journal from the Radical Reformation. A Testimony to Biblical
Unitarianism, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 22–57, 1994.
José Luis Corral: El médico hereje, Barcelona: Editorial Planeta,
S.A., 2013 ISBN 978-84-08-11990-6. A novel (in Spanish) narrating
the publication of Christianismi Restitutio, Servetus' trial by the
Inquisition of Vienne, his escape to Geneva, and his disputes with
John Calvin and subsequent burning at the stake by the Calvinists.
Monument to Michael Servetus, Champel, Switzerland
Michael Servetus in prison, by Clotilde Roch. Monument in Annemasse,
In Geneva, 350 years after the execution, remembering Servetus was
still a controversial issue. In 1903 a committee was formed by
supporters of Servetus to erect a monument in his honour. The group
was led by a French Senator, Auguste Dide, an author of a book on
heretics and revolutionaries which was published in 1887. The
committee commissioned a local sculptor, Clotilde Roch, to execute a
statue showing a suffering Servetus. The work was three years in the
making and was finished in 1907. However, by then, supporters of
Calvin in Geneva, having heard about the project, had already erected
a simple stele in memory of Servetus in 1903, the main text of which
served more as an apologetic for Calvin:
Duteous and grateful followers of Calvin our great Reformer, yet
condemning an error which was that of his age, and strongly attached
to liberty of conscience according to the true principles of his
Reformation and gospel, we have erected this expiatory monument. Oct.
About the same time, a short street close by the stele was named after
The city council then rejected the request of the committee to erect
the completed statue, on the grounds that there was already a monument
to Servetus. The committee then offered the statue to the neighbouring
French town of Annemasse, which in 1908 placed it in front of the city
hall, with the following inscriptions:
“The arrest of Servetus in Geneva, where he did neither publish nor
dogmatize, hence he was not subject to its laws, has to be considered
as a barbaric act and an insult to the Right of Nations.” Voltaire
"I beg you, shorten please these deliberations. It is clear that
Calvin for his pleasure wishes to make me rot in this prison. The lice
eat me alive. My clothes are torn and I have nothing for a change, nor
shirt, only a worn out vest.” Servetus, 1553
In 1942, the Vichy Government took down the statue, as it was a
celebration of freedom of conscience, and melted it. In 1960, having
found the original molds,
Annemasse had it recast and returned the
statue to its previous place.
Finally, on 3 October 2011,
Geneva erected a copy of the statue which
it had rejected over 100 years before. It was cast in
Aragon from the
molds of Clotilde Roch's original statue. Rémy Pagani, former mayor
of Geneva, inaugurated the statue. He previously had described
Servetus as "the dissident of dissidence." Representatives from
the Roman Catholic Church in
Geneva and the Director of Geneva's
International Museum of the Reformation attended the ceremony. A
Geneva newspaper noted the absence of officials from the National
Protestant Church of Geneva, the church of John Calvin.
In 1984, a
Zaragoza public hospital changed its name from José
Antonio to Miguel Servet. It is now a university hospital.
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Only the dates of the first editions are included.
1531 "On the Errors of the Trinity. De Trinitatis Erroribus"
(Haguenau, Setzer). Without imprint mark or mark of printer, nor the
city in which it was printed. Signed as Michael Servete alias Revés,
from Aragon, Spanish. Written in Latin, it also includes words in
Greek and in
Hebrew in the body of the text whenever he wanted to
stress the original meaning of a word from Scripture.
1532 "Dialogues on the Trinity. Dialogorum de Trinitate" (Haguenau,
Setzer). Without imprint mark or mark of printer, nor the city where
it was printed. Signed as Michael Serveto alias Revés, from Aragon,
Geography of Claudius Ptolemy. Claudii Ptolemaeii Alexandrinii
Geographicae." Lyon, Trechsel. Signed as Michel de Villeneuve.
Servetus dedicated this work to Hugues de la Porte. The second edition
was dedicated to Pierre Palmier. Michel de Villeneuve states that the
basis of his edition comes from the work of Bilibald Pirkheimer, who
translated this work from Greek to Latin, but Michel also affirms that
he also compared it to the primitive Greek texts. The 19th-century
expert in Servetus, Henri Tollin (1833–1902), considered him to be
"the father of comparative geography" due to the extension of his
notes and commentaries.
1536 "The Apology against Leonard Fuchs. In Leonardum Fucsium
Apologia." Lyon, printed by Gilles Hugetan, with Parisian prologue.
Signed as Michel de Villeneuve. The physician
Leonhart Fuchs and a
friend of Michael Servetus, Symphorien Champier, got involved in an
argument via written works, on their different Lutheran and Catholic
beliefs. Servetus defends his friend in the first parts of the work.
In the second part he talks of a medical plant and its properties. In
the last part he writes on different topics, such as the defense of a
pupil attacked by a teacher, and the origin of syphilis.
1537 "Complete Explanation of the Syrups. Syruporum universia ratio".
Paris, edited by Simon de Colines. Signed as Michael de Villeneuve.
This work consists of a prologue "The Use of Syrups", and 5 chapters:
I "What the concoction is and why it is unique and not multiple", II
"What the things that must be known are", III "That the concoction is
always..", IV "Exposition of the aphorisms of Hippocrates" and V "On
the composition of syrups". Michel de Villeneuve refers to experiences
of using the treatments, and to pharmaceutical treatises and terms
more deeply described in his later pharmacopeia Enquiridion or
Dispensarium. Michel mentions two of his teachers, Sylvius and
Andernach, but above all, Galen. This work had a strong impact in
1538 "Apologetic discourse of Michel de Villeneuve in favour of
Astrology and against a certain physician. Michaelis Villanovani in
quedam medicum apologetica disceptatio pro Astrologia." Servetus
denounces Jean Tagault, Dean of the Faculty of
Medicine of Paris, for
attacking astrology, while many great thinkers and physicians praised
it. He lists reasonings of Plato, Aristotle,
Hippocrates and Galen,
how the stars are related to some aspects of a patient's health, and
how a good physician can predict effects by them: the effect of the
moon and sun on the sea, the winds and rains, the period of women, the
speed of the decomposition of the corpses of beasts, etc.
Bible according to the translation of Santes Pagnino.
Biblia sacra ex Santes Pagnini tralation, hebraist." Lyon, edited by
Delaporte and printed by Trechsel. The name Michel de Villeneuve
appears in the prologue, the last time this name would appear in any
of his works.
1542 "Biblia sacra ex postremis doctorum".(octavo)
Vienne in Dauphiné, edited by Delaporte and printed by Trechsel.
Bible with commentaries. Biblia Sacra cum
Glossis." Lyon, printed by Trechsel and Vincent. Called "Ghost
Bible" by scholars who denied its existence. There is an anonymous
work from this year that was edited in accordance with the contract
that Miguel de Villeneuve made with the Company of Booksellers in
1540. The work consists of 7 volumes (6 volumes and an index)
illustrated by Hans Holbein. This research was carried out by the
scholar Julien Baudrier in the sixties. Recently scholar González
Echeverría has graphically proved the existence of this work, and
demonstrating that contrary to what experts Barón and Hillard
thought, this work is also anonymous.
"Manuscript of Paris", (c1546). This document
is a draft of the Christianismi
Restitutio. Written in Latin, it includes a few quotes in Greek and
Hebrew. This work has paleographically the same handwriting as the
"Manuscript of the Complutense".
1553 "The Restoration of Christianity. Cristianismi Restitutio".
Vienne, printed by Baltasar Arnoullet. Without imprint mark or mark of
printer, nor the city in which it was printed. Signed as M.S.V. at the
colophon though "Servetus" name is mentioned inside, in a fictional
dialog. Servetus uses Biblical quotes in Greek and in
Hebrew on its
cover and in the body of the text whenever he wanted to stress the
original meaning of a word from Scripture.
Spanish researcher Francisco Javier González Echeverría
has done research that led him to identify
Michael Servetus as the
author or translator of 10 additional works between 1538 and 1553.
These works were anonymous due to the first death penalty Michael got
from the University of
Paris in 1538, (finally reduced to a
prohibition on "attacking" any
Paris physician), its mention of
authors who were forbidden in the Spanish Empire such as
Robert Estienne, and the prohibition of any Biblical translation into
any common language.
González Echeverría's conclusions have not been generally accepted
by institutions studying Servetus, though they are supported by the
International Society for the History of Medicine, the Spanish
Society for the History of Medicine, and the Royal Academy of
Medicine of Catalonia. The works that, according to this scholar,
are also by Servetus are: 2 De Materia Medica with
commentaries and marginalia (1543 and 1554, this last one printed by
friends after Servetus' death), a pharmacopoeia of 1543, an
edition of a Galenic corpus in 1548–1551, a manuscript
("Complutense's Manuscript") in an edition of De Materia
Medica by Jean Ruel, as well as translations of two Biblical works
with woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger: Picture stories of the Old
Testament and Portraits or printing boards from the story of
the Old Testament. Finally, also translations from
Latin to Spanish of four grammatical treatises, mostly for children:
Disticha de moribus nomine Catonis, Children's book of notes on the
elegance and variety of the
Latin language, Andria. La Andriana,
and A Little Work on the Use of the Eight Parts of Speech. González
Echeverría is nowadays also the main defender of the hypothesis that
Michael Servetus was born in the city of Tudela in the kingdom of
Navarre, that both biological parents were actually Jewish conversos,
although the father's identity and biographical details are
unknown, and that his true name was "De Villanueva", while
"Servetus" was a pseudonym that he used in
Protestant lands, and for
publishing his heretical theological works, showing no other data such
as the city where they were printed, imprint mark nor mark of
Some previous scholars had defended the birth of Michael in Tudela in
the 19th and early 20th centuries, but never with the theory of
"Servetus" being a pseudonym. The established academic consensus on
the matter is that he was born in Villanueva de Sijena, in the
neighbouring region of Aragon, as Servetus himself claimed in his
early works and during the whole trial at Geneva; but with no
documents, as stated in the judgement that ultimately led him to his
death at the stake. Scholarly debate may be tarnished by local and
regional interests, because González and some other scholars[who?]
claim that the true reason behind the non-acceptance of these new
works by several institutions studying Servetus has to do more with
his line of research on the identity of Michael, and his
consequent different birthplace, which would be highly inconvenient
for these institutions, with many trustees and members from Villanueva
de Sijena, or even located there. González (Aragonese, born in
Zaragoza, where he stayed until he obtained his baccalaureate)
lives and works in Tudela, where he claims that "De Villanueva"
was actually born, and his research on the 10 new works by Servetus
has been supported by a grant from the Health Department of the
regional government of Navarre, but even while he was still defending
his birthplace in Aragon, for he had not done any research on his
identity. In a similar way events on this issue organized in
Villanueva de Sijena
Villanueva de Sijena and in
Zaragoza have been supported by the
regional government of Aragon.
Regardless of whether he was really born in Villanueva of
Aragon or in
Tudela of Navarre, or somewhere else, the fact is that he was known as
Michael Servetus of Aragon" after his death by everybody,
including Calvin and other enemies, his antitrinitarian
supporters, and sympathetic authors such as Sebastian Castellio, and
many others, both admirers and enemies of those theological works
published by Servetus.
List of multiple discoveries
^ See a discussion on the date in Angel Alcalá's introduction to the
first Spanish translation of
Christianismi Restitutio (La restitución
del cristianismo, Fundación Universitaria Española, Madrid, 1980, p.
16, note 7.
^ Drummond, William H. (1848). The Life of Michael Servetus: The
Spanish Physician, Who, for the Alleged Crime of Heresy, was
Entrapped, Imprisoned, and Burned, by
John Calvin the Reformer, in the
City of Geneva, October 27, 1553. London, England: John Chapman.
^ See J. Barón, Miguel Servet: Su Vida y Su Obra, Espasa-Calpe,
Madrid, 1989, pp. 37-39.
^ Barón, p. 31.
^ See Calvini Opera Quae Supersunt Omnia, Vol. VIII, Brunsvigae, 1870,
^ Ernestro Fernández-Xesta, "Los Zaporta de Barbastro", in Emblemata:
Revista aragonesa de emblemática, Vol. #8, 2002, pp. 103-150.
^ Gonzalez Echeverría," Andrés Laguna and Michael Servetus: two
converted humanist doctors of the XVI century" in: Andrés Laguna
International Congress. Humanism, Science and Politics in the
Renaissance Europe, García Hourcade y Moreno Yuste, coord., Junta de
Castilla y León, Valladolid,1999 pp. 377-389
^ González Echeverría "
Michael Servetus belonged to the famous
converted Jewish family The Zaporta", Pliegos de Bibliofilia, nº 7,
Madrid pp. 33-42. 1999
^ González Echeverría" On the Jewish heritage of Michael Servetus"
Raíces. Jewish Magazine of Culture, Madrid, nº 40, pp. 67-69. 1999
^ There are several documents referring to people called Revés in
Villanueva in the 15th century, as shown in Juan Manuel Palacios
Sánchez, "A propósito del lugar de nacimiento y origen familiar de
Miguel Servet" ("Regarding Michael Servetus' birth place and family
origins"), Argensola, Instituto de Estudios Altoaragoneses, ISSN
0518-4088, #87, Huesca, 1979, pp. 266-67.
^ Drummond, p3.
^ In his two main theological books, Servetus shows a level of
knowledge that is similar to other 16th-century humanists. His Hebrew
quotes refer to common, well-known concepts, and they are not
philological analysis, but they are made to endorse exegetic
interpretations, and the vocabulary he used was limited. For details
on Servetus' use of
Hebrew in his theological works and in his edition
of Pagnino's Bible, see Natalio Fernández Marcos and Emilia
Fernández Tejero, "Pagnino, Servet y Arias Montano: Avatares de una
traducción latina de la Biblia Hebrea", in Sefarad, No. 63, CSIC,
Madrid, 2003, pp. 314-18. (Text (in Spanish)).
^ Wright, Richard (1806). An Apology for Dr. Michael Servetus:
Including an Account of His Life, Persecution, Writings and Opinions.
London: F. B. Wright. p. 91.
^ Servetus' name was included at the top of a list of 40 heretics
issued by the Inquisition in Toulouse on 17 June 1532; see Bourrilly,
V.L. and Weiss N., "Jean du Bellay, les protestants et la Sorbonne" in
Bulletin de la Societé d'Histoire du Protestantisme Français, LIII,
^ Barón, p. 55.
^ Bainton, Hunted Heretic, pp. 10-11.
^ Krendal, Eric. 2011 Ongelmat Michael yliopistossa Pariisissa
historioitsija painoksia Medicine, p 34-38
^ D'artigny- Judgement at Vienne Isère against Michel de Villeneuve.
^ The text of the letter of French naturalisation was first published
by F. Rude, "La naturalisation française de Michel Servet", in B.
Becker (Ed.), Autour de Michel Servet et de Sebastien Castellion, H.D.
Tjeenk Willink & Zoon N.V., Haarlem, 1953, pp. 133-141. The "royal
letters" and an extract of one of the depositions had been previously
published by Gustave Vellein, "Quelques mots sur Michel Servet: sa
naturalisation durant son séjour à Vienne", in Petite revue des
bibliophiles dauphinois, Allier, 1921, pp. 13-29. Servetians had been
wrongly referring this document for the last 50 years, it was
considered lost by French indexers. It was located again by scholar
Gonzalez Echeverria in the archives of Grenoble, after contacting a
descendant of Vellein. Finally, after correcting some mistakes carried
out by Rude's transcription, the whole 21 pages of the process (double
verification in the Chamber of Finances of France, double registry in
the Parlement de Grenoble, and Royal counsellors verification) was
published in Prince of Viana Dep of Culture Journal of Navarre, N 255.
It was also studied recently by the French Society for the History of
Medicine, and the French Royal Law section of the Ancient Regime of
France in Sorbone See La véritable identité de Servet, par le roi de
France -Premier prix de thèse de
Paris Lellouch Prologue by G.
Echeverria N 2013 (b) Sorbone Journal Historique Le Sorbone Page 45-70
^ Downton, An Examination of the Nature of Authority, Chapter 3.
^ Will Durant The Story of Civilization: The Reformation Chapter XXI,
^ Durant, Story of Civilization, 2
^ Bainton, Hunted Heretic, p. 103.
^ Hunted Heretic, p. 164.
^ a b The Heretics, p. 326.
^ "Complaint Against Servetus". history.hanover.edu.
^ a b Whitcomb, Merrick. "The Complaint of Nicholas de la Fontaine
Against Servetus, 14 August, 1553", Translations and Reprints from the
Original Sources of European History, vol. 3, (Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania History Department, 1898-1912)
^ Hunted Heretic, p. 141.
^ Reyburn, Hugh Young (1914). John Calvin: His Life, Letters, and
Work. New York: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 175.
^ Owen, Robert Dale (1872). The debatable Land Between this World and
the Next. New York: G.W. Carleton & Co. p. 69, notes.
^ Calvin to William Farel, August 20, 1553, Bonnet, Jules
(1820–1892) Letters of John Calvin, Carlisle, Penn: Banner of Truth
Trust, 1980, pp. 158–159. ISBN 0-85151-323-9.
^ Schaff, Philip: History of the Christian Church, Vol. VIII: Modern
Christianity: The Swiss Reformation, William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co.,
Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 1910, page 780.
^ Schaff, Philip: History of the Christian Church, Vol. VIII: Modern
Christianity: The Swiss Reformation, William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co.,
Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 1910, page 706.
^ Dr. Vollmer, Philip: 'John Calvin: Man of the Millennium,' Vision
Forum, Inc., San Antonio, Texas, USA, 2008, 2008, page 87
^ Verdict and Sentence for
Michael Servetus (1533) in A Reformation
Reader eds. Denis R. Janz; 268–270
^ McGrath 1990, pp. 118–120; Cottret 2000, pp. 222–225;
Parker 2006, pp. 150–152
^ "Out of the Flames" by Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone - Salon.com
Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ See Stanislas Kot, "L'influence de Servet sur le mouvement
atitrinitarien en Pologne et en Transylvanie", in B. Becker (Ed.),
Autour de Michel Servet et de Sebastien Castellion, Haarlem, 1953.
^ 'De trinitatis erroribus', Book 7.
^ Andrew M. T. Dibb, Servetus,
Swedenborg and the Nature of God,
University Press of America, 2005, p. 93. Online at Google Book Search
^ a b Servetus, Michael (1553). The Restoration of Christianity - An
Translation of Christianismi restitutio, 1553, Translated by
Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar. Leiston - Queenston -
Lampeter: The Edwin Mellen Press. p. 75.
^ Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone, Out of the Flames, Broadway Books, NY
NY, 2002, pp. 71–72
^ Servetus, Restitución del Cristianismo, Spanish edition by Angel
Alcalá and Luis Betés, Madrid, Fundación Universitaria Española,
1980, p. 119.
^ See Restitución, p. 137.
^ Restitución, p. 148, 168.
^ Restitución, p. 169.
^ Book VII, Out of the Flames, Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone, Broadway
Books, NY, NY, p. 72
^ Gordon, Bruce (2009). Calvin. New Haven: Yale University Press.
^ a b c Hughes, Peter. "Michael Servetus", Dictionary of Unitarian
& Universalist Biography Archived 8 October 2013 at the Wayback
^ Geisler, Norman L.; Meister, Chad V. (16 February 2018). "Reasons
for Faith: Making a Case for the Christian Faith". Crossway Books –
via Google Books.
^ Bernard, D. K., The Oneness of God Archived 30 November 2007 at the
Wayback Machine. Word Aflame Press, 1983.
^ "Michael Servetus—A Solitary Quest for the Truth — Watchtower
ONLINE LIBRARY". wol.jw.org.
^ Servetus, M., De Trinitatis Erroribus, 59b (quoted in Bainton, R.H.,
Hunted Heretic, Blackstone Editions, 2005, p30
^ Andrew M. T. Dibb, Servetus,
Swedenborg and the Nature of God,
University Press of America, 2005. Online at Google Book Search
^ Andrew M. T. Dibb, Servetus,
Swedenborg and the Nature of Salvation,
online at newchurchhistory.org
^ A. Alcalá, "Los dos grandes legados de Servet: el radicalismo como
método intelectual y el derecho a la libertad de conciencia", in
Turia, #63-64, March 2003, Teruel (Spain), pp. 221-242.
Marian Hillar & Claire S. Allen, Michael Servetus:
Intellectual Giant, Humanist, and Martyr, Lanham, MD, and New York:
University Press of America, Inc., 2002. Marain Hillar "The Case of
Michael Servetus (1511-1553) - The Turning Point in the Struggle for
Freedom of Conscience", Lewiston, NY, Queenston CA, Lampeter, UK: The
Edwin Mellen Press, 1997)Marian Hillar, "The Legacy of Servetus:
Humanism and the Beginning of Change in the Social Paradigm. On the
Occasion of the 450th Anniversary of His Martyrdom." In A Journal from
the Radical Reformation. A Testimony to Biblical Unitarianism. Vo. 11,
No. 2, Winter 2003, pp. 34-41. Marian Hillar, "The Legacy of Servetus.
Humanism and the Beginning of Change in the Social Paradigm: from
Servetus to Thomas Jefferson." In Essays in the Philosophy of
Humanism, eds. Robert D. Finch, Marian Hillar, American Humanist
Association, Houston, Vol. 12, 2004, pp. 60-75.
^ 2011 Samalways, Edmund. From Alchemy to Chemotherapy. Hermes Press,
^ Robert Lalonde. "Galileo Galilei/
Vesalius and Servetus" – via
^ Rue Michel Servet, Genéve,
Switzerland at Google maps
^ Goldstone, Nancy Bazelon; Goldstone, Lawrence (2003). Out of the
Flames: The Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal Heresy,
and One of the Rarest Books in the World. New York: Broadway.
ISBN 0-7679-0837-6. pp. 313-316
^ Tribune de Geneve
^ Tribune de Genève, 4 October 2001, p. 23
^ "According to the version of Bilibaldo Pirckheimer, and revised by
Michel de Villeneuve, on the primitive Greek copies." Michel de
Villeneuve, geography. "Claudii Ptolemaeii Alexandrinii Geographicae."
printed by the Trechsel, 1535, Lyon.
^ 2008 Krendal, Erich. Tähtitiede ja renessanssi historioitsija
^ Baudrier J. "Michel Servet, ses relations avec les libraires et les
impremeus lyonnais", in: Mélanges offerts a M. Emile Picot, I, p54-56
^ Baron-Miguel Serveto. Su vida y su obra. Ed. Austral (1987) Madrid
^ A.Alcalá Obra Completas (2003) Tratado I. Vida, muerte y obra,
^ González Echeverría Love for Truth. Life and work of Michael
Servetus. Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, collaboration with the
Government of Navarra, Department of Institutional Relations and
Education of the Government of Navarra, 2011 p.209-211
^ Baron- Miguel Serveto. Su vida y su obra. Ed. Austral (1987) Madrid
Marian Hillar & Claire S. Allen, Michael Servetus: Intellectual
Giant, Humanist, and Martyr, Lanham, MD, and New York: University
Press of America, Inc., 2002. p.266
^ A. Alcalá Obra Completas (2003) Tratado I. Vida, muerte y obra, p.
^ Baudrier J."Michel Servet, ses relations avec les libraires et les
impremeus lyonnais", in: Mélanges offerts a M. Emile Picot, I, p
^ González Echeverría Love for Truth. Life and work of Michael
Servetus. Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, collaboration with the
Government of Navarra, Department of Institutional Relations and
Education of the Government of Navarra, 2011 p.215-222
^ Gonzalez Echeverria, "New discoveries on the work of Michael de
Villanueva (Michael Servetus)" in : VI International Meeting for
the History of Medicine. Programme book, Barcelona, 7-10 September
2011, p.24, 109-111.
^ José Barón( 1973), "Miguel Servet"Espasa calpe, Madrid, p. 189 y
192 José Barón Fernández,(1973)(" Historia de la circulación de la
sangre", ed. Austral, Madrid, p.118 y p.125.really extended study
^ José Barón Fernández, (1989), " Miguel Servet. Su vida y su obra"
austral, ed., Madrid, p.280.
^ Ángel Alcalá "Miguel Servet. Restitución del cristianismo"
(1980), Fundación universitaria española, Madrid, 1980, pp.50-55 .
^ Ronald Bainton (1953) Michel Servet. Hérétique et martyr,
1553-1953", ed. Droz, Genève, p.134.
^ M. Hillar (2002), Michael Servetus. Intellectual Giant, Humanist,
and Martyr, ed. University Press of America, Lanham, p.95.
^ Alcalá" Miguel Servet. Obras completas (2003)", Publicaciones de la
universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Tomo I, XCVIII
^ 2012 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "The discovery of
Lesser Circulation and Michael Servetus's Galenism," in: 43rd Congress
of the International Society for the History of Medicine, Programme
Book, Padua-Albano Terme (Italy) 12–16 September 2012, p.35 &
^ Love for Truth. Life and work of Michael Servetus. Navarro y
Navarro, Zaragoza, collaboration with the Government of Navarra,
Department of Institutional Relations and Education of the Government
of Navarra, 2011 p.164-171
^ 1999 Mari Mar Rodriguez Ruiz Association of Andalucia's Archives
& Gema Trujillo Martin Andalucia's Institute of Statistics and
^ Echeverria, Francisco Javier Gonzalez. "
Michael Servetus Research".
^ a b González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. The love for truth.
Life and work of
Michael Servetus (El amor a la verdad. Vida y obra de
Miguel Servet), printed by Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, in
collaboration with the Government of Navarre, Department of
Institutional Relations and Education of the Government of Navarre,.
^ 2011 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier, "New discoveries on
the biography of Michael de Villanueva (Michael Servetus)" & "New
discoveries on the work of Michael de Villanueva (Michael Servetus)"
in: VI International Meeting for the History of Medicine. Programme
book, Barcelona, 7–10 September 2011, p.24, 109-111.
^ Cinquième volumen de ce qui s’est fair et passé en la Faculté
Paris depuis l’an 1502 jusqu’en l’an 1544. Jean
Vaux, Doyen, Jena Maillard, Doyen. Mss 223 ancienement Mss Commentari
Facultatis Medicine. Tomme-
Medicine Faculty of Pari-1538 pages 89-100
^ International Society for the History of
Medicine 35th, 36th, 37th
& 43rd International Congresses-3rd and 5th International Meetings
^ Spanish Society for the History of
Medicine X Con, XI Con, XII Con
^ Royal Academy of
Medicine of Catalonia V Centenary of Michael
Servetus, Book of Abstracts page 37-65
^ 1996 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "Sesma's Dioscorides or
Medical Matter: an unknown work of
Michael Servetus (I)" and "Sesma's
Dioscorides or Materia Medica: an unknown work of Michael Servetus
(II)" in: Book of Abstracts. 35th International Congress on the
History of Medicine, 2nd-8th, September, 1996, Kos Island, Greece,
communications Number 6 y 7, p. 4.
^ 2001 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "A Spanish work
attributable to Michael Servetus: 'The Dioscorides of Sesma'". Varia
Histórico-Médica. Edition coordinated by: Jesús Castellanos
Guerrero (coord.), Isabel Jiménez Lucena, María José Ruiz Somavilla
y Pilar Gardeta Sabater. In: Minutes from the X Congress on History of
Medicine, February 1996, Málaga. Printed by Imagraf, Málaga, pp.
^ 1997 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier Michael Servetus,
editor of the Dioscorides. Institute of Sijenenses Studies "Michael
Servetus" ed, Villanueva de Sijena, Larrosa ed. and "Ibercaja,"
^ 1998 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "The book of work of
Michael Servetus for his Dioscorides and his Dispensarium" (Le livre
de travail de Michel Servet pour ses Dioscorides et Dispensarium) and
"The Dispensarium or Enquiridion, complement of the Dioscorides of
Michael Servetus" (Enquiridion, L’oeuvre Le Dispensarium ou
Enquiridion complémentaire sur le Dioscorides de Michel Servet)
González Echeverría in: Book of summaries, 36th International
Congress on the History of Medicine, Tunis (Livre des Résumés,
36ème Congrès International d’ Histoire de la médicine, Tunis),
6–11 September 1998, (two communications), pp. 199 y 210.
^ (2002a) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "
Michael Servetus in
the 'Opera Omnia' of Galenus of 1548–1551, printed by Jean Frellon."
Book of communications, XII National Congress on History of Medicine,
Albacete, 7–9 February, pp 42-43
^ 2004 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier and Ancín Chandía,
Teresa "The edition of Lyon of the ‘Opera omnia’ of
Galen of the
printer Jean Frellon (1548-1551) commented by Michael Servetus," in:
Medicine in the presence of the new millennium: a historical
perspective. Coordinators: José Martínez Pérez, Isabel Porras
Gallo, Pedro Samblás Tilve, Mercedes Del Cura González, Minutes from
the XII Congress in History of Medicine, 7–9 February 2002,
Albacete. Ed. Of the University of Castilla-La Mancha. Cuenca, pp.
^ 1999 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "The new manuscripts of
Servetus" in: Historia 16, nº 274, Madrid, pp. 100-107.
^ (1998) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "The 'Dispensarium'
or 'Enquiridion,' the complementary work of the Dioscorides, both by
Servetus" and "The book of work of
Michael Servetus for his
'Dioscorides' and his 'Dispensarium'" in: Program of the congress and
abstracts of the communications, XI National Congress on History of
Medicine, Santiago de Compostela, University of Santiago de
Compostela, pp. 83-84.
^ (2001) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "The Spanish work of
Michael Servetus" in: Aki Yerushalayim, Yerusalaim–Jerusalem, nº
65, pp. 10-11.
^ (2002) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "The Spanish summary
of Antwerp, 'Ymagines,' completed by Hans Holbein the Younger, and
Michael Servetus in 1540," in: Magazine of the Center of Studies
Merindad of Tudela Number 12, December of 2002, Printer Castilla,
Tudela of Navarre.
^ (2001) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier Portraits or figures
from the stories of the Old Testament. Spanish Summary. Government of
Navarre, Pamplona 2001. Double edition: facsimile (1543) &
critical edition. Prologue by Julio Segura Moneo.
^ (2000) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "Discovery of new
editions of Bibles and of two 'lost' grammatical works of Michael
Servetus" and "The doctor
Michael Servetus was a descendant of Jews"
in: Abstracts, 37th International Congress on the History of Medicine,
10–15 September 2000, Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., pp. 22-23.
^ (2002) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "Spanish summary of
the Old Testament," González Echeverría in: Roots, Jewish Magazine
of Culture, Madrid, pp. 54-55.
^ (2002) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "Old Testament by
Servetus," in: Historia 16, nº 310, Madrid, pp 44-51
^ (2005) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "Two new works by
Michael Servetus or Michael de Villanueva: The Andria (The girl from
Andros island, Greece) in Latin-Spanish and a Greco-
("Deux nouvelles oeuvres de Michel Servet ou De Villeneuve:
L’Andrianne en latin-espagnol et un Lexicon greco-latin"). In: Book
of Abstracts, 3rd Meeting of the ISHM, 11–14 September 2005, Patras,
Greece, p. 92.
^ González Echeverría, Amor a la verdad, p. 69.
^ González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "
Michael Servetus or Michael
de Villanueva. His connection with Navarre and its people," in:
Michael Servetus or Michael de Villanueva. Commemoration of the 450th
anniversary of the death of Michael Servetus, 1553. Themes on History
of Medicine. VV.AA Government of Navarre, Health Department, Pamplona.
^ González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "
Michael Servetus or Michael
de Villanueva, documented from Tudela of Navarra" in: Social Groups in
Navarra Relations and Rights through History. Volume I. Minutes from
the V Congress of History of Navarra, SEHN, ed. Eunate, Pamplona, pp.
^ It was supported, among others, by Spanish author Marcelino
Menéndez Pelayo and by Unitarian historians
Earl Morse Wilbur and
George H. Williams,
^ it was defended by R. Bainton, op. cit., p. 2 (2005 edition), among
^ 43rd Congress of the International Society for the History of
Medicine 24-5 Medicine, philosophy, repression and present FJ Gonzalez
Echeverria 2012 Book of abstracts p45-46
^ Acte Conmmemoratiu del cinque centenary de Miguel Servet
(1511–2011), 29 November 2011, Reial Acadèmia de Medicina de
Catalunya Book of Abstracts sept 2012, Fuentes-page 35-36
^ Herald of Aragon, 20 February 1996
^ See Mikel Muez, "The Servetus "Detective"", published in El País,
^ President of Aragon, opening ceremony of the
Michael Servetus V
centenary congress, organized by the MSI institute.
Michael Servetus congress by the MSI subsidized by the government of
^ except his friends in France, where he used the name "Michel de
Villeneuve" during more than 18 years, until his flight to Geneva
where he remained few months
^ Servetus' own family in
Aragon was deeply disturbed and paid for an
altar for the church of Villanueva in expiation for their relative's
heresy. But this was done after Anton Servetus's death and for the
name of Michael does not show up anywhere here, it does not show if
Anton was an adoptive or true father. This altar was raised in 1558
and destroyed in 1938 during the Spanish Civil War. See J. Barón, op.
cit., p. 33. Servetus' See also Mcadler USC press;Minutes from Kottek
UCS 2012 p.23-24. Death found no particular echo in Tudela.
^ According to González, Calvin never provided useful information on
the identity of Michael, in his Letters by De Trie, he lies in the
third one, on the information he is providing in the second one.
Chaves, Joao. "The Servetus Challenge." Journal of Reformed Theology
10.3 (2016): 195-214.
Bainton, Roland H. Hunted Heretic: The Life and Death of Michael
Servetus 1511–1553 by . Revised Edition edited by Peter Hughes with
an introduction by Ángel Alcalá. Blackstone Editions.
ISBN 0-9725017-3-8. a standard scholarly biography focused on
Goldstone, Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone. Out of the Flames: The
Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal Heresy, and One of the
Rarest Books in the World ISBN 0-7679-0837-6. 353pp
Gordon, Bruce (2011). Calvin. New Haven Conn. London: Yale University
Press. ISBN 978-0-300-17084-9.
Hughes, Peter. "Michael Servetus's Britain:
Anatomy of a Renaissance
Renaissance & Reformation/
Reforme (2016_ 39#2 pp 85-109.
Hughes, Peter. "The Face of God: The
Christology of Michael Servetus."
Journal of Unitarian Universalist History 2016/2017, Vol. 40, pp 16-53
Hughes, Peter. "The Early Years of Servetus and the Origin of His
Critique of Trinitarian Thought" Journal of Unitarian Universalist
History (2013/2014), Vol. 37, pp 32-99.
Lovci, Radovan. Michael Servetus, Heretic or Saint? Prague: Prague
House, 2008. ISBN 1-4382-5959-X.
McNeill, John T. The History and Character of Calvinism , New York:
Oxford University Press, 1954. ISBN 0-19-500743-3.
Nigg, Walter.The Heretics:
Heresy Through the Ages Alfred A. Knopf,
Inc., 1962. (Republished by Dorset Press, 1990.
Pettegree, Andrew. "
Michael Servetus and the limits of tolerance."
History Today (Feb 1990) 40#2 pp 40-45; popular history by a scholar
Hughes, Peter. "The Present State of Servetus Studies, Eighty Years
Later." Journal of Unitarian Universalist History (2010/2011), Vol.
34, pp 47-70.
Jean Calvin, Defensio orthodoxae fidei de sacra Trinitate contra
prodigiosos errores Michaelis Serveti..., (Defense of Orthodox Faith
against the Prodigious Errors of the Spaniard Michael Servetus...),
Geneva, 1554. Calvin's Opere in the Corpus Reformatorum, vol. viii,
453–644. Ursus Books and Prints. Catalogue of Scarce Books,
Americana, Etc. Bangs & Co, p. 41.
Bonnet, Jules (1820–1892) Letters of John Calvin, Carlisle, Penn:
The Banner of Truth Trust, 1980. ISBN 0-85151-323-9.
Find in a Library with WorldCat. Contains seventy letters of Calvin,
several of which discuss his plans for, and dealings with, Servetus.
Also includes his final discourses and his last will and testament (25
Jules Bonnet, Letters of John Calvin, 2 vols., 1855, 1857, Edinburgh,
Thomas Constable and Co.: Little, Brown, and Co., Boston—The
The Man from Mars: His Morals, Politics and Religion by William
Simpson, San Francisco: E.D. Beattle, 1900. Excerpts from letters of
Servetus, written from his prison cell in
pp. 30–31. Google Books.
The translation of
Christianismi Restitutio into English (the first
ever) by Christopher Hoffman and
Marian Hillar was published so far in
four parts. One part still remains to be published:
["The Restoration of Christianity. An English
Christianismi restitutio, 1553, by
Michael Servetus (1511-1553).
Translated by Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar," (Lewiston,
NY; Queenston, Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin Mellen
Press, 2007). Pp. 409+xxix
"Treatise on Faith and Justice of Christ’s Kingdom" by Michael
Servetus. Selected and Translated from Christianismi restitutio by
Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar," (Lewiston, NY; Queenston,
Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2008). Pp.
"Treatise Concerning the Supernatural Regeneration and the Kingdom of
the Antichrist by Michael Servetus. Selected and Translated from
Christianismi restitutio by Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar,"
(Lewiston, NY; Queenston, Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin
Mellen Press, 2008). Pp. 302+l
"Thirty Letters to Calvin & Sixty Signs of the Antichrist by
Michael Servetus." Translated from Christianismi restitutio by
Christopher A. Hoffman and
Marian Hillar (Lewiston, NY; Queenston,
Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2010).
Pp. 175 + lxxxvi
Quotations related to
Michael Servetus at Wikiquote
Media related to
Michael Servetus at Wikimedia Commons
" Sketch of Michael Servetus"
Popular Science Monthly
Popular Science Monthly Volume 12
Wikisource November 1877 ISSN 0161-7370
" Michael Servetus: Reformer, Physiologist, and Martyr" Popular
Science Monthly Volume 41
Wikisource August 1892
Works at Open Library
Christianismi Restitutio - Full text, digitalized by the Spanish
De Trinitatis Erroribus - Full text, digitalized by the Spanish
Hanover text on the complaints against Servetus
Hospital Miguel Servet,
Information on Calvin in
Geneva which mentions Servetus
Michael Servetus, from the Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist
Michael Servetus—A Solitary Quest for the Truth
PDF; 64,1 MiB on
Michael Servetus in
Basel & Alfonsus Lyncurius
Michael Servetus Institute - Museum and centre for Servetian studies
in Villanueva de Sigena, Spain
Michael Servetus Institute: Christianismi Restitutio. Comments and
Michael Servetus Research - Dr. González-Echevarría's website with
text and pictures about his research on new works and life aspects of
New opera: 'Le procès de Michel Servet'
Reformed Apologetic for Calvin's actions against Servetus
Reviews of the English translation of Christianismi Restitutio,
published by Edwin Mellen, April 2007
SERVETUS: HIS LIFE. OPINIONS, TRIAL, AND EXECUTION. Phillip Schaff,
History of the Christian Church, Vol. 8, chapter 16.
Servetus International Society
Thomas Jefferson: letter to William Short, 13 April 1820 - mention of
Calvin and Servetus.
Center for Philosophy and
ISNI: 0000 0001 0895 5213
BNF: cb11924534x (data)