MICHAEL SERVETUS (/sərˈviːtəs/ ; Spanish : Miguel Serveto), also
known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Revés, or Michel de
Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a
Spanish theologian , physician , cartographer , and Renaissance
humanist . He was the first European to correctly describe the
function of pulmonary circulation , as discussed in Christianismi
Restitutio (1553). He was a polymath versed in many sciences:
mathematics , astronomy and meteorology , geography , human anatomy ,
medicine and pharmacology , as well as jurisprudence , translation ,
poetry and the scholarly study of the
Bible in its original languages.
He is renowned in the history of several of these fields, particularly
medicine; he discovered the function of the pulmonary circulation . He
participated in the
Protestant Reformation , and later developed a
heterodox view of the
Christology . After being condemned
by Catholic authorities in France, he fled to
Geneva where he was
burnt at the stake for heresy by order of the city's governing council
and at the personal instigation of
John Calvin .
* 1 Life
* 1.1 Early life and education
* 1.2 Career
* 1.3 Working at Vienne
* 1.4 Imprisonment and execution
* 2 Aftermath
* 4 Legacy
* 4.2 Freedom of conscience
* 4.3 Science
* 4.4 References in literature
* 4.5 Honours
* 4.5.2 Elsewhere
* 5 Works
* 5.1 Recent research
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 Further reading
* 8.1 Historiography
* 8.2 Primary sources
* 9 External links
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Façade of the house of
Michael Servetus in Villanueva de Sigena
(Spain). Nowadays it is the headquarters of the Michael Servetus
Institute and a research centre of Servetus' life and works.
Most scholars agree that Servetus was probably born in 1511 in
Villanueva de Sigena
Villanueva de Sigena in Aragon, Spain. The day of 29 September has
been conventionally proposed for his birth, due to the fact that 29
September is Saint Michael's day according to the Catholic calendar of
saints , but there are no data supporting this claim. Some sources
give an earlier date based on Servetus' own occasional claim of having
been born in 1509, and a few authors have proposed Tudela of Navarre
as his birthplace, and that his true name was De Villanueva according
to the letters of his French naturalization (Chamber des Comptes,
Royal Chancellorship and Parlement of Grenoble) and the registry at
the University of Paris. The ancestors of his father came from the
hamlet of Serveto, in the Aragonese
Pyrenees . His father was a notary
of Christian ancestors from the lower nobility (infanzón), who
worked at the nearby
Monastery of Santa Maria de Sigena . Servetus had
two brothers: one, Juan was a Catholic priest, and another was a
notary, Pedro. Although Servetus declared during his trial in Geneva
that his parents were "Christians of ancient race", and that he never
had any communication with Jews, his maternal line actually descended
from the Zaportas (or Çaportas), a wealthy and socially relevant
family from the
Monzón areas in
Aragon . This was
demonstrated by a notarial protocol published in 1999.
Servetus' family used a nickname, "Revés", according to an old
tradition in rural
Spain of using alternate names for families across
generations. The origin of the Revés nickname may have been that a
member of a (probably distinguished) family living in Villanueva with
the surname Revés established blood ties with the Serveto family,
thus uniting both family names for the next generations.
Servetus was gifted in languages and he may have studied
Greek under the instruction of Dominican friars . He also had a
Hebrew . At the age of fifteen Servetus entered the
service of a
Franciscan friar by the name of
Juan de Quintana . In
1526 he attended the
University of Toulouse where he studied law.
Servetus could have had access to forbidden religious books, some of
Protestant , while he was studying in this city.
Quintana became Charles V 's confessor in 1530, and Servetus joined
him in the imperial retinue as his page or secretary. Servetus
Germany , and attended Charles' coronation
as Holy Roman Emperor in
Bologna . He was outraged by the pomp and
luxury displayed by the Pope and his retinue, and decided to follow
the path of reformation. It is not known when Servetus left the
imperial entourage, but in October 1530 he visited Johannes
Basel , staying there for about ten months, and
probably supporting himself as a proofreader for a local printer. By
this time he was already spreading his theological beliefs. In May
1531 he met
Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Fabricius Capito in
Two months later, in July 1531, Servetus published De Trinitatis
Erroribus (On the Errors of the Trinity). The next year he published
the work Dialogorum de Trinitate (Dialogues on the Trinity) and the
supplementary work De Iustitia Regni Christi (On the Justice of Christ
's Reign) in the same volume. After the persecution of the
Inquisition, Servetus assumed the name "Michel de Villeneuve" while he
was staying in France. He studied at the Collège de Calvi in
1533. Servetus also published the first French edition of
Geography. He dedicated his first edition of
Ptolemy and his edition
Bible to his patron Hugues de la Porte. While in Lyon,
Symphorien Champier , a medical humanist , had been his patron.
Servetus wrote a pharmacological treatise in defense of Champier
Leonhart Fuchs In Leonardum Fucsium Apologia (Apology against
Leonard Fuchs). Working also as a proofreader, he published several
more books which dealt with medicine and pharmacology, such as his
Syruporum universia ratio (Complete Explanation of the
Syrups ), which
became a very famous work.
After an interval, Servetus returned to
Paris to study medicine in
1536. In Paris, his teachers included Sylvius ,
Fernel and Johann
Andernach , who hailed him with Andrea
Vesalius as his most
able assistant in dissections. During these years he wrote his
Manuscript of the Complutense, an unpublished compendium of his
medical ideas. Servetus taught mathematics and astrology while he
studied medicine. He predicted an occultation of
Mars by the
and this joined to his teaching generated much envy among the medicine
teachers. His teaching classes were suspended by the Dean of the
Faculty of Medicine, Jean Tagault, and Servetus wrote his Apologetic
Discourse of Michel de Villeneuve in Favour of
Astrology and against a
Physician against him. Tagault later argued for the death
penalty in the judgement of the University of
Paris against Servetus.
He was accused of teaching
De Divinatione by
Cicero . Finally, the
sentence was reduced to the withdrawal of this edition. As a result of
the risks and difficulties of studying medicine at Paris, Servetus
decided to go to
Montpellier to finish his medical studies, maybe
thanks to his teacher Sylvius who did exactly the same as a student.
There he became a Doctor of
Medicine in 1539. After that he lived at
Charlieu . A jealous physician ambushed and tried to kill Servetus,
but Servetus defended himself and injured one of the attackers in a
sword fight. He was in prison for several days because of this
WORKING AT VIENNE
After his studies in medicine, Servetus started a medical practice.
He became personal physician to Pierre Palmier,
Archbishop of Vienne ,
and was also physician to Guy de Maugiron, the lieutenant governor of
Dauphiné . Thanks to the printer Jean Frellon II, acquaintance of
John Calvin and friend of Michel, Servetus and Calvin began to
correspond. Calvin used the pseudonym "Charles d'Espeville." Servetus
also became a French citizen, using his "De Villeneuve" persona, by
the Royal Process (1548–1549) of French
Naturalization , issued by
Henri II of France
Henri II of France .
Michael Servetus published yet another religious work with
further anti-trinitarian views. It was entitled Christianismi
Restitutio (The Restoration of Christianity), a work that sharply
rejected the idea of predestination as the idea that God condemned
souls to Hell regardless of worth or merit. God, insisted Servetus,
condemns no one who does not condemn himself through thought, word or
deed. This work also includes the first published description of the
pulmonary circulation .
To Calvin, who had written his summary of Christian doctrine
Institutio Christianae Religionis (Institutes of the Christian
Religion ), Servetus' latest book was an attack on his personally held
theories regarding Christian belief, theories that he put forth as
"established Christian doctrine". Calvin sent a copy of his own book
as his reply. Servetus promptly returned it, thoroughly annotated with
critical observations. Calvin wrote to Servetus, "I neither hate you
nor despise you; nor do I wish to persecute you; but I would be as
hard as iron when I behold you insulting sound doctrine with so great
audacity." In time their correspondence grew more heated until Calvin
ended it. Servetus sent Calvin several more letters, to which Calvin
took offense. Thus, Calvin's antagonism against Servetus seems to
have been based not simply on his views but also on Servetus's tone,
which he considered inappropriate. Calvin revealed the intentions of
his offended pride when writing to his friend
William Farel on 13
Servetus has just sent me a long volume of his ravings. If I
consent he will come here, but I will not give my word; for if he
comes here, if my authority is worth anything, I will never permit him
to depart alive (
Latin : Si venerit, modo valeat mea autoritas, vivum
exire nunquam patiar).
IMPRISONMENT AND EXECUTION
On 16 February 1553,
Michael Servetus while in Vienne , France, was
denounced as a heretic by Guillaume de Trie, a rich merchant who had
taken refuge in
Geneva , and who was a good friend of Calvin, in a
letter sent to a cousin, Antoine Arneys, who was living in Lyon. On
behalf of the French inquisitor
Matthieu Ory ,
Michael Servetus and
Balthasard Arnollet, the printer of
Christianismi Restitutio , were
questioned, but they denied all charges and were released for lack of
evidence. Ory asked Arneys to write back to De Trie, demanding proof.
On 26 March 1553, the letters sent by Michel to Calvin and some
manuscript pages of
Christianismi Restitutio were forwarded to Lyon by
De Trie. On 4 April 1553 Servetus was arrested by Roman Catholic
authorities, and imprisoned in Vienne. He escaped from prison three
days later. On 17 June, he was convicted of heresy, "thanks to the 17
letters sent by
John Calvin , preacher in Geneva" and sentenced to be
burned with his books. In his absence, he and his books were burned in
effigy (blank paper for the books).
Meaning to flee to Italy, Servetus inexplicably stopped in
where Calvin and his Reformers had denounced him. On 13 August, he
attended a sermon by Calvin at Geneva. He was arrested after the
service and again imprisoned. All his property was confiscated.
Servetus claimed during this judgement he was arrested at an inn at
Geneva. French Inquisitors asked that Servetus be extradited to them
for execution. Calvin wanted to show himself as firm in defense of
Christian orthodoxy as his usual opponents. "He was forced to push the
condemnation of Servetus with all the means at his command." Calvin's
delicate health meant he did not personally appear against Servetus.
Nicholas de la Fontaine played the more active role in Servetus's
prosecution and the listing of points that condemned him. Among the
possible reasons which prevented Calvin from appearing personally
against Servetus there was one which must have seemed of itself
sufficient. The laws regulating criminal actions in
that in certain grave cases the complainant himself should be
incarcerated pending the trial. Calvin's delicate health and his great
and constant usefulness in the administration of the state rendered a
prolonged absence from the public life of
Nevertheless, Calvin is to be regarded as the author of the
Nicholas de la Fontaine was a refugee in
entered the service of Calvin, by whom he was employed as secretary.
At his trial, Servetus was condemned on two counts, for spreading and
Nontrinitarianism , specifically,
Modalistic Monarchianism ,
Sabellianism , and anti-paedobaptism (anti-infant baptism). Of
paedobaptism Servetus had said, "It is an invention of the devil, an
infernal falsity for the destruction of all Christianity." In the
case the procureur général (chief public prosecutor) added some
curious-sounding accusations in the form of inquiries—the most
odd-sounding perhaps being, "whether he has married, and if he answers
that he has not, he shall be asked why, in consideration of his age,
he could refrain so long from marriage." To this oblique imputation
about his sexuality, Servetus replied that rupture (inguinal hernia )
had long since made him incapable of that particular sin. Another
question was "whether he did not know that his doctrine was
pernicious, considering that he favours
Jews and Turks , by making
excuses for them, and if he has not studied the Koran in order to
disprove and controvert the doctrine and religion that the Christian
churches hold, together with other profane books, from which people
ought to abstain in matters of religion, according to the doctrine of
St. Paul ."
Calvin believed Servetus deserved death on account of what he termed
as his "execrable blasphemies". Calvin expressed these sentiments in
a letter to Farel , written about a week after Servetus’ arrest, in
which he also mentioned an exchange with Servetus. Calvin wrote:
...after he had been recognized, I thought he should be detained. My
friend Nicolas summoned him on a capital charge, offering himself as a
security according to the lex talionis . On the following day he
adduced against him forty written charges. He at first sought to evade
them. Accordingly we were summoned. He impudently reviled me, just as
if he regarded me as obnoxious to him. I answered him as he
deserved... of the man’s effrontery I will say nothing; but such was
his madness that he did not hesitate to say that devils possessed
divinity; yea, that many gods were in individual devils, inasmuch as a
deity had been substantially communicated to those equally with wood
and stone. I hope that sentence of death will at least be passed on
him; but I desired that the severity of the punishment be mitigated.
As Servetus was not a citizen of Geneva, and legally could at worst
be banished, the government, in an attempt to find some plausible
excuse to disregard this legal reality, had consulted with other Swiss
Reformed cantons (
Schaffhausen .) They
universally favored his condemnation and suppression of his doctrine,
but without saying how that should be accomplished.
Martin Luther had
condemned his writing in strong terms. Servetus and Philip
Melanchthon had strongly hostile views of each other. The party called
the "Libertines ", who were generally opposed to anything and
John Calvin supported, were in this case strongly in favour
of the execution of Servetus at the stake (while Calvin urged that he
be beheaded instead). In fact, the council that condemned Servetus was
presided over by
Ami Perrin (a Libertine) who ultimately on 24 October
sentenced Servetus to death by burning for denying the
infant baptism . Some scholars claim that Calvin and other ministers
asked that he be beheaded instead of burnt, knowing that burning at
the stake was the only legal recourse. This plea was refused and on
27 October, Servetus was burnt alive—atop a pyre of his own
books—at the Plateau of
Champel at the edge of Geneva. Historians
record his last words as: "Jesus, Son of the Eternal God, have mercy
Sebastian Castellio and countless others denounced this execution and
became harsh critics of Calvin because of the whole affair.
Some other anti-trinitarian thinkers began to be more cautious in
expressing their views:
Martin Cellarius ,
Lelio Sozzini and others
either ceased writing or wrote only in private. The fact that Servetus
was dead meant that his writings could be distributed more widely,
though others such as
Giorgio Biandrata developed them in their own
The writings of Servetus influenced the beginnings of the Unitarian
movement in Poland and
Peter Gonesius 's advocacy of
Servetus' views led to the separation of the
Polish brethren from the
Calvinist Reformed Church in Poland, and laid the foundations for the
Socinian movement which fostered the early Unitarians in England like
John Biddle .
In his first two books (De trinitatis erroribus, and Dialogues on the
Trinity plus the supplementary De Iustitia Regni Christi) Servetus
rejected the classical conception of the
Trinity , stating that it was
not based on the
Bible . He argued that it arose from teachings of
Greek philosophers , and he advocated a return to the simplicity of
Gospels and the teachings of the early
Church Fathers that he
believed pre-dated the development of Nicene trinitarianism. Servetus
hoped that the dismissal of the trinitarian dogma would make
Christianity more appealing to believers in
Islam , which
had preserved the unity of God in their teachings. According to
Servetus, trinitarians had turned Christianity into a form of
"tritheism", or belief in three gods. Servetus affirmed that the
Logos , the manifestation of God and not a separate divine
Person, was incarnated in a human being, Jesus, when God's spirit came
into the womb of the Virgin Mary . Only from the moment of conception
was the Son actually generated. Therefore, although the
which He was formed was eternal, the Son was not Himself eternal. For
this reason, Servetus always rejected calling
Christ the "eternal Son
of God " but rather called him "the Son of the eternal God."
In describing Servetus' view of the Logos, Andrew Dibb explained: "In
'Genesis' God reveals himself as the creator. In 'John' he reveals
that he created by means of the Word, or Logos. Finally, also in
'John', he shows that this
Logos became flesh and 'dwelt among us'.
Creation took place by the spoken word, for God said "Let there be
..." The spoken word of Genesis, the
Logos of John, and the Christ,
are all one and the same."
In his "Treatise Concerning the Divine Trinity" Servetus taught that
Logos was the reflection of Christ, and "That reflection of Christ
was 'the Word with God" that consisted of God Himself, shining
brightly in heaven, "and it was God Himself" and that "the Word was
the very essence of God or the manifestation of God's essence, and
there was in God no other substance or hypostasis than His Word, in a
bright cloud where God then seemed to subsist. And in that very spot
the face and personality of
Christ shone bright."
Earl Morse Wilbur states, "Servetus' Errors of the
Trinity is hardly heretical in intent, rather is suffused with
passionate earnestness, warm piety, an ardent reverence for Scripture,
and a love for
Christ so mystical and overpowering that can hardly
find words to express it ... Servetus asserted that the Father, Son
and Holy Spirit were dispositions of God, and not separate and
distinct beings." Wilbur promotes the idea that Servetus was a
Servetus states his view clearly in the preamble to Restoration of
Christianity (1553): "There is nothing greater, reader, than to
recognize that God has been manifested as substance, and that His
divine nature has been truly communicated. We shall clearly apprehend
the manifestation of God through the Word and his communication
through the Spirit, both of them substantially in
This theology, though original in some respects, has often been
Arianism , and
Sabellianism , all of which
Trinitarians rejected in favour of the belief that God exists
eternally in three distinct persons. Nevertheless, Servetus rejected
these theologies in his books: Adoptionism, because it denied Jesus's
divinity; Arianism, because it multiplied the hypostases and
established a rank; and Sabellianism, because it seemingly confused
the Father with the Son, though Servetus himself does appear to have
denied or diminished the distinctions between the Persons of the
Godhead, rejecting the Trinitarian understanding of One God in Three
The incomprehensible God is known through Christ, by faith, rather
than by philosophical speculations. He manifests God to us, being the
expression of His very being, and through him alone, God can be known.
The scriptures reveal Him to those who have faith; and thus we come to
know the Holy Spirit as the Divine impulse within us.
Under severe pressure from Catholics and Protestants alike, Servetus
clarified this explanation in his second book, Dialogues (1532), to
Logos coterminous with Christ. He was nevertheless accused of
heresy because of his insistence on denying the dogma of the Trinity
and the distinctions between the three divine Persons in one God.
Servetus also had very unorthodox views on the end times. He believed
that he was the Michael referenced in both Daniel and Revelation who
would fight the anti-christ. Furthermore, he believed that all this
would take place in his lifetime. This may have impacted his decision
to visit Calvin in Geneva. Servetus could have thought that he was
somehow bringing about the beginnings of the end times by facing those
who argued and fought against him.
Because of his rejection of the
Trinity and eventual execution by
burning for heresy , Unitarians often regard Servetus as the first
(modern) Unitarian martyr —though he was a Unitarian in neither the
17th-century sense of the term nor the contemporary sense. Sharply
critical though he was of the orthodox formulation of the trinity,
Servetus is better described as a highly unorthodox trinitarian.
Aspects of his thinking—his critique of existing trinitarian
theology, his devaluation of the doctrine of original sin, and his
fresh examination of biblical proof-texts—did influence those who
later inspired or founded unitarian churches in Poland and
Other non-trinitarian groups, such as Jehovah\'s Witnesses , and
Oneness Pentecostalism , also claim Servetus as a spiritual ancestor.
Oneness Pentecostalism particularly identifies with Servetus' teaching
on the divinity of Jesus
Christ and his insistence on the oneness of
God, rather than a
Trinity of three distinct persons: "And because His
Spirit was wholly God He is called God, just as from His flesh He is
Swedenborg wrote a systematic theology that had many similarities to
the theology of Servetus.
FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE
Widespread aversion to Servetus’s death has been taken as signaling
the birth in Europe of the idea of religious tolerance, a principle
now more important to modern Unitarian Universalists than
antitrinitarianism. Spanish scholar on Servetus' work, Ángel
Alcalá, identified the radical search for truth and the right for
freedom of conscience as Servetus' main legacies, rather than his
theology. The Polish-American scholar,
Marian Hillar , has studied
the evolution of freedom of conscience, from Servetus and the Polish
John Locke and to
Thomas Jefferson and the American
Declaration of Independence . According to Hillar: "Historically
speaking, Servetus died so that freedom of conscience could become a
civil right in modern society."
Servetus was the first European to describe the function of pulmonary
circulation , although his achievement was not widely recognized at
the time, for a few reasons. One was that the description appeared in
a theological treatise, Christianismi Restitutio, not in a book on
medicine. However, the sections in which he refers to anatomy and
medicines demonstrate an amazing understanding of the body and
treatments. Most copies of the book were burned shortly after its
publication in 1553 because of persecution of Servetus by religious
authorities. Three copies survived, but these remained hidden for
decades. In passage V, Servetus recounts his discovery that the blood
of the pulmonary circulation flows from the heart to the lungs (rather
than air in the lungs flowing to the heart as had been thought). His
discovery was based on the colour of the blood, the size and location
of the different ventricles , and the fact that the pulmonary vein was
extremely large, which suggested that it performed intensive and
transcendent exchange. However, Servetus does not talk just about
cardiology . In the same passage, from page 169 to 178, he also talks
of the brain, the cerebellum , the meninges , the nerves, the eye, the
tympanum , the rete mirabile , etc., demonstrating a great knowledge
of anatomy . In some other sections of this work he also talks of
Servetus also contributed enormously to medicine with other published
works specifically related to the field, such as his Complete
Syrups and his study on syphilis in his Apology against
Leonhart Fuchs , among others.
REFERENCES IN LITERATURE
* Austrian author
Stefan Zweig features Servetus in Castellio gegen
Calvin oder Ein Gewissen gegen die Gewalt.
* Canadian dramatist Robert Lalonde wrote
Vesalius and Servetus, a
2008 play on Servetus.
* Roland Herbert Bainton: Michael Servet. 1511–1553. Mohn,
Rosemarie Schuder : Serveto vor Pilatus. Rütten Alfonsus
Lyncurius und Pseudo-Servet. In: Ders.: Spanien und der Basler
Buchdruck bis 1600. Helbing 298-326. (PDF; 64,1 MiB )
* M. Hillar: "Poland's Contribution to the Reformation:
Socinians/Polish Brethren and Their Ideas on the Religious Freedom,"
The Polish Review, Vol. XXXVIII, No.4, pp. 447–468, 1993.
* M. Hillar, "From the Polish Socinians to the American
Constitution," in A Journal from the Radical Reformation. A Testimony
to Biblical Unitarianism, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 22–57, 1994.
* José Luis Corral: El médico hereje, Barcelona: Editorial
Planeta, S.A., 2013 ISBN 978-84-08-11990-6 . A novel (in Spanish)
narrating the publication of Christianismi Restitutio, Servetus' trial
by the Inquisition of Vienne, his escape to Geneva, and his disputes
John Calvin and subsequent burning at the stake by the
Monument to Michael Servetus,
Michael Servetus in prison, by Clothilde Roch. Monument in
In Geneva, 350 years after the execution, remembering Servetus was
still a controversial issue. In 1903 a committee was formed by
supporters of Servetus to erect a monument in his honour. The group
was led by a French Senator, Auguste Dide, an author of a book on
heretics and revolutionaries which was published in 1887. The
committee commissioned a local sculptor, Clothilde Roch, to do a
statue showing a suffering Servetus. The work was three years in the
making and was finished in 1907. However, by then, supporters of
Calvin in Geneva, having heard about the project, had already erected
a simple stele in memory of Servetus in 1903, the main text of which
served more as an apologetic for Calvin:
Duteous and grateful followers of Calvin our great Reformer, yet
condemning an error which was that of his age, and strongly attached
to liberty of conscience according to the true principles of his
Reformation and gospel, we have erected this expiatory monument. Oct.
About the same time, a short street close by the stele was named
The city council then rejected the request of the committee to erect
the completed statue, on the grounds that there was already a monument
to Servetus. The committee then offered the statue to the neighboring
French town of
Annemasse , which in 1908 placed it in front of the
city hall, with the following inscriptions:
“The arrest of Servetus in Geneva, where he did neither publish nor
dogmatize, hence he was not subject to its laws, has to be considered
as a barbaric act and an insult to the Right of Nations.” Voltaire
"I beg you, shorten please these deliberations. It is clear that
Calvin for his pleasure wishes to make me rot in this prison. The lice
eat me alive. My clothes are torn and I have nothing for a change, nor
shirt, only a worn out vest.” Servetus, 1553
In 1942, the Vichy Government took down the statue, as it was a
celebration of freedom of conscience, and melted it. In 1960, having
found the original molds,
Annemasse had it recast and returned the
statue to its previous place.
Finally, on 3 October 2011,
Geneva erected a copy of the statue which
it had rejected over 100 years before. It was cast in
Aragon from the
molds of Clothilde Roch's original statue. Rémy Pagani, former mayor
of Geneva, inaugurated the statue. He previously had described
Servetus as "the dissident of dissidence." Representatives from the
Roman Catholic Church in
Geneva and the Director of Geneva's
International Museum of the Reformation attended the ceremony. A
Geneva newspaper noted the absence of officials from the National
Protestant Church of Geneva, the church of John Calvin.
In 1984, a
Zaragoza public hospital changed its name from José
Antonio to Miguel Servet. It is now a university hospital.
Most Spanish cities also include at least a street, square or park
named after Servetus.
Only the dates of the first editions are included.
* 1531 "On the Errors of the Trinity. De Trinitatis Erroribus"
Haguenau , Setzer). Without imprint mark or mark of printer, nor the
city in which it was printed. Signed as Michael Servete alias Revés,
from Aragon, Spanish. Written in Latin, it also includes words in
Greek and in
Hebrew in the body of the text whenever he wanted to
stress the original meaning of a word from Scripture.
* 1532 "Dialogues on the Trinity. Dialogorum de Trinitate"
(Haguenau, Setzer). Without imprint mark or mark of printer, nor the
city where it was printed. Signed as Michael Serveto alias Revés,
from Aragon, Spanish.
* 1535 "
Geography of Claudius Ptolemy. Claudii Ptolemaeii
Alexandrinii Geographicae." Lyon, Trechsel. Signed as Michel de
Villeneuve. Servetus dedicated this work to Hugues de la Porte. The
second edition was dedicated to Pierre Palmier. Michel de Villeneuve
states that the basis of his edition comes from the work of Bilibald
Pirkheimer, who translated this work from Greek to Latin, but Michel
also affirms that he also compared it to the primitive Greek texts.
The 19th-century expert in Servetus, Henri Tollin (1833–1902),
considered him to be "the father of comparative geography" due to the
extension of his notes and commentaries.
* 1536 "The Apology against Leonard Fuchs. In Leonardum Fucsium
Apologia." Lyon, printed by Gilles Hugetan, with Parisian prologue.
Signed as Michel de Villeneuve. The physician
Leonhart Fuchs and a
friend of Michael Servetus,
Symphorien Champier , got involved in an
argument via written works, on their different Lutheran and Catholic
beliefs. Servetus defends his friend in the first parts of the work.
In the second part he talks of a medical plant and its properties. In
the last part he writes on different topics, such as the defense of a
pupil attacked by a teacher, and the origin of syphilis .
* 1537 "Complete Explanation of the Syrups. Syruporum universia
ratio". Paris, edited by
Simon de Colines . Signed as Michael de
Villeneuve. This work consists of a prologue "The Use of Syrups", and
5 chapters: I "What the concoction is and why it is unique and not
multiple", II "What the things that must be known are", III "That the
concoction is always..", IV "Exposition of the aphorisms of
Hippocrates" and V "On the composition of syrups". Michel de
Villeneuve refers to experiences of using the treatments, and to
pharmaceutical treatises and terms more deeply described in his later
pharmacopeia Enquiridion or Dispensarium. Michel mentions two of his
teachers, Sylvius and
Andernach , but above all,
Galen . This work had
a strong impact in those times.
* 1538 "Apologetic discourse of Michel de Villeneuve in favour of
Astrology and against a certain physician. Michaelis Villanovani in
quedam medicum apologetica disceptatio pro Astrologia." Servetus
denounces Jean Tagault, Dean of the Faculty of
Medicine of Paris, for
attacking astrology, while many great thinkers and physicians praised
it. He lists reasonings of
how the stars are related to some aspects of a patient's health, and
how a good physician can predict effects by them: the effect of the
moon and sun on the sea, the winds and rains, the period of women, the
speed of the decomposition of the corpses of beasts, etc.
* 1542 "Holy
Bible according to the translation of
Santes Pagnino .
Biblia sacra ex Santes Pagnini tralation, hebraist." Lyon, edited by
Delaporte and printed by Trechsel. The name Michel de Villeneuve
appears in the prologue, the last time this name would appear in any
of his works.
* 1542 "Biblia sacra ex postremis doctorum".(octavo ) Vienne in
Dauphiné, edited by Delaporte and printed by Trechsel. Anonymous.
* 1545 "Sacred
Bible with commentaries. Biblia Sacra cum Glossis."
Lyon, printed by Trechsel and Vincent. Called "Ghost Bible" by
scholars who denied its existence. There is an anonymous work from
this year that was edited in accordance with the contract that Miguel
de Villeneuve made with the Company of Booksellers in 1540. The work
consists of 7 volumes (6 volumes and an index) illustrated by Hans
Holbein. This research was carried out by the scholar Julien Baudrier
in the sixties. Recently scholar González Echeverría has graphically
proved the existence of this work, and demonstrating that contrary to
what experts Barón and Hillard thought, this work is also anonymous.
* "Manuscript of Paris", (c1546). This document is a draft of
the Christianismi Restitutio. Written in Latin, it includes a few
quotes in Greek and Hebrew. This work has paleographically the same
handwriting as the "Manuscript of the Complutense".
* 1553 "The Restoration of Christianity. Cristianismi Restitutio".
Vienne , printed by Baltasar Arnoullet. Without imprint mark or mark
of printer, nor the city in which it was printed. Signed as M.S.V. at
the colophon though "Servetus" name is mentioned inside, in a
fictional dialog. Servetus uses Biblical quotes in Greek and in Hebrew
on its cover and in the body of the text whenever he wanted to stress
the original meaning of a word from Scripture.
Spanish researcher Francisco Javier González Echeverría has done
research that led him to identify
Michael Servetus as the author or
translator of 10 additional works between 1538 and 1553. These works
were anonymous due to the first death penalty Michael got from the
Paris in 1538, (finally reduced to a prohibition on
Paris physician), its mention of authors who were
forbidden in the Spanish Empire such as
Robert Estienne ,
and the prohibition of any Biblical translation into any common
González Echeverría's conclusions have not been generally accepted
by institutions studying Servetus, though they are supported by the
International Society for the History of
Medicine , the Spanish
Society for the History of Medicine, and the Royal Academy of
Medicine of Catalonia. The works that, according to this scholar, are
also by Servetus are: 2 De Materia Medica with commentaries and
marginalia (1543 and 1554, this last one printed by friends after
Servetus' death), a pharmacopoeia of 1543, an edition of a Galenic
corpus in 1548–1551, a manuscript ("Complutense's Manuscript")
in an edition of De Materia Medica by
Jean Ruel , as well as
translations of two Biblical works with woodcuts by Hans Holbein the
Younger : Picture stories of the Old Testament and Portraits or
printing boards from the story of the Old Testament. Finally, also
Latin to Spanish of four grammatical treatises,
mostly for children: Disticha de moribus nomine Catonis, Children's
book of notes on the elegance and variety of the
Andria. La Andriana, and A Little Work on the Use of the Eight Parts
of Speech. González Echeverría is nowadays also the main defender of
the hypothesis that
Michael Servetus was born in the city of Tudela in
the kingdom of Navarre , that both biological parents were actually
Jewish conversos , although the father's identity and biographical
details are unknown, and that his true name was "De Villanueva",
while "Servetus" was a pseudonym that he used in
Protestant lands, and
for publishing his heretical theological works, showing no other data
such as the city where they were printed, imprint mark nor mark of
Some previous scholars had defended the birth of Michael in Tudela in
the 19th and early 20th centuries, but never with the theory of
"Servetus" being a pseudonym. The established academic consensus on
the matter is that he was born in
Villanueva de Sijena , in the
neighbouring region of
Aragon , as Servetus himself claimed in his
early works and during the whole trial at Geneva; but with no
documents, as stated in the judgement that ultimately led him to his
death at the stake. Scholarly debate may be tarnished by local and
regional interests, because González and some other scholars claim
that the true reason behind the non-acceptance of these new works by
several institutions studying Servetus has to do more with his line of
research on the identity of Michael, and his consequent different
birthplace, which would be highly inconvenient for these institutions,
with many trustees and members from Villanueva de Sijena, or even
located there. González (Aragonese, born in Zaragoza, where he
stayed until he obtained his baccalaureate) lives and works in
Tudela, where he claims that "De Villanueva" was actually born, and
his research on the 10 new works by Servetus has been supported by a
grant from the Health Department of the regional government of
Navarre, but even while he was still defending his birthplace in
Aragon, for he had not done any research on his identity. In a similar
way events on this issue organized in
Villanueva de Sijena and in
Zaragoza have been supported by the regional government of Aragon.
Regardless of whether he was really born in Villanueva of
in Tudela of Navarre, or somewhere else, the fact is that he was known
Michael Servetus of Aragon" after his death by everybody,
including Calvin and other enemies, his antitrinitarian supporters,
and sympathetic authors such as
Sebastian Castellio , and many others,
both admirers and enemies of those theological works published by
* List of multiple discoveries
* ^ See a discussion on the date in Angel Alcalá's introduction to
the first Spanish translation of
Christianismi Restitutio (La
restitución del cristianismo, Fundación Universitaria Española,
Madrid, 1980, p. 16, note 7.
* ^ Drummond, William H. (1848). The Life of Michael Servetus: The
Spanish Physician, Who, for the Alleged Crime of Heresy, was
Entrapped, Imprisoned, and Burned, by
John Calvin the Reformer, in the
City of Geneva, October 27, 1553. London, England: John Chapman. p. 2.
* ^ See J. Barón, Miguel Servet: Su Vida y Su Obra, Espasa-Calpe,
Madrid, 1989, pp. 37-39.
* ^ Barón, p. 31.
* ^ See Calvini Opera Quae Supersunt Omnia, Vol. VIII, Brunsvigae,
1870, p. 767.
* ^ Ernestro Fernández-Xesta, "Los Zaporta de Barbastro", in
Emblemata: Revista aragonesa de emblemática, Vol. #8, 2002, pp.
* ^ http://ifc.dpz.es/recursos/publicaciones/28/98/03nicolas.pdf
* ^ Gonzalez Echeverría," Andrés Laguna and Michael Servetus: two
converted humanist doctors of the XVI century" in: Andrés Laguna
International Congress. Humanism, Science and Politics in the
Renaissance Europe, García Hourcade y Moreno Yuste, coord., Junta de
Castilla y León, Valladolid,1999 pp. 377-389
* ^ González Echeverría "
Michael Servetus belonged to the famous
converted Jewish family The Zaporta", Pliegos de Bibliofilia, nº 7,
Madrid pp. 33-42. 1999
* ^ González Echeverría" On the Jewish heritage of Michael
Servetus" Raíces. Jewish Magazine of Culture, Madrid, nº 40, pp.
* ^ There are several documents referring to people called Revés
in Villanueva in the 15th century, as shown in Juan Manuel Palacios
Sánchez, "A propósito del lugar de nacimiento y origen familiar de
Miguel Servet" ("Regarding Michael Servetus' birth place and family
origins"), Argensola, Instituto de Estudios Altoaragoneses, ISSN
0518-4088, #87, Huesca, 1979, pp. 266-67.
* ^ Drummond, p3.
* ^ In his two main theological books, Servetus shows a level of
knowledge that is similar to other 16th-century humanists. His Hebrew
quotes refer to common, well-known concepts, and they are not
philological analysis, but they are made to endorse exegetic
interpretations, and the vocabulary he used was limited. For details
on Servetus' use of
Hebrew in his theological works and in his edition
of Pagnino's Bible, see Natalio Fernández Marcos and Emilia
Fernández Tejero, "Pagnino, Servet y Arias Montano: Avatares de una
traducción latina de la Biblia Hebrea", in Sefarad, No. 63, CSIC,
Madrid, 2003, pp. 314-18. (Text (in Spanish)).
* ^ Wright, Richard (1806). An Apology for Dr. Michael Servetus:
Including an Account of His Life, Persecution, Writings and Opinions.
London: F. B. Wright. p. 91.
* ^ Servetus' name was included at the top of a list of 40 heretics
issued by the Inquisition in Toulouse on 17 June 1532; see Bourrilly,
V.L. and Weiss N., "Jean du Bellay, les protestants et la Sorbonne" in
Bulletin de la Societé d'Histoire du Protestantisme Français, LIII,
* ^ Barón, p. 55.
* ^ Bainton, Hunted Heretic, pp. 10-11.
* ^ Krendal, Eric. 2011 Ongelmat Michael yliopistossa Pariisissa
historioitsija painoksia Medicine, p 34-38
* ^ D'artigny- Judgement at Vienne Isère against Michel de
* ^ The text of the letter of French naturalisation was first
published by F. Rude, "La naturalisation française de Michel Servet",
in B. Becker (Ed.), Autour de Michel Servet et de Sebastien
Castellion, H.D. Tjeenk Willink & Zoon N.V., Haarlem, 1953, pp.
133-141. The "royal letters" and an extract of one of the depositions
had been previously published by Gustave Vellein, "Quelques mots sur
Michel Servet: sa naturalisation durant son séjour à Vienne", in
Petite revue des bibliophiles dauphinois, Allier, 1921, pp. 13-29.
Servetians had been wrongly referring this document for the last 50
years, it was considered lost by French indexers. It was located again
by scholar Gonzalez Echeverria in the archives of Grenoble, after
contacting a descendant of Vellein. Finally, after correcting some
mistakes carried out by Rude's transcription, the whole 21 pages of
the process (double verification in the Chamber of Finances of France,
double registry in the Parlement de Grenoble, and Royal counsellors
verification) was published in Prince of Viana Dep of Culture Journal
of Navarre, N 255. It was also studied recently by the French Society
for the History of Medicine, and the French Royal Law section of the
Ancient Regime of France in Sorbone See La véritable identité de
Servet, par le roi de France -Premier prix de thèse de
Prologue by G. Echeverria N 2013 (b) Sorbone Journal Historique Le
Sorbone Page 45-70
* ^ Downton, An Examination of the Nature of Authority, Chapter 3.
* ^ Will Durant The Story of Civilization: The Reformation Chapter
XXI, page 481
* ^ Durant, Story of Civilization, 2
* ^ Bainton, Hunted Heretic, p. 103.
* ^ Hunted Heretic, p. 164.
* ^ A B The Heretics, p. 326.
* ^ Hanover History
* ^ A B Whitcomb, Merrick. "The Complaint of Nicholas de la
Fontaine Against Servetus, 14 August, 1553", Translations and Reprints
from the Original Sources of European History, vol. 3, (Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania History Department, 1898-1912)
* ^ Hunted Heretic, p. 141.
* ^ Reyburn, Hugh Young (1914). John Calvin: His Life, Letters, and
Work. New York: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 175.
* ^ Owen, Robert Dale (1872). The debatable Land Between this World
and the Next. New York: G.W. Carleton & Co. p. 69, notes.
* ^ Calvin to
William Farel , August 20, 1553, Bonnet, Jules
(1820–1892) Letters of John Calvin, Carlisle, Penn: Banner of Truth
Trust , 1980, pp. 158–159. ISBN 0-85151-323-9 .
* ^ Schaff, Philip: History of the Christian Church, Vol. VIII:
Modern Christianity: The Swiss Reformation, William B. Eerdmans Pub.
Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 1910, page 780.
* ^ Schaff, Philip: History of the Christian Church, Vol. VIII:
Modern Christianity: The Swiss Reformation, William B. Eerdmans Pub.
Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 1910, page 706.
* ^ Dr. Vollmer, Philip: 'John Calvin: Man of the Millennium,'
Vision Forum, Inc., San Antonio, Texas, USA, 2008, 2008, page 87
* ^ Verdict and Sentence for
Michael Servetus (1533) in A
Reformation Reader eds. Denis R. Janz; 268–270
* ^ McGrath 1990 , pp. 118–120; Cottret 2000 , pp. 222–225;
Parker 2006 , pp. 150–152
* ^ "Out of the Flames" by Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone - Salon.com
* ^ See Stanislas Kot, "L'influence de Servet sur le mouvement
atitrinitarien en Pologne et en Transylvanie", in B. Becker (Ed.),
Autour de Michel Servet et de Sebastien Castellion, Haarlem, 1953.
* ^ \'De trinitatis erroribus\', Book 7.
* ^ Andrew M. T. Dibb, Servetus,
Swedenborg and the Nature of God,
University Press of America, 2005, p. 93. Online at Google Book Search
* ^ A B Servetus, Michael (1553). The Restoration of Christianity -
Translation of Christianismi restitutio, 1553, Translated
by Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar. Leiston - Queenston -
Lampeter: The Edwin Mellen Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7734-5520-7 .
* ^ Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone, Out of the Flames, Broadway
Books, NY NY, 2002, pp. 71–72
* ^ Servetus, Restitución del Cristianismo, Spanish edition by
Angel Alcalá and Luis Betés, Madrid, Fundación Universitaria
Española, 1980, p. 119.
* ^ See Restitución, p. 137.
* ^ Restitución, p. 148, 168.
* ^ Restitución, p. 169.
* ^ Book VII, Out of the Flames, Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone,
Broadway Books, NY, NY, p. 72
* ^ Gordon, Bruce (2009). Calvin. New Haven: Yale University Press.
* ^ A B C Hughes, Peter. "Michael Servetus", Dictionary of
Unitarian & Universalist Biography
* ^ Reasons for Faith
* ^ Bernard, D. K., The Oneness of God Word Aflame Press, 1983.
* ^ Servetus, M., De Trinitatis Erroribus, 59b (quoted in Bainton,
R.H., Hunted Heretic, Blackstone Editions, 2005, p30
* ^ Andrew M. T. Dibb, Servetus,
Swedenborg and the Nature of God,
University Press of America, 2005. Online at Google Book Search
* ^ Andrew M. T. Dibb, Servetus,
Swedenborg and the Nature of
Salvation, online at newchurchhistory.org
* ^ A. Alcalá, "Los dos grandes legados de Servet: el radicalismo
como método intelectual y el derecho a la libertad de conciencia", in
Turia, #63-64, March 2003, Teruel (Spain), pp. 221-242.
* ^ See
Marian Hillar Goldstone, Lawrence (2003). Out of the
Flames: The Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal Heresy,
and One of the Rarest Books in the World. New York: Broadway. ISBN
0-7679-0837-6 . pp. 313-316
* ^ Tribune de Geneve
* ^ Tribune de Genève, 4 October 2001, p. 23
* ^ "According to the version of Bilibaldo Pirckheimer, and revised
by Michel de Villeneuve, on the primitive Greek copies." Michel de
Villeneuve, geography. "Claudii Ptolemaeii Alexandrinii Geographicae."
printed by the Trechsel, 1535, Lyon.
* ^ 2008 Krendal, Erich. Tähtitiede ja renessanssi historioitsija
* ^ Baudrier J. "Michel Servet, ses relations avec les libraires et
les impremeus lyonnais", in: Mélanges offerts a M. Emile Picot, I,
* ^ Baron-Miguel Serveto. Su vida y su obra. Ed. Austral (1987)
* ^ A.Alcalá Obra Completas (2003) Tratado I. Vida, muerte y obra,
* ^ González Echeverría Love for Truth. Life and work of Michael
Servetus. Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, collaboration with the
Government of Navarra, Department of Institutional Relations and
Education of the Government of Navarra, 2011 p.209-211
* ^ Baron- Miguel Serveto. Su vida y su obra. Ed. Austral (1987)
Marian Hillar & Claire S. Allen, Michael Servetus: Intellectual
Giant, Humanist, and Martyr, Lanham, MD, and New York: University
Press of America, Inc., 2002. p.266
* ^ A. Alcalá Obra Completas (2003) Tratado I. Vida, muerte y
obra, p. XCII
* ^ Baudrier J."Michel Servet, ses relations avec les libraires et
les impremeus lyonnais", in: Mélanges offerts a M. Emile Picot, I, p
* ^ González Echeverría Love for Truth. Life and work of Michael
Servetus. Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, collaboration with the
Government of Navarra, Department of Institutional Relations and
Education of the Government of Navarra, 2011 p.215-222
* ^ Gonzalez Echeverria, "New discoveries on the work of Michael de
Villanueva (Michael Servetus)" in : VI International Meeting for the
History of Medicine. Programme book, Barcelona, 7-10 September 2011,
* ^ José Barón( 1973), "Miguel Servet"Espasa calpe, Madrid, p.
189 y 192 José Barón Fernández,(1973)(" Historia de la circulación
de la sangre", ed. Austral, Madrid, p.118 y p.125.really extended
* ^ José Barón Fernández, (1989), " Miguel Servet. Su vida y su
obra" austral, ed., Madrid, p.280.
* ^ Ángel Alcalá "Miguel Servet. Restitución del cristianismo"
(1980), Fundación universitaria española, Madrid, 1980, pp.50-55 .
* ^ Ronald Bainton (1953) Michel Servet. Hérétique et martyr,
1553-1953", ed. Droz, Genève, p.134.
* ^ M. Hillar (2002), Michael Servetus. Intellectual Giant,
Humanist, and Martyr, ed. University Press of America, Lanham, p.95.
* ^ Alcalá" Miguel Servet. Obras completas (2003)", Publicaciones
de la universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Tomo I, XCVIII
* ^ 2012 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier "The discovery of
Lesser Circulation and Michael Servetus's Galenism," in: 43rd Congress
of the International Society for the History of Medicine, Programme
Book, Padua-Albano Terme (Italy) 12–16 September 2012, p.35 & 66.
* ^ Love for Truth. Life and work of Michael Servetus. Navarro y
Navarro, Zaragoza, collaboration with the Government of Navarra,
Department of Institutional Relations and Education of the Government
of Navarra, 2011 p.164-171
* ^ 1999 Mari Mar Rodriguez Ruiz Association of Andalucia\'s
Archives & Gema Trujillo Martin Andalucia\'s Institute of Statistics
Michael Servetus Research
* ^ A B González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. The love for
truth. Life and work of
Michael Servetus (El amor a la verdad. Vida y
obra de Miguel Servet), printed by Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, in
collaboration with the Government of Navarre, Department of
Institutional Relations and Education of the Government of Navarre,.
* ^ 2011 González Echeverría, Francisco Javier, "New discoveries
on the biography of Michael de Villanueva (Michael Servetus)" & "New
discoveries on the work of Michael de Villanueva (Michael Servetus)"
in: VI International Meeting for the History of Medicine. Programme
book, Barcelona, 7–10 September 2011, p.24, 109-111.
* ^ Cinquième volumen de ce qui s’est fair et passé en la
Paris depuis l’an 1502 jusqu’en l’an
1544. Jean Vaux, Doyen, Jena Maillard, Doyen. Mss 223 ancienement Mss
Commentari Facultatis Medicine. Tomme-
Medicine Faculty of Pari-1538
* Chaves, Joao. "The Servetus Challenge." Journal of Reformed
Theology 10.3 (2016): 195-214.
* Bainton, Roland H. Hunted Heretic: The Life and Death of Michael
Servetus 1511–1553 by . Revised Edition edited by Peter Hughes with
an introduction by Ángel Alcalá. Blackstone Editions. ISBN
0-9725017-3-8 . a standard scholarly biography focused on religion
* Goldstone, Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone. Out of the Flames: The
Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal Heresy, and One of the
Rarest Books in the World ISBN 0-7679-0837-6 . 353pp
* Gordon, Bruce (2011). Calvin. New Haven Conn. London: Yale
University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-17084-9 .
* Hughes, Peter. "Michael Servetus's Britain:
Anatomy of a
Renaissance Geographer's Writing."
Renaissance popular history by a
* Hughes, Peter. "The Present State of Servetus Studies, Eighty
Years Later." Journal of Unitarian Universalist History (2010/2011),
Vol. 34, pp 47-70.
* Jean Calvin, Defensio orthodoxae fidei de sacra Trinitate contra
prodigiosos errores Michaelis Serveti..., (Defense of Orthodox Faith
against the Prodigious Errors of the Spaniard Michael Servetus...),
Geneva, 1554. Calvin's Opere in the
Corpus Reformatorum , vol. viii,
453–644. Ursus Books and Prints. Catalogue of Scarce Books,
Americana, Etc. Bangs Queenston, Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK:
The Edwin Mellen Press, 2007). Pp. 409+xxix
* "Treatise on Faith and Justice of Christ’s Kingdom" by Michael
Servetus. Selected and Translated from Christianismi restitutio by
Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar," (Lewiston, NY; Queenston,
Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2008). Pp.
* "Treatise Concerning the Supernatural Regeneration and the Kingdom
of the Antichrist by Michael Servetus. Selected and Translated from
Christianismi restitutio by Christopher A. Hoffman and Marian Hillar,"
(Lewiston, NY; Queenston, Ont., Canada; Lampeter, Wales, UK: The Edwin
Mellen Press, 2008). Pp. 302+l
* "Thirty Letters to Calvin Queenston, Ont., Canada; Lampeter,
Wales, UK: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2010). Pp. 175 + lxxxvi
* Quotations related to
Michael Servetus at Wikiquote
* Media related to
Michael Servetus at Wikimedia Commons
* " Sketch of Michael Servetus"